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greatness of God in this new sphere of His works. He kissed the ground, and, with his face on the earth, he wept tears of double import, as they fell on the dust of this hemisphere, now for the first time visited by Europeans—tears of joy for the overflowing of a proud spirit, grateful and pious—tears of sadness for this virgin soil, seeming to foreshadow the calamities and devastation, with fire and sword, and blood and destruction, which the strangers were to bring with their pride, their knowledge, and their power.

14. He then gave to this land the name of San Salvador. His lieutenants, his pilots, and his seamen, full of gladness, and impressed with a superstitious respect for him whose glance had pierced beyond the visible horizon, and whom they had offended by their unbelief- overcome by the evidence of their eyes, and by that mental superiority which overawes the minds of men, fell at the feet of the Admiral, kissed his hands and his clothes, and recognized, for a moment, the power of genius; yesterday the victims of his obstinacy-now the companions of his success, and sharers in the glory which they had mocked. -- Lamartine.

Columbus set sail from Saltes near Palos, a town in Spain, on Friday the 3d of August, 1492, with three vessels and 120 men. On the evening of the 10th of October he promised his men, who had mutinied, that if they would obey his commands for three days longer, and if during that time land were not discovered, he would abandon the enterprise and return to Spain. muti neers, those who resist or- restrained, kept back. ders.

default, absence. verified, proved to be true. insignia, ornaments denoting phosphorescence, a shining with rank.

a faint light like that of phos- viceroy, one who rules in the phorus.

name of a king. amphitheatre, circular theatre, initials, first letters.

with seats rising behind each interlaced, united as by lacing other.

together. demeanour, behaviour.

devastation, laying waste.

What evidences had Columbus that he was not far from land? What effect had these evidences upon the mutineers ? Describe what Columbus saw when walking the quarter-deck alone at midnight. To whom did he first communicate his thoughts? How was this announcement of the discovery of land made known? Describe the appearance of the land from the vessels on the morning of the 12th of October, 1492. What did Columbus do on landing? Describe the conduct of the officers and seamen towards Columbus.


1. The sky is ruddy in the east,

The earth is gray below,
And, spectral in the river mist,

The ship's white timbers show.
Then let the sounds of measured stroke

And grating saw begin;
The broad-axe to the gnarled oak,

The mallet to the pin!
2. Hark!-roars the bellows, blast on blast,

The sooty smithy jars,
Anil fire-sparks, rising far and fast,

Are fading with the stars.
All day for us the smith shall stand

Beside that flashing forge;
All day for us his heavy hand

The groaning anvil scourge.
3. From far-off hills, the panting team

For us is toiling near;
For us the raftsmen down the stream

Their island barges steer.
Rings out for us the axe-man's stroke

In forests old and still,

For us the century-circled oak

Falls crashing down the hill.
4. Up! up!-in nobler toil than ours

No craftsmen bear a part:
We make of Nature's giant powers

The slaves of human art.


Lay rib to rib and beam to beam,

And drive the treenails free;
Nor faithless joint nor yawning seam

Shall tempt the searching sea! 5. Where'er the keel of our good ship

The sea's rough field shall plough, Where'er her tossing spars shall drip

With salt-spray caught below,-

That ship must heed her master's beck,

Her helm obey his hand,
And seamen tread her reeling deck

As if they trod the land.
6. Her oaken ribs the vulture-beak

Of northern ice may peel;
The sunken rock and coral peak

May grate along her keel;
And know we well the painted shell

We give to wind and wave,
Must float, the sailor's citadel,

Or sink, the sailor's grave!
7 Ho!-strike away the bars and blocks,

And set the good ship free!
Why lingers on these dusty rocks

The young bride of the sea ?
Look! how she moves adown the grooves,

In graceful beauty now!
How lowly on the breast she loves

Sinks down her virgin prow!
8. God bless her! wheresoe'er the breeze

Her snowy wing shall fan,
Aside the frozen Hebrides,

Or sultry Hindostan!
Where'er, in mart or on the main,

With peaceful flag unfurled,
She helps to wind the silken chain

Of commerce round the world!
9. Speed on the ship! But let her bear

No merchandise of sin,
No groaning cargo of despair

Her roomy hold within;

No Lethean drug for Eastern lands,

Nor poison-draught for ours;
But honest fruits of toiling hands

And Nature's sun and showers.
10. Be hers the prairie's golden grain,

The desert's golden sand,
The clustered fruits of sunny Spain,

The spice of Morning-land!
Her pathway on the open main

May blessings follow free,
And glad hearts welcome back again
Her white sails from the sea!

-J. G. Whittier.

ruddy, of a red colour.
spectral, like a ghost.
gnarled, old and knotted.
century-circled, having rings or

layers of wood, showing it to

be centuries old. treenails, wooden pins fastening

the outside planks to the beams.

Hebrides, islands on W. of Scot

land. Lethean, producing stupor, so

called from the fabled river Lethe, whose waters had the power of producing entire for

getfulness. prairies, the vast plains of N.



1. When the division of labour has been once thoroughly established, it is but a very small part of a man's wants which the produce of his own labour can supply. He supplies the far greater part of them by exchanging that surplus part of the produce of his own labour which is over and above his own consumption, for such parts of the produce of other men's labour as he has occasion for. Every man thus lives by exchanging, or becomes in some measure a merchant, and society itself grows to be what is properly a commercial society.

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