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but they have been much more altered from their original form. Thus we have royal, as well as regal, from rex; and loyal, as well as legal, from lex; we also have diurnal and journal from the Latin dies, a day.
5. Sometimes we have the same Latin word used in two or more different forms in English. Royal and regal, loyal and legal, have been already mentioned. But there are many more. Thus From the Latin word de-struo, de-structum,we have destruction, destroy; factum
fact, feat; factio-nis
faction, fashion; concip-ere, concept-um, conception, conceit; fidel-is
fidelity, fealty; frag-ilis
fragile, frail; persequor, persecutus, persecute, pursue; proridens, provident-is, provident, prudent; superficies
secure, sure; traditio-nis
tradition, treason; and many others. The latter form is derived from the Latin through the Norman-French. But probably in every case the Norman-French form was introduced into our language before the direct Latin form. Thus pursue is an older word than persecute. (Trench, English Past and Present, Lecture 1.)
6. Only a very few of the derivatives are here given, chiefly those used in this book. From one root alone, pon-ere, posit-um, we have about 250 words. One hundred and fifty-four Greek and Latin primitives yield nearly 15,000 words. (Angus, Handbook of the English Language, p. 46.)
7. The same root-word is often repeated in different forms for the sake of convenience: thus ag-ilis will be found, as well as ag-ere, though both come from the same root, ag.
8. The same English word will often be found in connection with two Latin words: thus manufacture is derived partly from manus, the hand, and facere, to make.
9. References to well-known books are inserted occasionally, showing where the teacher may find additional hints and illustrations.
Aequus, level, fair, just: equal, equivocate (vocare), iniquity.
actual, agency, in-active, exact, navigate, transact, transaction.
(unus). Antiquus, old, out of dute: antique, antiquity, antics. Aperi-re, apertum, to open: aperture.
Aqua, water: aquatic, aqueduct (ducere).
2d Edit., and Max Müller's Science of Language, i. 239.)
autumn. Auxilium, help: auxiliary. Brevis, short: brevity, abbreviate. Caballus, a little horse : cavalry, chivalry. Cad-ere, casum, to fall : accident, case, casual, occasion. Cæd-ere, cæsum, to cause to fall, to strike : decide, decision. Cande-re, to glow, to be bright or white: candour, candid, candle,
candidate (because in Rome such persons wore a white garment). Cap-ere, captum, to take, to seize : accept, acceptance, anticipate,
capable, incapable, captive (caitiff), captivate, conceive, deceive, deception, except, exception, perceive, perceptible, receive,
reception. Caput, capit-is, the head, source: cape, capital, captain, chapter,
chief, achieve, precipitate, precipitous. Cave-re, cautum, to be on one's guard, to beware: cautious, in
cautiously, precaution. Cavus, hollow : cave, cavern, cavity, concave, excavate. Ced-ere, cessum, to go, withdraw, yield : accede, accession, ancestor,
exceed, excessive, procedure, proceed, procession, succeed, suc
cessive. Cern-ere, cretum, to judge, select : concern, decree, discern, discreet,
secret. Civis, a citizen: civil, civilize, citadel, city, citizen. Claud-ere, clausum, to shut in: clause, close, closet, conclude, con
clusion, include, seclude, seclusion. Cohors, cohort-is, an inclosed place : court, courtly, courtesy. (Max
Müller's Science of Language, ii. 252). Col-ere, cultum, to till: culture, cultivate, agriculture (ager), colony. Cor, cord-is, the heart: cordial, concord, discord, discordant, record. Corpus, corpor-is, the body: corporate, corpse, incorporate. Cred-ere, creditum, to beliere: creed, credit, credible, incredible,
creditable. Cura, care: accurate, cure, curate, curious, curiosity, curative, incur
able, procure, secure, security. Curr-ere, cursum, to run : course, current, cursory, concourse, excur
sion, incur, intercourse, recourse, recurring, succour. Dic-ere, dictum, to say, speak : contradict, ditto (as said), index, in
dicative. Dies, a day: dial, diary, diurnal, journal, journey. (Max Müller's
Science of Language, i. 46, note.) Dignus, worthy: dignity, disdain, indignity, indignant. Da-re, datum, to put, to gire: add, addition, condition, date, edition,
Duc-ere, ductum, to lead : adduce, aqueduct (aqua), conduce, con
duct, duke, induce, introduce, produce, production; (edůcare, to
educate). Ens, esse, being, to be: essence, essential, absent, absence, present,
presence. Eo, i-re, itum, to go: ambition, count (com-es, comit-is), circuit,
initial, perish, transit. Experi-ri, expertum, to try: expert, experience, experiment. Faber, fabri, a workman: fabric, fabricate, forge. Fac-ere, factum, to make or do: fact, feat, benefactor, beneficent,
defect, defeat, fashion, feature, infectious, magnificence (magnus),
officer, perfect, perfection, profit. Fac-ilis, that can be done easy : facility, difficult, difficulty. Fall-ere, falsum, to deceive : false, fault, falsehood, infallible. Fama, a report: fame, famous. Fanum, a temple: fane, profane. Fari, fatum, to speak : fate, fatal, fable, infant, ineffable, preface. Fer-re, latum, to bear, to carry: circumference, defer, differ, differ
ence, dilate, infer, offer, prefer, transfer, translate, translation,
refer, relate, relation. Fides, faith : confident, fidelity, fealty, defy. Fig-ere, fixum, to fix : affix, prefix, suffix. Finis, the end, limit: define, definite, final, finish, confine, infinite,
infinitive, refine. Firmus, strong: affirm, confirm, firm, firmament, affirmative, infirm. Flect-ere, flexum, to bend: reflect, reflection, reflector, inflection. Flos, flor-is, a flower: flower, flourish, floral. Foedus, fæder-is, a treaty : confederate, confederation. Fors, forte, chance : fortune, unfortunately. Fortis, brave, strong: fort, fortress, fortify, forcible, effort, force. Frang-ere, fractum, to break: fragile, fraction, fragment, frail,
fringe. Frustra, in vain: frustrate. Fund-ere, fusum, to pour out: confound, confuse, confusion, diffu
sion, fund, profusion, profound, refuse. Fur-ere, to be mad : fury, furious. Gaude-re, to rejoice : joy, enjoy, enjoyment. Genus, gener-is, a kind: general, gender, gentle, generation, pro
geny. Gradiri, gressus, to go, to march: grade, gradual, degrade, degrada
tion, degree, congress, progress, transgress. Gratus, pleasing: grateful, gracious, gratitude, congratulate, dis
grace. Habe-re, habitum, to hare, to hold: habit, exhibit, inhabitant, pro
hibit, habitual. Hære-re, hæsum, to stick to: adhere, cohesion, adhesive. Hauri-re, haustum, to drain: exhaust, inexhaustible. Heres, hered-is, an heir: heir, heiress, heirloom, inherit, hereditary,
Horre-re, to shudder, to bristle: horrid, horror, abhor.
ary. Impera-re, imperatum, to command: empire, emperor, imperial,
imperative. Jac-ere, jactum, to throw: object, project, conjecture, adjective,
dejection. Jugum, a yoke: conjugate, subjugate. Jung-ere, junctum, to join: junction, juncture, conjunction, sub
junctive, join, joint. Labi, lapsum, to slip: lapse, elapse. Labor, labor-is, work: labour, laboratory. Leg-ere, lectum, to choose, to select: elect, lecture, lesson, neglect,
intellect, intelligent, collect, college, recollect, diligent, legend. Lex, leg-is, law: legal, illegal, loyal, loyalty, legitimate. Liber, free: liberty, deliver, liberal, illiberal. Litera, a letter : literal, literary, literature. Locus, a place: local, locomotive (movere). Loqui, locutum, to speak: eloquent. Lud-ere, lusum, to play: allude, allusion, delude, elude, illusion. Magnus, great: magnitude, magnate, magnificent (facere), magnify. Major, major-is, greater: majority, majesty. Manda-re, mandatum, to give in charge: mandate, command, com
mandment, demand. Mane-re, mansum, to remain: mansion, permanent, remain, re
mainder. Manus, the hand : manuscript (scribere), manual, manufacture (facere),
maintain. Medius, the middle: immediate, intermediate. Melior, melior-is, better : ameliorate, amelioration. Memor, mindful: memory, memorial, memorable, commemorate. Merg-ere, mersum, to plunge : immerse, emerge, emergency. Merx, merc-is, merchandise: merchant, commerce, commercial, mer
cantile, merchandise. Minē-re, to project (chiefly used with compounds, im-minere, e-minere,
pro-minere): eminent, imminent, prominent, prominence. Minor, minor-is, less: minority, minister. (Max Müller's Science of
Language, ii. 254.) Minu-ere, minutum, to lessen: minute, diminish. Mitt-ere, missum, to send: admit, admission, commit, mission, mis
sionary, permit, permission, promise, transmit, transmission,
unintermitting. Modus, a measure or manner, a limit: mode, model, moderate,
modesty, mood. Mone-re, monitum, to warn, to advise : monument, admonish. Mons, mont-is, a mountain : promontory, amount, surmount, moun
Mos, mor-is, a manner or custom: moral, immoral, morality.
locomotion (locus), remove, remote, moment.
noble, nobility, denote, recognize, reconnoitre. Numerus, a number: numerous, enumerate. Nuncia-re, nunciatum, to report: announce, denounce, pronounce,
pronunciation. Opus, oper-is, work: operation, operative. Ordo, ordin-is, rank, order: ordinary, extraordinary, subordinate,
ordain. Origo, origin-is, the beginning : origin, original, originate, aboriginal. Oriri, ortus, to rise: oriental. Palatium, a palace: palace, palatial. (Max Müller's Science of
Language, ii. 251.) Pand-ere, passam or pansum, to spread: expand, expanse, pace,
ticular, depart, parcel.
, compulsion, impel, expel, expulsion, propel, impulse, repel. Pende-re, to hany: depend, independent, suspend, suspense, pendu
lous. Periculum, danger: experiment, peril, perilous. Pes, ped-is, a foot: pedestrian, expedite, expedition, impede, pedicle,
expedient. Pet-ere, petitum, to ask, to seek : compete, impetuous, petition, per
petual, appetite, repeat. Ping-ere, pictum, to paint: depict, pictorial, picture, picturesque. Place-re, placitum, to please: pleasure, pleasant, please. Plect-ere, plexum, to bend, to twist: perplex, complex, double (du
plex). Ple-re (only used in composition), to fill; plenus, full: complete,
accomplish. Plica-re, plicatum, to fold: accomplice, apply, pliant, reply, simple,
supplicate. Poena, penalty: penance, repent, penalty, impunity, punishment.