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but they have been much more altered from their original form. Thus we have royal, as well as regal, from rex; and loyal, as well as legal, from lex; we also have diurnal and journal from the Latin dies, a day.

5. Sometimes we have the same Latin word used in two or more different forms in English. Royal and regal, loyal and legal, have been already mentioned. But there are many more. Thus From the Latin word de-struo, de-structum,we have destruction, destroy; factum

fact, feat; factio-nis

faction, fashion; concip-ere, concept-um, conception, conceit; fidel-is

fidelity, fealty; frag-ilis

fragile, frail; persequor, persecutus, persecute, pursue; proridens, provident-is, provident, prudent; superficies

superficies, surface;


secure, sure; traditio-nis

tradition, treason; and many others. The latter form is derived from the Latin through the Norman-French. But probably in every case the Norman-French form was introduced into our language before the direct Latin form. Thus pursue is an older word than persecute. (Trench, English Past and Present, Lecture 1.)

6. Only a very few of the derivatives are here given, chiefly those used in this book. From one root alone, pon-ere, posit-um, we have about 250 words. One hundred and fifty-four Greek and Latin primitives yield nearly 15,000 words. (Angus, Handbook of the English Language, p. 46.)

7. The same root-word is often repeated in different forms for the sake of convenience: thus ag-ilis will be found, as well as ag-ere, though both come from the same root, ag.

8. The same English word will often be found in connection with two Latin words: thus manufacture is derived partly from manus, the hand, and facere, to make.

9. References to well-known books are inserted occasionally, showing where the teacher may find additional hints and illustrations.

Aequus, level, fair, just: equal, equivocate (vocare), iniquity.
Ager, agri, a field : agriculture (see colere), agricultural.
Ag-ere, actum, to put into motion, to drive, to do: act, action, active,

actual, agency, in-active, exact, navigate, transact, transaction.
Ag-ilis, one that is put into motion, quick, nimble : agile, agility.
Ango, anxi, to strangle, to twist: anguish, anxiety, anxious.
Animus, mind, spirit, courage : animate, inanimate, unanimous

(unus). Antiquus, old, out of dute: antique, antiquity, antics. Aperi-re, apertum, to open: aperture.

Aqua, water: aquatic, aqueduct (ducere).
Ara-re, to plough: arable. (Taylor's Words and Places, p. 66,

2d Edit., and Max Müller's Science of Language, i. 239.)
Arde-re, arsi, to burn: ardent, ardour.
Ars, art-is, skill, art: artificial (facere), artisan, artist.
Auge-re, auctum, to cause to grow: augment, author, authority,

autumn. Auxilium, help: auxiliary. Brevis, short: brevity, abbreviate. Caballus, a little horse : cavalry, chivalry. Cad-ere, casum, to fall : accident, case, casual, occasion. Cæd-ere, cæsum, to cause to fall, to strike : decide, decision. Cande-re, to glow, to be bright or white: candour, candid, candle,

candidate (because in Rome such persons wore a white garment). Cap-ere, captum, to take, to seize : accept, acceptance, anticipate,

capable, incapable, captive (caitiff), captivate, conceive, deceive, deception, except, exception, perceive, perceptible, receive,

reception. Caput, capit-is, the head, source: cape, capital, captain, chapter,

chief, achieve, precipitate, precipitous. Cave-re, cautum, to be on one's guard, to beware: cautious, in

cautiously, precaution. Cavus, hollow : cave, cavern, cavity, concave, excavate. Ced-ere, cessum, to go, withdraw, yield : accede, accession, ancestor,

exceed, excessive, procedure, proceed, procession, succeed, suc

cessive. Cern-ere, cretum, to judge, select : concern, decree, discern, discreet,

secret. Civis, a citizen: civil, civilize, citadel, city, citizen. Claud-ere, clausum, to shut in: clause, close, closet, conclude, con

clusion, include, seclude, seclusion. Cohors, cohort-is, an inclosed place : court, courtly, courtesy. (Max

Müller's Science of Language, ii. 252). Col-ere, cultum, to till: culture, cultivate, agriculture (ager), colony. Cor, cord-is, the heart: cordial, concord, discord, discordant, record. Corpus, corpor-is, the body: corporate, corpse, incorporate. Cred-ere, creditum, to beliere: creed, credit, credible, incredible,

creditable. Cura, care: accurate, cure, curate, curious, curiosity, curative, incur

able, procure, secure, security. Curr-ere, cursum, to run : course, current, cursory, concourse, excur

sion, incur, intercourse, recourse, recurring, succour. Dic-ere, dictum, to say, speak : contradict, ditto (as said), index, in

dicative. Dies, a day: dial, diary, diurnal, journal, journey. (Max Müller's

Science of Language, i. 46, note.) Dignus, worthy: dignity, disdain, indignity, indignant. Da-re, datum, to put, to gire: add, addition, condition, date, edition,


Duc-ere, ductum, to lead : adduce, aqueduct (aqua), conduce, con

duct, duke, induce, introduce, produce, production; (edůcare, to

educate). Ens, esse, being, to be: essence, essential, absent, absence, present,

presence. Eo, i-re, itum, to go: ambition, count (com-es, comit-is), circuit,

initial, perish, transit. Experi-ri, expertum, to try: expert, experience, experiment. Faber, fabri, a workman: fabric, fabricate, forge. Fac-ere, factum, to make or do: fact, feat, benefactor, beneficent,

defect, defeat, fashion, feature, infectious, magnificence (magnus),

officer, perfect, perfection, profit. Fac-ilis, that can be done easy : facility, difficult, difficulty. Fall-ere, falsum, to deceive : false, fault, falsehood, infallible. Fama, a report: fame, famous. Fanum, a temple: fane, profane. Fari, fatum, to speak : fate, fatal, fable, infant, ineffable, preface. Fer-re, latum, to bear, to carry: circumference, defer, differ, differ

ence, dilate, infer, offer, prefer, transfer, translate, translation,

refer, relate, relation. Fides, faith : confident, fidelity, fealty, defy. Fig-ere, fixum, to fix : affix, prefix, suffix. Finis, the end, limit: define, definite, final, finish, confine, infinite,

infinitive, refine. Firmus, strong: affirm, confirm, firm, firmament, affirmative, infirm. Flect-ere, flexum, to bend: reflect, reflection, reflector, inflection. Flos, flor-is, a flower: flower, flourish, floral. Foedus, fæder-is, a treaty : confederate, confederation. Fors, forte, chance : fortune, unfortunately. Fortis, brave, strong: fort, fortress, fortify, forcible, effort, force. Frang-ere, fractum, to break: fragile, fraction, fragment, frail,

fringe. Frustra, in vain: frustrate. Fund-ere, fusum, to pour out: confound, confuse, confusion, diffu

sion, fund, profusion, profound, refuse. Fur-ere, to be mad : fury, furious. Gaude-re, to rejoice : joy, enjoy, enjoyment. Genus, gener-is, a kind: general, gender, gentle, generation, pro

geny. Gradiri, gressus, to go, to march: grade, gradual, degrade, degrada

tion, degree, congress, progress, transgress. Gratus, pleasing: grateful, gracious, gratitude, congratulate, dis

grace. Habe-re, habitum, to hare, to hold: habit, exhibit, inhabitant, pro

hibit, habitual. Hære-re, hæsum, to stick to: adhere, cohesion, adhesive. Hauri-re, haustum, to drain: exhaust, inexhaustible. Heres, hered-is, an heir: heir, heiress, heirloom, inherit, hereditary,


Horre-re, to shudder, to bristle: horrid, horror, abhor.
Hospes, hospit-is, a guest, or a host: hospitable, hospital, hotel, host.
Humus, the ground: humble, humility.
Imago, imagin-is, an image: image, imagine, imagination, imagin-

ary. Impera-re, imperatum, to command: empire, emperor, imperial,

imperative. Jac-ere, jactum, to throw: object, project, conjecture, adjective,

dejection. Jugum, a yoke: conjugate, subjugate. Jung-ere, junctum, to join: junction, juncture, conjunction, sub

junctive, join, joint. Labi, lapsum, to slip: lapse, elapse. Labor, labor-is, work: labour, laboratory. Leg-ere, lectum, to choose, to select: elect, lecture, lesson, neglect,

intellect, intelligent, collect, college, recollect, diligent, legend. Lex, leg-is, law: legal, illegal, loyal, loyalty, legitimate. Liber, free: liberty, deliver, liberal, illiberal. Litera, a letter : literal, literary, literature. Locus, a place: local, locomotive (movere). Loqui, locutum, to speak: eloquent. Lud-ere, lusum, to play: allude, allusion, delude, elude, illusion. Magnus, great: magnitude, magnate, magnificent (facere), magnify. Major, major-is, greater: majority, majesty. Manda-re, mandatum, to give in charge: mandate, command, com

mandment, demand. Mane-re, mansum, to remain: mansion, permanent, remain, re

mainder. Manus, the hand : manuscript (scribere), manual, manufacture (facere),

maintain. Medius, the middle: immediate, intermediate. Melior, melior-is, better : ameliorate, amelioration. Memor, mindful: memory, memorial, memorable, commemorate. Merg-ere, mersum, to plunge : immerse, emerge, emergency. Merx, merc-is, merchandise: merchant, commerce, commercial, mer

cantile, merchandise. Minē-re, to project (chiefly used with compounds, im-minere, e-minere,

pro-minere): eminent, imminent, prominent, prominence. Minor, minor-is, less: minority, minister. (Max Müller's Science of

Language, ii. 254.) Minu-ere, minutum, to lessen: minute, diminish. Mitt-ere, missum, to send: admit, admission, commit, mission, mis

sionary, permit, permission, promise, transmit, transmission,

unintermitting. Modus, a measure or manner, a limit: mode, model, moderate,

modesty, mood. Mone-re, monitum, to warn, to advise : monument, admonish. Mons, mont-is, a mountain : promontory, amount, surmount, moun


Mos, mor-is, a manner or custom: moral, immoral, morality.
Move-re, motum, to móle: motion, moveless, emotion, immovable,

locomotion (locus), remove, remote, moment.
Multus, many: multiply, multitude.
Nascor, natus, to be born: native, nation.
Natura, nature: natural, naturalist.
Nect-ere, nexus, to bind together: connect, connection, annex.
Nomen, nomin-is, a name: nominal, ignominious, noun.
Norma, a rule: enormous, abnormal.
Nosc-ere, notum (nobilis, well-known), to know: note, notoriety,

noble, nobility, denote, recognize, reconnoitre. Numerus, a number: numerous, enumerate. Nuncia-re, nunciatum, to report: announce, denounce, pronounce,

pronunciation. Opus, oper-is, work: operation, operative. Ordo, ordin-is, rank, order: ordinary, extraordinary, subordinate,

ordain. Origo, origin-is, the beginning : origin, original, originate, aboriginal. Oriri, ortus, to rise: oriental. Palatium, a palace: palace, palatial. (Max Müller's Science of

Language, ii. 251.) Pand-ere, passam or pansum, to spread: expand, expanse, pace,

passage, trespass.
Pang-ere, pactum, to strike: compact.
Par, equal: compare, comparison, incomparable, peer, pair.
Para-re, to get ready: prepare, repair, apparatus.
Pare-re, to become visible : apparent, appearance, transparent.
Pars, part-is, a part: partial, participate (capere), impartially, par-

ticular, depart, parcel.
Pax, pac-is, peace: peaceable, pacific, pacify.
Pauper, pauper-is, pauper: pauperism, poor, poverty.
Pell-ere, pulsum, to drive: compel

, compulsion, impel, expel, expulsion, propel, impulse, repel. Pende-re, to hany: depend, independent, suspend, suspense, pendu

lous. Periculum, danger: experiment, peril, perilous. Pes, ped-is, a foot: pedestrian, expedite, expedition, impede, pedicle,

expedient. Pet-ere, petitum, to ask, to seek : compete, impetuous, petition, per

petual, appetite, repeat. Ping-ere, pictum, to paint: depict, pictorial, picture, picturesque. Place-re, placitum, to please: pleasure, pleasant, please. Plect-ere, plexum, to bend, to twist: perplex, complex, double (du

plex). Ple-re (only used in composition), to fill; plenus, full: complete,

accomplish. Plica-re, plicatum, to fold: accomplice, apply, pliant, reply, simple,

supplicate. Poena, penalty: penance, repent, penalty, impunity, punishment.

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