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so close to the operation and so long? Other species are running about with an alacrity in their motions which carries with it every mark of pleasure. Large patches of ground are sometimes covered with these brisk and sprightly creatures.
4. If we look to what the waters produce, shoals of the fry of fish frequent the margins of rivers, of lakes, and of the sea itself. They are so happy they do not know what to do with themselves. Their attitudes, their vivacity, their leaps out of the water, their frolics in it, all conduce to show their excess of spirits, and are simply the effects of that excess.
5. The young of all animals appear to receive pleasure simply from the exercise of their limbs and bodily faculties, without reference to any end to be attained, or any use to be answered by the exertions. A child, without knowing anything of the use of language, is in a high degree delighted with being able to speak. Its incessant repetition of a few sounds, or perhaps of a single word which it has learned to pronounce, proves this point clearly. Nor is it less pleased with its first endeavours to walk, or rather to run (which precedes walking), although entirely ignorant of the importance of the attainment to its future life, and even without applying it to any present purpose. A child is delighted with speaking, without having anything to say; and with walking, without knowing where to go. Before learning to walk or speak, the waking hours of infancy are agreeably taken up with the exercise of vision, or perhaps, more properly speaking, learning to see.
6. The great Parent of creation has shown His care for others besides the young. Happiness is found with the purring cat no less than with the playful kitten; in the arm chair of dozing age, as well as in the sprightliness of the dance, and the animation of the chase. To novelty, to acuteness of sensation, to hope, to ardour of pursuit, succeeds what is in no inconsiderable degree an equivalent
for them all, perception of ease. Herein is the exact difference between the old and the young. The young are not happy but when enjoying pleasures. The old are happy when free from pain. Old age has been well described as an interval of repose between the hurry and the end of life. How far the same cause extends to other animal natures, we cannot say with certainty. The appearance of satisfaction with which most animals, as their activity subsides, seek and enjoy rest, affords reason to believe that this source of gratification is appointed to advanced life under all or most of its various forms.
7. What is seen in different stages of the same life is still more exemplified in the lives of different animals. Animal enjoyments are infinitely diversified. The modes of life to which the organization of different animals respectively determines them are not only of various but opposite kinds. Yet each is happy in its own. . For instance, animals of prey live much alone, animals of a milder kind in society. Yet the herring which lives in shoals, and the sheep which lives in flocks, are not more happy in a crowd than is the pike or the lion in the deep solitudes of the pool or the forest. How many myriads of animals are at this moment eating their food, gratifying their appetites, ruminating in their homes, accomplishing their wishes, pursuing their pleasures, taking their pastimes? In each individual how many things must go right for it to be at ease; yet how large a proportion out of every species is so in every assignable instant!— Paley. teem, abound.
incessant, continual. pinions, wings.
exemplified, illustrated by exmazes, intricate movements. ample. gratuitous, without purpose. diversified, varied. specimen, an example of. animals of prey, those that live aphides, small green flies. by eating other animals. vivacity, liveliness.
When may the new-born flies be seen? Describe a bee amongst the flowers in spring. Name the insects that suck the juices of plants. What little creatures frequent the margins of rivers and lakes? What is the difference between the enjoyments of youth and age? What sort of animals live much alone?
1. River, river! little river!
Bright you sparkle on your way; O'er the yellow pebbles dancing, Through the flowers and foliage glancing,
Like a child at play.
2. River, river! swelling river!
On you rush through rough and smooth; Louder, faster, brawling, leaping, Over rocks, by rose-banks, sweeping
Like impetuous youth. 3. River, river! brimming river!
Broad and deep, and still as time;