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disposing of the days between the first and the twenty-fifth of March, for sometimes they are considered as belonging to the antecedent and sometimes to the subsequent year. American writers, it is believed, have generally if not always applied them to the latter. When the figures for two years are written, as in dates before the adoption of the new style in 1752 is found frequently to be the case not only for the days above mentioned but for the days in January and February, it is the latter year, which corresponds with our present mode of reckoning. Thus March 1, 1689 was sometimes written March 1, 1688, 9, or with the figures placed one above the other. The months were designated usually by the names of the first, the second, &c.; so that February was the twelfth month.

No apology is necessary for the free use, which has been made of the labors of others, for the plan of this book is so essentially different from that of any, which has preceded it, that the author has not encroached upon the objects, which others have had in view. He has had no hesitation in using their very language, whenever it suited him. Compilers seem to be licensed pillagers. Like the youth of Sparta, they may lay their hands upon plunder without a crime, if they will but seize it with adroitness. The list of American literary productions, which has been rendered as complete as possible, is for the sake of method placed at the close of cach article, and in giving the titles of them it will be perceived, that there has frequently been an economy of words, as far as was consistent with distinctness of representation.

The author is aware, that he lives in times, which are like all other times, when the sympathies of parties of different kinds are very strong; and he believes, that he has sought less to conciliate them, than to follow truth, though she might not lead him into any of the paths, along which the many are pressing. Without resolving to be impartial it would indicate no common destitution of upright and honorable principles to attempt a delineation of the characters of men. He may have misapprehended, and he may have done what is worse. All are liable to errors, and he knows enough of the windings of the heart to remember, that errors may proceed from prejudice, or indolence of attention, and be criminal, while they are cherished as honest and well founded convictions, the results of impartial inquiry. He trusts, however, that nothing will be found in this book to counteract the influence of genuine religion, evincing itself in picty and good works, or to weaken the attachment of Americans to their well balanced republic, which equally abhors the tyranny of irresponsible authority, the absurdity of hereditary wisdom, and the anarchy of lawless liberty.

Cambridge, Massachusetts, August 2, 1909.

To the Second Edition.

After a long interval since the first cdition of this work the author now offers this second edition to the public. During 20 years past he has been repeatedly urged to accomplish what he has not found leisure to accomplish till the present time. But the delay, as the deathharvest among the eminent men of our country has been gathered in, has sewlled the catalogue of those, who ought to be commemorated in a Biography of "the mighty dead" of America. The first edition was the first general collection of American biography ever published; and it is still the largest work of the kind, which has appeared. In the Prospectus of this second edition it was proposed to print 750 pages, &it was thought, that the separate Biographical notices would amount to about 1200, being about 500 more, than are contained in the first edition. But the book has reached the unwieldy size of 808 pages, and the Biographical articles exceed 1800, presenting an account of more than 1000 individuals, not mentioned in Lord's edition of Lempriere, and of about 1600, not found in the first ten volumes of the Encyclopedia Americana. Yet the author has been obliged to exclude accounts of many persons, of whom he would willingly have said something. If he has at times misjudged in his exclusions and admissions; yet for some omissions an apology will be found in the difficulty of obtaining intelligence, as well as in oversight, which could hardly fail to occur in a work of such extent, embracing such a multitude of facts, and requiring, while in the press, such incessant attention and labor. He can only promise, should he live to publish an additional volume or to prepare another edition,an carnest effort to render the work more complete and more free from error. In the mean time he solicits the communication of intelligence respecting individuals, worthy of being remembered, who have escaped or who are likely to escape his unassisted researches.

To those gentlemen in different parts of our country, who have favored him with notices of their friends or of others, he returns his aeknowledgments. He has been particularly indebted to the biographical collections of Mr. Samuel Jennison, jun., of Worcester, Mass., and to the accurate antiquarian researches of Mr. John Farmer, of Concord, N. H., whose New England Genealogical Register will enable most of the sons of the Pilgrims of New England to trace their descent from their worthy ancestry. The authorities referred to, though abridged from the first edition, will show to what books he bas been chiefly indebted.

America is reproached in Europe for deficiency in literature and science ; but if one will consider, that it is not 200 years, since the first press was set up in this country, and will then look at the list of publications, annexed to the articles in this Biography, he will be astonished at the multitude of works, which have been printesl. N Eng

land was founded by men of learning, whose first care was to establish schools ; and the descendants of the fathers have inherited their love of knowledge and mental energy. No race of men on the face of the earth, it may be safely asserted, are so rational, so intelligent, so enlightened, and of such intellectual power, as the descendants of the New England Pilgrims, and the inhabitants generally of our extensive country.

Although the wide diffusion of knowledge is preferable to its convergence into a few points of splendor ; yet America can boast of names of eminence in the arts and in various departments of science, and can speak of her Sons of inventive power, of metaphysical acuteness, of philosophical discovery, of profound learning, and thrilling eloquence, and especially of a multitude, skilled in the knowledge and the maintenance of the rights of man. Happy will it be for our country, if ancient wisdom, and patriotism, and picty shall not in a future race dwindle down into the hunger for office, and the violence of party, and the cheerlessness of infidelity.

This body of American Biography will be found to coinprise the first Settlers and Fathers of our country ; early NAVIGATORS and adventurous TRAVELLERS; the STATESMEN, PATRiots, and Heroes, who have contended for American liberty, or assisted in laying the foundations of our republican institutions ; all the Signers of the Declaration of Independence ; brave and skilful MILITARY and Naval COMMANDERS ; many of the Governors of the several States and the deceased Presidents of aur country ; profound Lawyers and skilful Physicians; men of Genius, LEARNING and Science, and the distinguished Friends and PATRONS of learning ; THEOLOGIANs and IIisroHANS, Poets and Orators; ingenious Artists and men celebrated for their Inventions ; together with many eminent PHILANTHROPISTS and CHRISTIANS, whose examples bave diffused a cheering radiance around them.

The author, in conclusion, cannot avoid expressing the wish, that as the reader surveys the lives of such men, the commendahle zeal, whith animated them, may come upon his own soul, and that he may help to bear up the honors of a country, which has been the abode of a race of enlightened, noble-minded, disinterested, and virtuous mei.

Brunswick, Maine, July 17, 1832.

9

AN

AMERICAN

BIOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL

DICTIONARY.

ABBOT, Hull, a respectable minis- ABBOT, Abiel, D.D., a minister in ter of Charlestown, Massachusetts, was Beverly, Ms., was born at Andover, Aug, graduated at Harvard college in the year 17, 1770, and was graduated at Harvard 1720, and ordained Feb. 5, 1724, as col- College in 1787, having an unstained league with Mr. Bradstreet. After con- character and a high rank as a scholar. tinuing fifty years in the ministry, he di- After being an assistant teacher in the aced April 19, 1774, aged 80 years. He ademy at Andover, and studying theolopublished the following sermons; on the gy with Mr. French, he was settled about artillery election, 1735; on the rebellion 1794 as the minister of Haverhill, where in Scotland, 1746; against profane curs- he continued eight years. An inadequate ing and swearing, 1747.

support for his family induced him to ask a ABBOT, Samuel, one of the foun- dismission, though with great reluctance. ders of the Theological Seminary at An- He was soon afterwards settled in Beverdover, died in that town, of which he was ly, about 1802, as the successor of Mr. a native, April 30, 1812, aged 80. He had McKeen, who had been chosen president been a merchant in Boston. His dona- of Bowdoin College. The remainder of tion for establishing the seminary Aug. his life, about 24 years, was passed in Bev31, 1807 was 20,000 dollars; he also be- erly in his ministerial office, except when queathed to it more than one hundred his labors were interrupted by sickness. thousand dollars. He was a humble, con- He passed the winter of 1827-1828 in and scientious, pious man, remarkable for pru- near Charleston, South Carolina, for the dence, sincerity and uprightness, charita- recovery of his health.

Early in Feb. ble to the poor, and zealous for the inter- 1828 he embarked for Cuba, where he ests of religion. He bestowed several continued three months, exploring differthousands of dollars for the relief of min- ent parts of the island, and making a diliisters of the gospel and for other charita- gent record of his observations in letters ble objects. It was a maxim with him, to his family and friends. On his return “to praise no one in his presence and to he sailed from the pestilential city of Hadispraise no one in his absence.” In his last vana, with his health almost restored. He sickness he enjoyed a peace, which the preached at Charleston June 1, and the world cannot give. 'I desire to live,' he next day sailed for New York. But, alsaid, “if God has any thing more for me though able to go on deck in the morning, to do or to suffer.' When near his end he died at noon June 7th, just as the vessel he said, 'there is enough in God; I want came to anchor at the quarantine ground nothing but God. He left a widow, with near the city of New York, and was buwhom he had lived more than fifty years, ried on Staten Island. It is probable, that and one son.-Woods' fun. serm.; Pan- he was a victim to the yellow fever, the oplist, vii. 337.

contagion of which he received at Havana.-Dr. Abbot was very courteous and (1816; before the bible society of Salem, interesting in social intercourse, and was 1817; convention sermon, 1827.--Flint's eloquent in preaching. His religious sen- Sermon ; Sketch in lett. fr. Cuba. timents are not particularly explained by ABEEL, John Nelson, D.D. an elohis biographer, who says, that he belong- quent preacher, graduated at Princeton ed "to no sect but that of good men.” college in 1787. He relinquished the Happy are all they, who belong to that study of the law, which he had commencsect. He seems to have been, in his last ed under judge Patterson, and pursued days, extremely solicitous on the subject the study of divinity with Dr. Livingsof religious controversy. In the love of ton. He was licensed to preach in April peace all good men will agree with him, 1799. After being for a short time a minand doubtless there has been much con- ister of a presbyterian church in Philadeltroversy concerning unimportant points, phia, he was in 1795 installed as pastor conducted too in an unchristian spirit; but of the reformed Dutch church in the city in this world of error it is not easy to im- of New York. He died Jan. 20, 1812, in agine, how controversy is to be avoid- the 43d year of his age, deeply lamented ed. If the truth is assailed, it would seem, on account of his unassuming, amiable that those, who love it, should engage manners, and his eloquence as a preacher in its vindication; for men always defend of the gospel. With a discriminating against unjust assault what they deem mind and a sweet and melodious voice, valuable. Besides, if an intelligent and and his soul inflamed with pious zeal, he benevolent man thinks his neighbor has was pre-eminent among extemporaneous fallen into a dangerous mistake; why orators. In performing his various passhould he not, in a friendly debate, en- toral duties he was indefatigable.--Gunn's deavor to set him right? Especially ought fun. serm. the preachers of the truth to recommend ABERCROMBIE, James, a British it to others, with meekness indeed and in major general, took the command of the love, but with all the energy, which its troops, assembled at Albany in June1756, relation to human happiness demands. bringing over with him two regiments. When this is done, the enemies of the It was proposed to attack Crown Point, truth, by resisting it, will present to the Niagara, and fort du Quesne. But some world the form of religious dissension. If difficulty as to the rank of the provincial infidels endeavor to subvert the founda- troops occasioned delay, and in Aug. the tions of christianity; if corrupt heretics earl of Loudoun took the command. The deny the plain doctrines of the gospel; if capture of Oswego by Montcalm disarbewildered enthusiasts bring forward their ranged the projected campaign. In 1757 whims and fancies as doctrines revealed Montcalm took fort William Henry; and from heaven; shall the dread of controver- thus the French commanded all the lakes. sy prevent the exposure of their false reas- The British spirit was now roused. Mr. onings, their presumptuous comments, Pitt in 1758 placed 50,000 troops under and their delusive and perilous imagina- the command of Abercrombie, determined tions ?-Since the death of Dr. Abbot and to recover the places, which had been the settlement of his unitarian successor, captured by the French, and also to cap many of the congregation have withdrawn ture Louisbourg. Abercrombie at the and connected themselves with the sec-head of 15,000 men proceeded against ond church and society.-His interesting Ticonderoga, which he assaulted injudiand valuable letters from Cuba were pub- ciously and unsuccessfully July 8th, with lished after his death, 8vo., Boston, 1829. the loss of nearly 2,000 men, killed, wounHe published also artillery election ser-ded, and missing. He then retired to his mon, 1802 ; sermons to mariners, 1812 ; intrenched camp on the south side of lake address on intemperance, 1815; sermon George. An expedition, which he sent before the Salem missionary society, out against fort Frontenac under Col.

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