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impressively represented. The elocutionist may explain how the work is to be done, but it is the speaker's own conception and pervading earnestness that enable him successfully to do it. The passenger may direct the traveller to the right path, but he himself must walk the distance; and the more resolute he is, the sooner he will reach it.

In the following preparatory exercise on the modulations, the acute accent (') denotes the rising inflection, the grave accent (`) the falling, and the horizontal line (-) the monotone. It will greatly conduce to the student's future progress if he can enunciate these several clauses with precision before proceeding to the study of the subsequent principles. He will remember that each important modulation, in order to preserve its due force and distinctness, requires to be followed with a considerable pause. A pause of greater or less duration is also required wherever an abruptness occurs in the progress of thought, wherever the uniform construction of the sentence is interrupted, as in the case of the dash, the exclamation, parenthesis, &c., in which instances the mind is supposed to be arrested by the sudden change of passion or sentiment.


Was the task fínished or left unfinished?

Was his progress quíck or slow?

Did he pitch his vòice high or low?
Do you read Gréek or Látin?

Did they confess or deny?

Hów does your friend loòk? wéll or ìll?

How did he move? gracefully?

Was the prize mérited or not?

It was fìnished, not left únfinished.
It was slow, vèry slow.

He pitched it high, néver higher.
I have long read Làtin, néver Greek.
They confèssed, and were mérely rebuked.
Well; he never looked bètter.
Grácefully! Yès-ás he always dões.
It was at least all thought sō.

Whò delivered the mèssage? hé or his bròther? Hè; his brother is from home.

Is the stream wide or narrow?

Stráight or circuitous ?

And its bánks-rúgged?

His speech was nòt réad-it was delivered?

And well received?

The subject was ínteresting?

Did he speak long? An hóur perhaps?
And was well received, you say?
He made an imprèssion then?
Then he is likely to succeed?
Are the duties light or onerous?
And the emoluments?

Very narrow-espécially near its sòurce.
Partly straight and partly circuitous.

Yès; but quite accèssible, and highly pìcturesque.
It was well delivered.

With enthusiasm-if the applause it obtained is the tést.
Yès, and is rather popular at present.
Lònger-twò hours-threè hours.
Enthusiastically-applauded throughout.
I should think so—at least upōn sóme.
Succeéd! Yès-if he chooses to exért himself.
Most onerous-if discharged conscientiously.
Respèctable—and likely tō bē increased.

There is one general principle on which the system of modulation is constructed that should never be lost sight of, for it has its origin in nature, consequently any departure from it involves a violation of propriety. It is this,—that the introductory part of a sentence necessarily requires the low monotone and rising modulation, whereas the concluding portion naturally takes the high monotone and falling inflection. That division of a sentence which is purely introductory can never receive the falling modulation on its own account as being introductory. It may occasionally require the falling from its emphatic relation to other members, as in the case of the antithesis, but not otherwise. The rising modulation is required, as there the sense is suspended; whereas the concluding part, on the principle of the voice being the echo of the sense, requires the falling, as with it the sense is completed.

There seem to be Seven General Principles to which the Art of Reading may be reduced, as there seem to be seven distinct forms of sense or of expression. Into one or other of these forms, we apprehend, may be resolved every possible construction of sentence to which the system of modulation can legitimately be applied..



RULE.-An Affirmative or Final member takes the falling modulation on its accented or emphatic word, but the accented word of the Penultimate member takes the rising modulation, in order to prepare a cadence for the close of the sentence.

An affirmative member is that whose affirmation is altogether independent of other clauses a final or ultimate member is that which completes the sense of other mem

bers the penultimate is that which precedes the ultimate. When the ultimate is particularly long, it may be subdivided into a penultimate and ultimate for the purpose of modulation.

EXAMPLE.- "Exèrcise stréngthens the constitution"—an affirmative member, embracing only one idea, and taking the falling inflection on its accented word "constitution."

Again." Exèrcise strengthens even an indifferent constitution"-" indifferent" now taking the inflection, being a more important word as antithetical to a good constitution, and therefore emphatic.*

Again. "Exércise, hōwever little it may be regarded, stréngthens even an indìfferent constitution." Here a new member is introduced, forming a penultimate, and taking the rising inflection on its accented word "regarded," th term "indifferent" still retaining the falling inflection as a final or ultimate member.

It will be observed that the words exercise, strengthen, little, are also inflected. This is upon the principle of what some elocutionists call the harmonic inflection, or general emphasis, and which is intended to introduce an agreeable variety of tone, at once pleasing to the ear and illustrative of the sense. For this, however, no rule is necessary, nor indeed can be offered, farther than that all similarly important words should be so modulated. Even, however, may, are denoted by the monotone as requiring to be enunciated upon the level at which the voice has arrived by the previous inflection.

Simple and obvious as Principle First is, there is not probably in the whole science of elocution one more frequently violated, and, consequently, that serves as a better test of the reader. The practice generally is, like the old "use and wont" of the monotonous school-boy, to assign the fall* See page 59 on the distinction betwixt accented and emphatic words.

ing modulation to that member only which concludes a sentence; whereas every member affirmative in its character, be it in the beginning, middle, or close of a sentence, and whatever be its punctuation, should take the same falling slide. When passages occur in which the affirmative member prevails, each succeeding clause being complete in itself, and altogether detached both in sense and construction from those that precede and follow, the reader must not be tempted, by any apparent sameness of delivery, to introduce an occasional false modulation for the sake of variety. No such deviation from rule is necessary. The beauty and variety of the delivery are sufficiently sustained by an occasional shifting of the voice from a lower to a higher monotone, as the sense may admit. The principle of the affirmative member is the surest protection against false intonation, and the only cure for that extremely pernicious vice in delivery known by the epithet sing-song. All the provincialisms that exist and nearly every province has its own-consist in a peculiarly disagreeable modulation of the final member. The order of nature is to fall at the close-the sense being finished, no suspension of voice should take place; but it happens that, either in ignorance or disregard of this principle, the natives of certain localities practise an unnatural rising or falling tone, most offensive to the cultivated ear. A firm unyielding slide downwards would effectually prevent this in such as have not yet been seduced into the evil habit, and might shortly cure it in such as have.

The reader may exercise himself on the following Extracts as exemplifying Principle First-in the former, the inflections of the affirmative member and its penultimate are given, as also those of the harmonic inflection. He is requested to observe, in all examples of Rules, that the harmonic inflection is to be given more lightly and trippingly than that of the Rule itself.

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