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he walked on the sea, the wāters supported him. All parts of the creátion, excépting sinful mán, honoured him as thĒir Creàtor. He kept no treasure; but when he had occasion for money, the sèa sént it to him in the mouth of a fish. He had nò bárns nor còrn-fields; but when he inclined to make a feast, a fèw lóaves covered a tūble sufficient for mány thoùsands. Nòne of all the monarchs of the world ever gave súch entertainment !
By these and many such things, the Redèemer's glóry shone through his méanness in the sēveral pārts of his life. Nór was it whòlly clouded at his death. He had not, indeed, that fantàstic équipage of sõrrow that dther greát pērsons have on sūch occāsions; but the frame of nature solemnised the dēath of its A'uthor, -hèaven and earth were mdurners—the sún was clàd in bláck, -and if the inhàbitants of the ēarth were unmóved, the earth itself trēmbled under the áwful load. There were féw to pāy the Jewish compliment of rēnding their gárments; but the rocks were not so insènsible—they rént their bowels. He had not a gràve of his own; but other men's graves opened to him. Dèath and the gráve might bāve been proud of sùch a tēnant in their térritories ; but he came not there as a subject, but ās an invader—a conqueror. It was then the king of térrors lost his sting; and on the thìrd dáy the Prince of Life triumphed over him, spoiling death and the gràve.-Maclaurin.
ON GRACE IN WRITING.
I will not undertake to mark out, with any sort of precision, that idea which I would express by the word Grace: and perhaps it can no more be clearly described than justly defined. To give you, however, a general intimation of what I mean when I apply that term to compositions of genius, I would resemble it to that easy air which so remarkably distinguishes certain persons of a genteel and liberal cast. It consists not only in the particular beauty of single parts, but arises from the general symmetry and construction of the whole. An author may be just in his sentiments, lively in his figures, and clear in his expression; yet may have no claim to be admitted into the rank of finished writers. The several members must be so agreeably united, as mutually to reflect beauty upon each other; their arrangement must be so happily disposed, as not to admit of the least transposition, with
out manifest prejudice to the entire piece. The thoughts, the metaphors, the allusions, and the diction, should appear easy and natural, and seem to arise like so many spontaneous productions, rather than as the effects of art or labour.
Whatever, therefore, is forced or affected in the sentiments; whatever is pompous or pedantic in the expression, is the very reverse of Grace. Her mien is neither that of a prude nor a coquette; she is regular without formality, and sprightly without being fantastical. Grace, in short, is to good writing what a proper light is to a fine picture; it not only shows all the figures in their several portions and relations, but shows them in the most advantageous manner.
As gentility (to resume my former illustration) appears in the minutest action, and improves the most inconsiderable gesture, 80 grace is discovered in the placing even a single word, or the turn of a mere expletive. Neither is this inexpressible quality confined to one species of composition only, but extends to all the various kinds; to the humble pastoral as well as to the lofty epic; from the slightest letter to the most solemn discourse.
I know not whether Sir William Temple may not be considered as the first of our prose authors who introduced a graceful manner into our language: at least that quality does not seem to have appeared early, or spread far amongst us; but wheresoever we may look for its origin, it is certainly to be found in its highest perfection in the essays of a gentleman whose writings will be distinguished so long as politeness and good sense have any admirers. That becoming air, which Tully esteemed the criterion of fine composition, and which every reader, he says, imagines so easy to be imitated, yet will find so difficult to attain, is the prevailing characteristic of all that excellent author's most ele. gant performances. In a word, one may justly apply to him what Plato, in his allegorical language, says of Aristophanes; that the Graces, having searched all the world round for a temple wl they might for ever dwell, settled at last in the breast of Mr Addisov.-Fitzosborne,
THE SUSPENSION, OR DIRECT PERIOD.
RULE.—The Suspension is a sentence divisible into two very distinct branches ; the former expressing a supposition or condition, and requiring a suspension of the voice or rising modulation, the latter expressing an inference or deduction from the former, and requiring the falling modulation.
This has been denominated the reasoning principle of the art of reading, the suspension being that form of sentence usually employed to mark the logical connection between cause and effect-premises and their inference. The distinction of the suspension into the direct period and the inverted, common at one time in treatises on elocution, is altogether unnecessary, as both forms of sentence are embraced by the same rule. The additional “ loose member,” referred to under this rule, being affirmative in its character, belongs properly to Principle First.
There are several forms and indications of the suspension which the younger student, in particular, may remember with advantage. Thus, the first or suspended division may commence with a conjunction indicating supposition, as if, so, as, though, since, that,—with an adverb of the same indication, as when, whenever, where, wherever, while, whilst, with an adjective, participle, or infinitive mood; while the last division frequently commences with a corresponding conjunction or adverb. Thus
If in the former division, admits then in the latter.
yet, or still
then Where, wherecer
These corresponding signs do not necessarily occur in every second division, but may be inserted mentally by the student in order to ascertain the precise clause on which the inference commences.
EXAMPLE WITH THE CONJUNCTION.-" I'f you would secùre the enjõyment of property, you must have a govern. ment, or (thén) you must have a government; if you would háve a government, (thén) you must eléct a magistrate ; if you eléct a mägistrate, (thén) you mūst exact obedience to him; and if you exact obēdience, (thén) no one can be allowed to do as he pleases.”
WITH THE ADVERB.—“ When I look upon the tombs of the gréat, (thén) évery emotion of envy dìes in me; when I réad the epitaphs of the beautiful, (thén) évery inòrdinate desire
oùt; when I meet with the grief of parents upon a tombstone, (thén) my heart mélts with compassion ; whèn I sée thē tomb of the pårents themselves, (thén) I consīder the vanity of griēving for those whom wē mūst quíckly follow.”
WITH THE ADJECTIVE AND PARTICIPLE-for where an adjective forms the Suspension, a participle may always be supplied.— 'Big (being big) with enterprise, and elàted (being elàted) with hópe, the young too often trūst for succéss to none but themselves. Tóo wise (being too wise) to learn, tóo impatient to deliberate, too forward to be restrained, they plúnge with precìpitate indiscrétion into all the dangers with which lífe aboùnds."
WITH THE INFINITIVE MOOD:
To raise the génius, and to mènd the heart,
The rising modulation of the Suspension is also required in sentences that express their meaning inversely, where the natural mode of construction is changed into the rhetorical. Thus—“To all the chàrms of beauty, and the útmost elegance of extèrnal form, Máry added those accomplishments which rēnder their impression irresistible.”—“By reflecting rāther thān speaking, by listening rāther than oppósing, by fulfilling rāther thān promising, is hùman prógress to be secùred.” The principle of the rule is general, and applies to every. form of sentence in which the sense is delayed.
In some systems there is a very decided exception from the rule of the Suspension, which, though not of paramount importance, seems to carry some weight with it. It has been argued that “when the first division of the suspension marks a concession instead of a supposition, it requires the falling inflection in place of the rising ; and when the second division, instead of expressing an inference, points an appeal to the conscience, it should take the rising instead of the falling," thus reversing the order and character of the modulations. This exception, however, seems to express a distinction without involving any material difference, for what is the concession" but a “supposition ?” It is upon the principle of “ supposition" that the concessive member of Principle Second has the rising inflection assigned to it, and there is therefore just the more consistency between the rising inflection of the concessive and that of the suspension, that, as both involve supposition, both should be read with the same modulation. This must be obvious to all who study the principle attentively—and although every second division of the suspension may not “carry an appeal to the conscience,” yet as every such appeal is an inference from the supposition, or at least arises out of it, there seems to be no very urgent reason for so decided a deviation from the general rule.