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other examples of the supposed rule of emphasis. Let the modulation be regulated by the general principles already advanced, and the result will be the same as that of the rule of emphasis; with this advantage, that the principles of reading will be compressed into less compass and be less perplexing. The elocutionist must legislate for entire sentences, not for isolated clauses, as in the above example, the general bearing of which may be obscure. In the former case, the sense is obvious, and determines the modulation; in the latter, the critic may speculate at pleasure, claiming authority for a principle which would have no authority and no necessity, were the entire sentence submitted to the reader's consideration.

The following extract from Rowe's tragedy of "The Fair Penitent," has been often quoted by those who plead the controlling power of the emphatic forces. Mr Walker was the first to urge its importance as an example of the weak emphasis, with the rising modulation on "man," which position Mr Sheridan Knowles disputes:

""Twas base and poor, unworthy of a man,
To forge a scroll so villainous and loose,
And mark it with a nòble lady's name."

It would probably settle the controversy were it remembered that "man" is not necessarily the emphatic word in the clause, inasmuch as it forms no antithesis either expressed or implied. It cannot be supposed that the author is, in this sentence, instituting any comparison betwixt the individual referred to and any other order of creature, or even betwixt one degree or quality of man and another. The act of fraud and forgery with which the gay Lothario was chargeable cannot be supposed worthy of any other being. That which was a crime in him, was so in itself, and could not become a virtue in any other; whereas, according to the supposed law of emphasis, which would assign the rising

inflection to "man," as an example of the weak emphatic force, that which was unworthy of Lothario as a human being might not have been supposed unworthy of some inferior nature. The adjective "unworthy" seems to have been overlooked, the importance of which entitles it to take the falling modulation as the emphatic word of an inverse concluding member, and preparatory to the penultimate inflection on the word "loose," thereby cancelling the modulation on the word "man," as being only of secondary importance. The sentence will then be inflected as above. It would be

easy to multiply examples of the same nature. We are not aware of a single sentence adduced in confirmation of the law of emphasis that may not be comprehended under other rules. "I will be in mán's despite a monarch"-" despite❞ taking the falling modulation because it is the emphatic word of an affirmative member, and not because it exemplifies the strong emphasis. It is to be understood, then, that there are no rules of emphatic inflection exclusively, but that the principles of elocution have an application common to emphatic as well as accented words; for this reason, that the inflection arises out of the general meaning, and not the particular acceptation of any single word, whether accented or emphatic.

The Antithesis is represented in three distinct forms-the simple, double, and triple; the principle in each being, that opposite terms require opposite inflections.

RULE 1st. The Simple Antithesis consists of two terms opposed to each other, the former of which takes the rising modulation if the latter requires the falling, as is the case in final and affirmative members; whereas, should the latter require the rising, as in the case of closing negatives, &c., the former will take the falling. Thus "The manner of speaking is ās important as the matter." "Almost évery object that attracts our notice has its bright and its dark side." cérity is opposed to cùnning, not to true wisdom." "To bè,


or not to be; that is the question." "Trúe èase in writing comes from art, not chance."

2d. The Double Antithesis consists of four terms opposed to each other, or rather of two simple antitheses conjoined; the first and last of which take the falling modulation on final and affirmative members, where the fourth term concludes the sense, but are reversed in negatives, &c.; while the second and third take the rising under the same limitation. Thus, in instituting a comparison between the two epic poets of antiquity, Dr Johnson says "Homer is the greater génius, Virgil the better artist; in the one we most admire the mán, in the other the work.” "The young are slaves to nóvelty, the old to custom." "The king's sleep is not swèeter, nor his appetite bétter, than in the méanest of his sùbjects." “If the rich man hās the mōre mèat, but the poor man the better stómach, the difference is all in favour of the latter."

3d. The Triple Antithesis consists of six terms opposed to each other, or three successive simple antitheses combined-the first term being opposed to the fourth, the second to the fifth, and the third to the sixth. In final and affirmative members, the first, third, and fifth take the rising modulation, in order to preserve their antithetic relation to the second, fourth, and sixth terms, which take the falling, or vice versa, as before. Thus, in Dr Johnson's contrast of Pope with Dryden"Drýden is read with frèquent astonishment, Pòpe with perpétual delight. The notions of Dryden were formed by comprehensive speculation, thōse of Pope with minúte attèntion." "Precipitation rùins the best contrived plāns, patience ripens the most difficult."

The Quadruple Antithesis, as exemplified in Dryden's Ode on the Power of Music, scarcely merits the distinction of a separate rule, as one or more of the eight terms it contains are generally suppressed as unnecessary.

"Hé raised a mòrtal to the skies,

Shè drew an ángel dòwn.”

There is little danger of mistaking the principle of antithesis when both terms are expressed. It is the principle of contrast or opposition. Wherever there is contradistinction in the sense, the same must be expressed in the tones of the voice; and it will be found that, in the modulations assigned to the various forms, the principle of contrast is maintained throughout; so that each term receives invariably a modulation opposite to that of the term with which it is contrasted.

Antithesis is sometimes, however, presented elliptically, the relative term being suppressed; and here the reader must proceed with caution, lest he overlook the emphatic word, and attach his modulation to some inferior term in the sentence. Thus "Every màn, however little, màkes a figure in his own eyes;" "own" being the emphatic word as opposed to the judgment of others. "We esteem móst things according to their intrinsic mèrit; it is strange man should be an exception." "Guárd your wèak síde from being known-if it be attacked, the bèst way is to join in the attack."

"Hamlet, yoù have your father much offended."


Móther, you have my father much offended."

The Principle of Emphasis, as embodied in Antithesis, is exemplified in the following Extracts :


In acquired knowledge, the superiority must be allowed to Dryden, whose educátion was mòre scholástic, and whó, before hè became an author, had been allowed more time for stúdy, with better méans of information. His mind has a larger rànge, and he collects his images and illustrations from a more extensive circumference of science. Drýden knew more of man in his gèneral náture, and Pòpe in his lócal mànners. The pòtions of Dryden were formed by comprehensive speculation; those of Pòpe by minúte attention. There is more dignity in the knowledge of Drýden, and more cértainty in that of Pope.

Poetry was not the sole praise of either; for bòth excelled likewise in próse: but Pope did not borrow his prose from his predecèssor. The style of Drýden is capricious and varied; that of Pòpe is cautious and ùniform. Dryden obeys the motions of his own mind; Pòpe constrains hís mind to his own rules of composìtion. Drýden is sometimes vèhement and rápid; Pòpe is always smooth, úniform, and gèntle. Drýden's page is a natural fièld, rísing into inequàlities, and diversified by the vàried exúberance of abundant vegetàtion; Pópe's is a velvet làwn, shàven by the scythe, and lévelled by the ròller.

Of génius—that pòwer which constitutes a póet; that quàlity without which judgment is cold, and knowledge is inért; that ènergy which collects, combínes, ámplifies, and ánimates-the superiority must, with some hesitation, be allowed to Dryden. It is not to be inferred, that of this poetical vigour Pópe had only a little, because Dryden had more: for every òther writer since Mílton must give plàce to Pōpe; and even of Dryden it must be said that if he has brìghter páragraphs, he has not better pòems. Dryden's performances were always hasty; either excited by some external occasion, or extòrted by doméstic necèssity; he composed without considerátion, and públished without correction. What his mind could supply at cáll, or gather at one excursion, was all that he sought, and áll that he gàve. The dilatory cáution of Pope enabled him to condènse his sentiments, to mùltiply his images, and to accumulate all that study might prodúce, or chance might supply. If the flights of Dryden, therefore, are hígher, Pópe continues longer on the wìng. If of Dryden's fire the blaze is brighter, of Pòpe's the heat is more regular and cònstant. Dryden often surpasses expectation, and Pópe never falls belòw it. Drýden is read with frèquent astonishment, and Pòpe with perpétual delight.-Johnson.


As a describer of life and manners, Mr Addison must be allowed to stand perhaps the first in the first rank. His humour is peculiar to himself, and is so happily diffused, as to give the grace of novelty to domestic scenes and daily occurrences. He never o'ersteps the modesty of nature, nor raises merriment and wonder by the

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