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shall have the right, at all times and in its discretion, to use its police and its land and naval forces or to establish fortifications for these purposes.
No change either in the Government or in the laws and treaties of the Republic of Panama shall, without the consent of the United States, affect any right of the United States under the present convention, or under any treaty stipulation between the two countries that now exists or may hereafter exist touching the subject matter of this convention.
If the Republic of Panama shall hereafter enter as a constituent into any other Government or into any union or confederation of states, so
union or confederation, the rights of the United States under this convention shall not be in any respect lessened or impaired.
For the better performance of the engagements of this convention and to the end of the efficient protection of the Canal and the preservation of its neutrality, the Government of the Republic of Panama will sell or lease to the United States lands adequate and necessary for naval or coaling stations on the Pacific coast and on the western Caribbean coast of the Republic at certain points to be agreed upon with the President of the United States.
This convention when signed by the Plenipotentiaries of the Contracting Parties shall be ratified by the respective Governments and
In faith whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the present convention in duplicate and have hereunto affixed their respective seals.
Done at the City of Washington the 18th day of November in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and three.
[SEAL] P. BUNAU VARILLA SEAL
1859. CLAIMS CONVENTION.
Concluded February 4, 1859; ratification advised by the Senate Febru
ary 16, 1860; ratified by the President March 7, 1860; ratifications exchanged March 17, 1860; proclaimed March 12, 1860. (Treaties and Conventions, 1889, p. 828.)
By this convention the claim of the United States and Paraguay Navigation Company against Paraguay was submitted to a commission of two, who met in Washington June 22, 1860, and adjourned August 13, 1860, deciding against the claim.
1859. TREATY OF FRIENDSHIP, COMMERCE, AND NAVIGATION. Concluded February 4, 1859; ratification advised by the Senate February 27, 1860; ratified by the President March 7, 1860; ratifications exchanged March 7, 1860; proclaimed March 12, 1860. (Treaties and Conventions, 1889, p. 830.)
exports. V. Shipping dues.
X. Property rights; estates of de
ceased persons. XI. Exemption from military service,
etc. XII. Diplomatic and consular privi
VII. Nationality of vessels. VIII. Import and export duties.
IX. Trade privileges.
In the name of the most Holy Trinity.
The Governments of the two Republics, the United States of America and of Paraguay in South America being mutually disposed to cherish more intimate relations and intercourse than those which have heretofore subsisted between them, and believing it to be of mutual advantage to adjust the conditions of such relations by signing a “Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation,”—for that object have nominated their respective Plenipotentiaries, that is to say:
His Excellency the President of the United States of America has nominated James B. Bowlin a Special Cominissioner of the United States of America at Assumption,
And His Excellency the President of the Republic of Paraguay has nominated the Paraguayan citizen Nicolas Vasquez Secretary of State and Minister of Foreign Relations of the Republic of Paraguay.
Who after having communicated competent authorities, have agreed upon, and concluded the following Articles.
ARTICLE I. There shall be perfect peace and sincere friendship between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Republic of Paraguay, and between the citizens of both States and without exception of persons or places. The high contracting parties shall use their best endeavors that this friendship and good understanding may be constantly and perpetually maintained.
ARTICLE II. The Republic of Paraguay, in the exercise of the sovereign right which pertains to her, concedes to the merchant flag of the citizens of the United States of America the free navigation of the river Paraguay as far as the dominions of the Empire of Brazil, and of the right side of the Paraná throughout all its course belonging to the Republic, subject to police and fiscal regulations of the Supreme Government of the Republic in conformity with its concessions to the commerce of friendly nations. They shall be at liberty, with their ships and cargoes, freely and securely to come to, and to leave all the places and ports which are already mentioned, to remain and reside in any part of the said territories; hire houses and warehouses, and trade in all kinds of produce, manufactures and merchandize of lawful commerce, subject to the
the whole or a part, of their cargoes at the ports of Pilar, and where commerce with other nations may be permitted, or proceed with the whole or part, of their cargo to the port of Assumption, according as the Captain, owner or other duly authorized person shall deem expedient
In the same manner shall be treated and considered such Paraguayan citizens as may arrive at the ports of the United States of America with cargoes in Paraguayan vessels or vessels of the United States of America
ARTICLE III. The two high contracting parties hereby agree that any favor, privilege or immunity whatever, in matters of commerce or navigation which either contracting party has actually granted, or may hereafter grant to the citizens or subjects of any other State shall extend in identity of cases and circumstances, to the citizens of the other contracting party gratuitously, if the concession in favor of that other state shall have been gratuitous, or in return for an equivalent compensation, if the concession shall have been conditional:
ARTICLE IV. No other or higher duties shall be imposed on the importation or exportation of any article of the growth produce or manufacture of the two contracting States, than are or shall be payable on the like acticle being the growth, produce or manufacture of any other foreign country. No prohibition shall be imposed upon the importation or exportation of any article of the growth, produce or manufacture of the territories of either of the two contracting parties into the territories of the other, which shall not equally extend to the importation or exporiation of similar articles to the territories of any other nation.
ARTICLE V No other or higher duties or charges on account of tonnage, light or harbor dues, pilotage salvage in case of damage or shipwreck or any other local charges, shall be imposed in any of the ports of the territories of the Republic of Paraguay on vessels of the United States of America than those payable in the same ports by Paraguayan vessels; nor in the ports of the territories of the United States of America on Paraguayan vessels, than shall be payable in the same ports by vessels of the United States of America.
ARTICLE VI. The same duties shall be paid upon the importation and exportation of any article which is or may be legally importable or export
of Paraguay, whether such importation or exportation be made in vessels of the United States of America or in Paraguayan vessels.
ARTICLE VII. All vessels, which, according to the laws of the United States of America are to be deemed vessels of the United States of America, and all vessels which according to the laws of Paraguay, are to be deemed Paraguayan vessels, shall, for the purposes of this Treaty be deemed vessels of the United States of America and Paraguayan vessels respectively.
Citizens of the United States of America shall pay in the territories of the Republic of Paraguay the same import and export duties, which are established or may be established hereafter, for Paraguayan citizens. In the same manner the latter shall pay in the United States of America the duties which are established or may hereafter be established for citizens of the United States of America.
ARTICLE IX. All merchants, commanders of ships and others the citizens of each country respectively, shall have full liberty, in all the territories of the other, to manage their own affairs themselves, or to commit them to the management of whomsoever they please, as Agent, Broker, Factor or Interpreter; and they shall not be obliged to employ any other persons than those employed by natives, nor to pay to such persons as they shall think fit to employ, any higher salary or remuneration than such as is paid in like cases by natives.
The citizens of the United States of America in the territories of Paraguay, and the citizens of Paraguay in the United States of America shall enjoy the same full liberty, which is now, or may hereafter be, enjoyed by natives of each country respectively, to buy from, and sell to, whom they like all articles of lawful commerce, and to fix the prices thereof as they shall see good without being affected by any monopoly, contract or exclusive privilege of sale or purchase, subject, however, to the general ordinary contributions or imposts established by law.
The citizens of either of the two contracting parties in the territories of the other, shall enjoy full and perfect protection for their persons and property, and shall have free and open access to the Courts of Justice for the prosecution and defence of their just rights; they shall enjoy, in this respect the same rights and privileges as native citizens; and they shall be at liberty to employ, in all causes, the Advocates, Attorneys, or Agents, of whatever description, whom they may think proper.
ARTICLE X. In whatever relates to the police of the ports, the lading or unlading of ships, the warehousing and safety of merchandize, goods and effects, the succession to personal estates by will or otherwise, and the disposal of personal property of every sort and denomination, by sale, donation exchange or testament, or in any other manner whatsoever, as also with regard to the administration of justice, the citizens of each contracting party shall enjoy in the territories of the other, the same privileges, liberties and rights as native citizens, and shall not be charged, in any of these respects, with any other or higher imposts or duties than those, which are or may be paid by native citizens, subject always to the local laws and regulations of such territories.
In the event of any citizen of either of the two contracting parties dying without will or testament in the territory of the other contracting party, the Consul General, Consul or Vice Consul of the nation to
of such Consul General, Consul or Vice Consul, shall, so far as the laws of each country will permit, take charge of the property which the deceased may have left, for the benefit of his lawful heirs and creditors, until an executor or administrator be named by the said Consul General, Consul or Vice Consul, or his Representative.
ARTICLE XI. The citizens of the United-States of America residing in the territories of the Republic of Paraguay and the citizens of the Republic of Paraguay residing in the United States of America shall be exempted from all compulsory military service whatsoever, whether by sea or land, and from all forced loans or military exactions or requisitions, and they shall not be compelled to pay any charges, requisition or taxes other or higher than those that are, or may be, paid by native citizens.
ARTICLE XII. It shall be free for each of the two contracting parties to appoint Consuls for the protection of trade, to reside in the territories of the other party; but before any Consul shall act as such, he shall, in the usual form, be approved and admitted by the Government to which he is sent; and either of the two contracting parties may except from the residence of Consuls, such particular places as either of them may judge fit to be excepted.
The Diplomatic Agents and Consuls of the United States of America in the territories of the Republic of Paraguay, shall enjoy whatever privileges, exemptions and immunities, are or may be there granted to the Diplomatic Agents and Consuls of any other nation whatever;
lic of Paraguay in the United States of America shall enjoy whatever privileges exemptions and immunities are, or may be, there granted to agents of any other nation whatever.
ARTICLE XIII. For the better security of commerce between the citizens of the United States of America and the citizens of the Republic of Paraguay, it is agreed that if, at any time, any interruption of friendly intercourse, or any rupture should unfortunately take place between the two contracting parties, the citizens of either of the said contracting parties, who may be established in the territories of the other, in the exercise of any trade or special employment, shall have the privi.