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Before the English gained a footing in Ireland, try for months, and was at last killed by a the kingdom of Cork

was a separate sovereignty, peasant named Kelly, in a cabin where he had embracing much of the present province of taken shelter. His estates were divided among Munster. It was divided into Desmond, or the captains of Elizabeth's army, Sir Walter South Munster, Muskerry, or West Munster, and Raleigh received 20,000 acres, which he sold Carbery, on the S. W. În 1172 Dermod Mac cheaply to Richard Boyle, afterward earl of Carthy, king of Cork, with the view of aggran- Cork.–JEANNE FITZGERALD, wife of James, 14th dizing himself by the aid of so powerful an earl, lived to an age exceeding 140 years. Her ally, swore fealty to Henry II., but soon after- husband presented her at the court of Edward ward broke his plight and attacked his liege's IV., where she danced with the duke of Gloucesforces. He was overpowered, and Henry, in tor, afterward Richard III. ; she was widowed 1177, bestowed the kingdom on Robert Fitz during the reign of Edward IV., and died in Stephen and Milo de Cogan. Cogan's share, the reign of James I., some time after 1603. At falling ultimately to co-heiresses, was divided be- the age of 140 she travelled from her home at tween Robert Carew, Patrick Courcey, and Mau- Inchiquin, Ireland, by the way of Bristol

, to rice Fitz Thomas. The last was created by the London, to urge some claim against the governEnglish monarch 1st earl of Desmond in 1329. ment. At that time she was quite vivacious By aggressions on the lands of Courcey and and in possession of all her faculties. Sir WalCarew, and by other acquisitions, the estates of ter Raleigh says: “I myself knew her.” (“Histhe Desmonds so increased that the 8th earl tory of the World,” book i., cap. 5.) Bacon was possessor of almost the whole of the former mentions that the old countess of Desmond had kingdom of Cork. This earl exercised rights thrice renewed her teeth. of sovereignty with such a high hand that he DESMOULINS, Benoit CAMILLE, a French was attainted of treason, and beheaded at revolutionist, born at Guise in Picardy in 1762

, Drogheda, Feb. 15, 1467.' His estates, being guillotined in Paris, April 5, 1794. He was a suffered to remain in his family, continued to lawyer in Paris when the revolution broke out; augment until Gerald, the last earl, owned a ter- he ardently adopted its principles, and be ritory extending 150 miles through the counties came one of the favorite orators of the crowd of Waterford, Cork, Kerry, and Limerick, and which gathered at the palais royal to hear the comprising 500,000 acres of tenants' land. These news of the day. On the dismissal of Neckearls never yielded more than a nominal alle- er, July 12, 1789, he mounted a table and giance to the English crown. One of them in in an impassioned speech called the people to the reign of Henry VIII. agreed with Francis the defence of their threatened liberty; he I. of France that he would take up arms when boldly declared that he would not be deterred required, and not lay them down till he had from speaking by fear of the police, and with a conquered one half

of Ireland for himself and loaded pistol in each hand, swore that he would the remainder for Richard de la Pole, the repre- not be taken alive. He advised the patriots to sentative of the house of York. Francis with- wear a green badge as a rallying sign, and as drew from the agreement, leaving the earl to there was not a sufficient quantity of ribbon, he explain it to his sovereign as he best might. gave them the green leaves of the trees in the The country of the Desmonds was Irish in lan- garden. The cry “To arms!" was raised; the guage, habits, and religion. Hence it was deem- crowd seized upon all the arms they could find ed a favorable locality by Philip II. of Spain, in at the gunsmiths', and forming in procession

, the days of Queen Elizabeth, to attempt

the con- carried through the streets the bust of the disquest of Ireland. Accordingly, on July 1, 1578, missed minister in conjunction with that of the å body of Italian troops, under the command then popular duke of Orleans. The

next day the of James Fitz Maurice, brother of the earl of muskets and cannon at the Invalides fell into the Desmond, and accompanied by Saunders, the hands of the people, and on July 14 the Bastile pope's legate, landed in the Desmond country, was taken. Camille, who had given the first

, where they were immediately joined

by Sir John if not the controlling impulse to this insurret of Desmond and James Fitzgerald, other brothers tion, figured conspicuously among the combatof the earl. At first Earl Desmond made some ants

, and at once gained popularity as one of show of resistance, but subsided at length into the most influential democratic leaders. His neutrality. On this

, Lord Justice Pelham sum- popularity was enhanced by a pamphlet, La moned him to surrender his castles to the queen. lanterne aux Parisiens, in which he styled him; Desmond refused, whereon he and all of his self the " attorney-general of the lamp-post." name were proclaimed traitors, Nov. 1, 1579. The success of this publication encouraged him Desmond now raised the standard of revolt, sum

to commence, under the title of Les révolutions moned his people to meet him at Ballyhowra, de France et de Brabant, a newspaper which Cork, to support the Catholic cause, and his commanded a large sale and exercised great independants responded to the call. He seized fluence by its vigor of thought

, sparkling wit on the town of Youghal, and until Nov. 1583, and lively style. Such was the importance of maintained a determined warfare. Being by this periodical, that Mirabeau sought to conciliate after another, he was compelled to seek safety whose support was not useless to the great tiin concealment. He wandered over the coun- bune. Camille had been a schoolmate of Robes

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pierre, and lived on intimate terms with thefuture among French pamphleteers. His Vieux Cor. dictator of the revolution, who was then but an delier was reprinted in 1833. obscure member of the constituent assembly. DESNA, a large river of Russia, which rises He was also acquainted with Marat, the epilep- in the government of Smolensk, flows through . tic editor of L'Ami du peuple; but his bosom those of Orel and Tchernigov, and falls into the friend was Danton, whose energetic character Dnieper a few miles above Kiev. It is a fine entirely controlled the somewhat wavering mind stream, abounding in fish, and navigable for the of the young and brilliant writer. The destinies greater part of its course of 600 m. It has been of both were closely connected from the estab- proposed to open a water communication belishment of the club of the Cordeliers. Camille tween the Caspian and the Black and Baltic was instrumental in the insurrection of Aug. 10, seas by means of a canal connecting this river 1792, and was appointed secretary to the minis- with the river Oka. try of justice when Danton received that office DESNOYERS, AUGUSTE GASPARD Louis from the legislative assembly. He must have Boucher, baron, a French engraver, born in had a share in the massacre of September, but Paris, Dec. 20, 1779, died there, Feb. 15, 1857. he used his influence to preserve the lives of At the age of 20 he received a prize of $400 for several intended victims. With Danton, he was an engraving of Venus disarming Cupid, and in elected to the national convention, and acted 1801 established his reputation by the reproand voted in accordance with his friend's direc- duction of Raphael's Belle jardinière, in the tions. In the contest between the Girondists gallery of the Luxembourg. His most admired and the Montagnards, he contributed to bring productions are copies of that great master's the former into distrust and contempt by his works, and prominent among them is an engravHistoire des Brissotins, & pamphlet in which ing of the " Transfiguration.” He was elected ridicule was skillfully blended with serious a member of the institute in 1816, appointed charges. Satisfied with their fall as a party, he chief engraver to the king in 1825, created baron would have saved them individually, but this was in 1828, and officer of the legion of honor in beyond his power. Both ho and Danton now 1835. tried to bring the convention to a milder policy, DE SOTO. I. A N. W.co. of Miss., bordering and Camille established a journal toward the on Tenn., and bounded N. W. by the Mississippi end of Jan. 1794, Le vieux Cordelier, in which he river; area, 960 sq. m.; pop. in 1850, 19,042, of advocated conciliatory measures with as much whom 9,553 were slaves. The surface is genearnestness as he had urged a contrary course erally level, and occupied chiefly by cotton in his former publication. His eloquent pen plantations. There are extensive swamps in the shone to advantage in the cause of justice and western part. The soil is fertile, and in 1850 mercy. Denouncing the system of proscription, produced 20,278 bales of cotton, 741,519 bushhe demanded the establishment of a committee els of corn, 10,272 lbs. of rice, and 32,907 of of clemency as a preliminary step to clearing the beeswax and honey. There were 22 churches, prisons of the suspected. This generous etfort, and 416 pupils attending public schools. The which he supported by biting satires against county was organized in 1836. Capital, Herthe Montagnards, was answered by accusations nando. II. A N. W. parish of Louisiana, borbrought against him in the club of the Jacobins. dering on Texas, drained by Red and Sabine Robespierre, with hypocritical generosity to- rivers; area, 910 sq. m.; pop. in 1855, 9,703, ward an old friend, defended him on two occa- of whom 5,939 were slaves. By means of Red sions; he represented Camille as a wayward river it has steamboat communication with New child, whose person it was not necessary to in- Orleans. In 1855 the productions were 9,361 jure, but demanded that his writings should be bales of cotton, and 340,034 bushels of Indian burned. “To burn is not to answer,” exclaimed corn. Capital, Mansfield. the headlong journalist; and from that day his DE SOTO, FERNANDO, a Spanish officer, the fate was sealed. He was arrested on the same discoverer of the Mississippi, born at Xeres de night with Danton, arraigned with him before los Caballeros, in Estremadura, in 1500, died on the revolutionary tribunal, sentenced to death, the banks of the Mississippi, June 5, 1542. Of a and with him sent to the scaffold. On his way noble but reduced family, he was enabled by the there, while Danton stood composed and im- favor of Pedrarias Davila to spend several years movable, Camille became almost frantic, strug- at one of the universities, probably that of Sagling with his bonds, and appealing to the peo- ragossa, and distinguished himself in literary ple. His friend vainly motioned him to keep studies, and especially in the athletic accomquiet; he continued to address the crowd, and plishments of knighthood. In 1519.he accomrecalled to their memory all that he had done panied his patron on his second expedition to in their service. “Behold," he cried in despair, America as governor of Darien, and was the most “behold the recompense reserved to the first intrepid opponent of the oppressive administraapostle of the revolution !" His young and tion of that officer. He supported Hernandez in beautiful wife, who had vainly implored his Nicaragua in 1527, who perished by the hand of pardon from the old friendship of Robespierre, Davila, in consequence of not heeding his advice. tried to raise a riot to save him, but she was Withdrawing from the service of Davila, he exarrested,

and suffered death a few days later. plored in 1528 the coast of Guatemala and YucaCamille Desmoulins holds a distinguished rank tan for 700 m., in search of the strait which was

supposed to connect the two oceans. It was by He passed the second winter in the country of special request of Pizarro in 1532 that De Soto the Chickasaws, who in the spring burned his joined him in his enterprise for conquering Peru, camp and their own village, when he attempted with the promise of being appointed second in to force them to carry his baggage. Forty command. Being sent in 1533, with 50 horsemen Spaniards perished in the flames

, and in the night and a few targeteers, to explore the highlands attack. Soon after beginning his march to the of Peru, he encountered and defeated 2,000 In- N. W., a pestilential fever carried off nearly a dians, penetrated through a pass in the moun- score of his men. He reached the Mississippi tains, and discovered the great national road after journeying for 7 days through a wilderwhich led to the Peruvian capital, and was soon ness of forests and marshes, was nearly a month after selected by Pizarro to visit the inca Ata- in constructing 8 large barges to transport bis huallpa as ambassador. After the plot for the army, and having crossed the river went N. to capture of the inca had proved successful, and Pacaha, where he remained from June 19 till the latter had paid an immense sum for ran- July 29. Thence he marched successively 8. W. som, De Soto in vain expostulated with Pizarro and N. W. till he reached the highlands of the for treacherously refusing to release the Peru- White river, in the eastern portion of what is nog vian monarch. He was prominent in the en- the Indian territory. This was the western limit gagements which completed the conquest of of his rambles. He then proceeded S. by the hot Peru, and was the hero of the battle which re- springs of Arkansas, which his companions at sulted in the capture of the metropolis, Cuzco. first supposed to be the fabled fountain of youth, He soon after returned to Spain with a fortune and made his third winter station at Autismque of $500,000; met a flattering reception from on the Washita river. In March and April

, 1642, the emperor Charles V., made a splendid dis- he continued S. along the Washita to the Mis

. play at court, and married the daughter of sissippi, and while in vain attempting to descend Davila, the object of an early attachment. In the banks of the latter, through the bayous and 1536 the belief was entertained that in the vast marshes, he was attacked with a malignant feregion then called Florida was a new El Dorado, ver, and died, after appointing Luis de Moscoso richer than any that had been discovered. Of his successor. “ His soldiers," says Bancroft

, this faith De Soto became the martyr. He pro- “pronounced his eulogy by grieving for their posed to the emperor to undertake the conquest loss; the priests chanted over his body the of Florida at his own expense; and the privi- first requiems that were ever heard on the walege being conceded to him, many Spanish and ters of the Mississippi. To conceal his death, Portuguese cavaliers were ambitious to enroll his body was wrapped in a mantle, and, in the themselves among his followers. With 600 men, stillness of midnight, was silently sunk in the the flower of the peninsula, exclusive of 24 ec- middle of the stream. The wanderer bad crossclesiastics and 20 officers, he set sail from San ed a large part of the continent in search of gold

, Lucar early in April, 1538. After stopping at and found nothing so remarkable as his burial Santiago de Cuba, and then at Havana, where it place." His followers, reduced more than onewas decided that the ladies attached to the ex- half in number, venturing E., were driven backpedition should remain till after the conquest of ward to the river, where they passed the best Florida, he crossed the gulf of Mexico, and an- winter. In the spring of 1543 they embarked chored in the bay of Spiritu Santo (Tampa bay), in 7 boats, and after nearly 3 months the sur May 25, 1539. His route was through a coun- vivors reached the Mexican town of Panuca, try already made hostile by the violence of the now in the department of Vera Cruz, where Spanish invader Narvaez, and he was constantly they dispersed. The wife of De Soto expired deluded by the Indians, whose policy it was to at Havana on the third day after learning his send their unwelcome visitors as far away as fate.—A history of his life and travels, by L A possible by telling them of gold regions at remote Wilmer, was published at Philadelphia in 1868 points. In July, 1539, he sent back all his ships DESPARD, EDWARD MARCUS, an Irish solto Havana. He discovered a Spaniard, Jaan dier, beheaded in London, March 21, 1803. He Ortiz, who had been in slavery from the time was a native of Queen's co., Ireland, a soldier in of Narvaez, and who now served as his inter- the West Indies, and superintendent of the Eng

; preter. He passed the first winter in the coun- lish colony in 'Honduras. In consequence of try of the Appalachians,

E. of the Flint river. complaints made against him he was recaled in Directed then to the N. E., he reached in April

, 1790, but he could never procure an examina1540, the Ogeechee; thence proceeding to the tion into his administration. This made bim S.

, he reached the Coosa, and on Oct. 18 the vil- disaffected, and he was arrested for seditions lage of Mavilla or Mobile, on the Alabama. The conduct, but after his liberation he was only engagement which ensued here was one of the the more inflamed. He seduced some of the

solmost sanguinary battles ever fought between diers, and matured a plan to assassinate the king Europeans and the North American Indians; on his way to open parliament. The conspirathe loss of the Spaniards was 80 men and 42 tors were arrested and tried by special commishorses; that of the Indians

was reported at sion at Southwark, Feb. 5, 1803. There being 2,500 men. Ships had meantime arrived at no doubt of their guilt, Despard and 9 of his asOchus (Pensacola), but De Soto proudly re- sociates suffered death. fused to send back any message of his fortunes. DES PLAINES, or Aux PLAINES (Indian

appellation, She-shik-mah-o), a river of Illinois, in 1802, by Christophe, Dessalines became a rising in the S. E. part of Wisconsin, flowing French general and governor of the southern S. and S. W., and uniting with the Kankakee portion of the island. Here he plunged once at Dresden, to form the Illinois. It is about 150 more into debauchery, but at the same time he m. long, and derives its name from a species of intrigued against Toussaint, and, it is believed, maple called by the French plaine.

secretly betrayed him. When Toussaint's nephew DESSAIS, JOSEPH MARIE, a French general, Belair rose against the tyranny of the French, born in Thonon, Savoy, Sept. 24, 1764, died Oct. Dessalines treacherously enticed him by prom26, 1834. He was a physician at Paris, and in ises of assistance, and had him murdered in 1791 returned to his native country to diffuse cold blood with 300 of his followers. But his democratic principles and organize a corps of loyalty to the French was of short duration. volunteers. He served at the siege of Toulon, Rochambeau, having succeeded Leclerc in the and in Italy under Bonaparte; was elected in chief command of the French army of occupa1798 to the council of 500, where he opposed tion, vied in bloodthirstiness with the savage the coup d'état of the 18th Brumaire; made a negroes. Among others, he tortured to death brigadier-general by Bonaparte in 1803, and, the negro general Maurepas and his whole famin the campaign of 1809 against Austria, a gen- ily. Dessalines resolved upon a terrible retrieral of division, receiving from the emperor the bution. He erected 500 gibbets, and hung half surname of L'intrépide, and the title of count a regiment of French whom he had captured of the empire. Being wounded during the ex- by a bold countermarch. A brief war of exterpedition to Russia, he was put in command of mination followed, and in Dec. 1803, aided by the city of Berlin, and in 1813 was intrusted an English squadron, he definitively expelled with the defence of France on the line of the the French from Hayti. In Jan. 1804, the Alps. In 1814 he was kindly treated by the army elected him governor-general of the new Bourbons, notwithstanding which he joined the republic. For a few months he ruled in a spirit standard of Napoleon after his landing at Cannes, of moderation, and took some wise and just and was imprisoned for 6 months in 1816. Af measures toward a healthy reorganization of ter the revolution of 1830, he was elected com- the commonwealth. But soon his brutal nature mander of the national guards at Lyons. prevailed over his judgment, and he returned to

DESSALINES, JEAN JACQUES, emperor of his favorite occupation of exterminating the Hayti under the name of Jean Jacques I., born whites. In April, 1804, he made an unsuccessful. about 1760, killed Oct. 17, 1806. He was a na- attempt to conquer the Spanish portion of the tive of Guinea, and when a boy he was sold to a island, and after his return he became more French planter whose name he adopted. On the frantic than ever. In imitation of Napoleon, he revolt of 1791, Dessalines joined the insurgent assumed the imperial crown (Dec. 8, 1804), and army, and by energy and shrewdness, though proclaimed a new constitution, which concenentirely uneducated, soon obtained a prominent trated all real power in his own hands. A numposition. He became adjutant-general of the ber of organic laws followed, most of them junegro commander Jean François, who united his dicious, but inefficient, since his recklessness and forces with those of the Spaniards against the eccentricities, bordering on absolute lunacy, French; and when Toussaint L'Ouverture sud- frustrated their execution. His extravagance denly left his Spanish allies and went over to the deranged the finances, his dissoluteness corruptFrench side, Dessalines adhered to his fortunes.ed the morals of all classes. Beside his legitiHaving been raised to the rank of lieutenant- mate wife, he kept 20 concubines, who drew general, he led a successful campaign against the their salary from the public treasury. His thirst mulatto chief Rigaud. The promptness and en- for blood became more and more insatiable. ergy evinced in this movement recommended Suspicious of traitors and assassins, he put to him to Toussaint, who thenceforward always death every one whom he supposed to have any sent him where the utmost severity was consid- independence of character. At last some of his ered necessary. His name spread terror wher- generals entered into a conspiracy against him, ever he went. Thousands of mulattoes were and, entrapping him into an ambuscade, cut him slaughtered, drowned, or shot by his orders. At to pieces. of all fiends in human form who the same time he led a most dissolute life, and have obtained a place in history, Dessalines was enriched himself by extensive robberies perpe- undoubtedly one of the most remarkable. In trated in the guise of legal confiscations. When a slender and hideous frame he united the wildNapoleon sent his brother-in-law, Leclerc, to est passions of the ferocious savage with extrareconquer Hayti, Dessalines conducted a bloody ordinary shrewdness, an undeniable keenness of guerrilla war against the French, to which his- judgment, and a clear statesmanlike knowledge tory scarcely furnishes a parallel. One of his of the men and things he had to deal withi. most remarkable feats was the obstinatė defence However abominable his character may appear, of the town of St. Marc against Gen. Boudet. it is nevertheless true that he understood the When unable to hold the town any longer, he means of accomplishing the independence of burned it down, himself setting fire to his own Hayti better than even Toussaint himself. But palace, butchered all the white inhabitants of he left Hayti a ruined and desolate, though an the place, and likewise all whom he fell in independent state. His widow, to whose inwith on his retreat. Peace having been made fluence are ascribed the few acts of forbearance he exercised toward the whites, died in Go- on the morning of March 20, 1815. He then naives, Aug. 8, 1858, at a very advanced age. retired to his estate near Paris, where he lived

DESSAŬ, or Dessaw, the capital of the Ger- unmolested during the Hundred Days. On the man duchy of Anhalt-Dessau, on the river Mulde, second restoration, he resumed the command of 2 m. from its junction with the Elbe, and on the the national guard, but soon gave it up, being Berlin and Leipsic railway, 67 m. S. W. from Ber- unwilling to support the reactionary policy lin; pop. 12,000. The ducal residence is large, then prevailing. In the chamber of peers he and has a fine park and a picture gallery. The advocated the freedom of the press. On Dec. theatre, the residence of the hereditary prince, 28, 1818, he was appointed to the premiership the council house, the castle church, the govern- and ministry of foreign affairs, receiving about ment building, the gymnasium, St. Mary's church the same time the title of marquis; but the with some pictures by Lucas Cranach the young- king having determined that the electoral law er, and the fine cemetery, are the most attractive of 1817 should be altered, Dessolles resigned his features of the town. There are many scientific, office, but continued to serve as a peer till his artistic, religious, and industrial institutions and death. societies, a commercial school, a large ducal DESTERRO, Nossa SENHORA DO DESTERRO, library, an orthopædic institution, and a bank or SANTA CATHARINA, a city of Brazil, capital with a capital of about $2,000,000. The manu- of the province of Santa Catharina, on the W. factures embrace woollen, linen, and cotton fab- coast of the island of that name; pop. with the rics, musical instruments, hats, leather, and to- adjoining district, 6,000. It has a small bat bacco. An important wool market is held here, excellent and well fortified harbor, and is the and a flourishing trade in grain and other pro- centre of an active commerce, the coffee esduce is carried on. Moses Mendelssohn, the phi- ported hence bearing a high reputation. Arlosopher, was born here in 1729. Dessau was tificial flowers made of fish scales, feathers, noted as early as 1213, and in 1313 had a school beetles' wings, &c., are also important articles independent of the church. In the German rev. of trade. The city bas little or no architectural olution of 1848 it was one of the most demo- beauty, but is a favorite resort for invalids on cratic cities of Germany. Its environs are account of its salubrious climate. adorned with beautiful gardens, which bave been DESTOUCHES, PMLIPPE HÉRICAULT, & reclaimed from sandy wastes.

French dramatist, born in Tours in 1680, died DESSOLLES, JEAN JOSEPH PAUL AUGUSTIN, July 4, 1754. After leading a somewhat adrenmarquis, a French general and statesman, born turous life, he was hospitably entertained at Lauat Auch, Oct. 3, 1767, died Nov. 4, 1828. Hav- sanne by M. de Puysieux, the French envoy to ing distinguished himself in Italy under the Switzerland. His first comedy, Le curieuz iliser command of Bonaparte, he was appointed brig- pertinent, was performed there with great apadier-general, May 31, 1797. A successful ex- plause, and was scarcely less successful when it pedition in Valtelina was rewarded, April 13, appeared at Paris. Some other plays of his

, 1799, with the rank of general of division. among them L'irrésolu, attracted the attention After the defeat of the French at Novi, where of the regent duke of Orleans, who appointed the commander-in-chief, Joubert, was killed, him to several missions, the most important Dessolles ed the army on the Rhine, then being that to London, where in 1717 he accomunder the command of Moreau, and participated panied the abbé, afterward cardinal Dubois in the two campaigns of 1800. He became attach- After his return in 1723, on the sudden death ed to his new commander, and from this period of the regent, he retired to his country seat a coolness seems to have existed between him near Melun, where he wrote a number of comeand Bonaparte. He was, however, appointed dies, the best of which are Le philosophe marié a member of the council of state, and placed and Le glorieur, performed with great success for a while in command of the French army in in 1727 and 1732. His collected works were Hanover, but was soon superseded by Berna- published in 1750, in 4 vols. 4to. dotte. In 1808 he commanded a division in DESTUTT DE TRACY, ANTOINE LOUIS Spain. On the fall of Napoleon in 1814, the pro- CLAUDE, a French philosopher, born at Paray-levisional government appointed him commander- Fresil, near Moulins, in the province of Bourbon. in-chief of the Parisian national guards and the nais, July 20, 1754, died near Paris, March 9, 1836, regular troops in the 1st military district. He The descendant of a noble Scottish family, be was present at the meetings of the allied sover- entered the army, and was a colonel when the eigns at Talleyrand's, to decide upon the gov- revolution broke out. As a deputy to the conernment to be given to France. He strenuously stituent assembly, he advocated liberal reforms opposed the establishment of a regency under while adhering to the moderate party. In 1791 Marie Louise, and on the arrival of Count d'Ar- he retired to his country seat at Auteuil, and tois he received the title of minister of state, devoted his time to philosophical studies. Dur. and was appointed major-general of all the na- ing the reign of terror he was imprisoned, but tional guards of France. When the news of liberated after the 9th Thermidor. The consular Napoleon's landing at Cannes reached Paris, government appointed him a senator, and be Dessolles issued energetic orders to interrupt was subsequently created a count of the empire. the progress of the usurper, and he retained his He published his Éléments d'idéologie in 1801, command until after the departure of the king his Grammaire in 1803, and his Logique in 1805,

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