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and was elected to the French academy in 1808. city is excessively level, rising gently and with He took an active part in the fall of the empire; great uniformity at the rate of about 5 feet in presented, April 2, 1814, in the senate, the mo- the mile. The Detroit river was visited by the tion of forfeiture against Napoleon; and entered French as early as 1610, but the first permanent the royalist chamber of peers, where he always settlement where the city of Detroit now stands voted with the majority. His Traité de la vo- was made in 1701 by a party under Antoine de lonté et de ses effets appeared in 1815. He la Motte Cadillac. It fell into the hands of the also wrote an Essai sur le génie et les ouvrages British in 1760, and was ceded with the counde Montesquieu, followed by a Commentaire sur try to the United States by the treaty of peace l'Esprit des lois. A disciple of Locke, Condil- of 1783. Nearly the whole town was būrned lac, and Hobbes, he belongs to the sensational or in 1805, after which its plot was changed under materialist school of philosophy. His theory of an act of congress in 1806. A portion of the language is considered a masterpiece of analysis. city is regularly laid out, the streets running

DETMOLD, the capital of the little sovereign parallel with the river, and crossing each other principality of Lippe-Detmold, in Germany, on at right angles thereto, though there are numerthe river Werra and on the E. slope of the ous irregularities. The streets and avenues vary Teutoburg mountains; pop. 4,716. În the vi- in width from 50 to 200 feet, the most of them cinity was fought the celebrated battle in which being either 60 or 66 feet, but some are 80, some Arminius destroyed the army of Varus, A. D. 100, some 120, and a few avenues 200 feet in 9, and also a battle between Charlemagne and width. The inhabitants are supplied with water the Saxons, in 783.

taken from the river opposite the upper part of DETROIT, the chief city of Michigan, ond the city, and raised by means of a hydraulic escapital of Wayne co., situated on the N. W. side tablishment and steam forcing pumps into a large of the Detroit river or strait, extending along reservoir about half a mile back from the river, the river nearly 4 m., of which over 2 m. pre- sufficiently elevated to carry it in iron pipes to sents a city-like appearance. The centre of all parts of the city. Buildings are in course the city is about 7 m. from Lake St. Clair and of erection (1859) for a court house, custom 18 m. from Lake Erie, 80 m. E. S. E. of Lan- house, and post office. The Michigan insurance sing, 302 m. W. of Buffalo, and 526 m. from company bank is a fine building of shell limeWashington; lat. 42° 20' N., long. 82° 58' W. stone, which presents on its surface many beauThe river runs from Lake St. Clair to a point tiful petrifactions. The firemen's hall, odd feljust below the city, in a direction about 30° lows' hall, and some of the public school houses $. of W., and from thence it runs nearly S. to are also fine buildings. There are about 30 Lake Erie, a distance of 15 m. The original churches, of which several are large and splenbed of the river, before it was narrowed by did ; many spacious and beautiful stores; some docking out, was from 48 to 52 chains in width; large and elegant dwelling houses, and several but from the docks of the central portion of the extensive hotels. There are various charitable city to the opposite docks of Windsor, in Cana- institutions, and in 1857 there were 35 public da, it is only about half a mile. The depth, in and 22 private schools. There are 3 daily newsJune, 1841, varied from 12 to 48 feet, averag- papers, each of which publishes a semi-weekly ing about 32 feet. The descent from Lake St. and weekly edition; there are also 5 other weekly Clair to Lake Erie is about 6 feet, or 3 inches to newspapers, a monthly medical journal, a monththe mile. The velocity of the current in the ly journal devoted to education, and 2 semichannel opposite the city is about 24 m. per monthly“ bank-note detectors." The following hour. It rises and falls with the surfaces of table shows the increase of the population: the great lakes of which it is a connecting link, the average annual variation being only about 2 feet, and the extreme variation, from

1,442 1854.

2,222 1855, estimated at. 51,000 Feb. 1819, when it was the lowest, to July,

59,000 1838, when it was the highest ever known, was

70,000 only about 6 feet. The waters of the river and

.13,065 | lakes rise during a succession of wet seasons, In 1858 there were about 12,000 to 16,000 Irish, and fall during a succession of dry ones. The an equal number of Germans, and about 4,000 Detroit river is so deep, and its current so French.—The U. S. government made 5 great strong and uniform, that it keeps itself clear, leading roads (post roads) in Michigan while and its navigation is not affected (as the Ohio, it was a territory, all diverging from Detroit. Mississippi, and most other rivers are) by floods, The Michigan central railroad was finished to droughts, sand bars, trees, sawyers, rocks, or Ypsilanti, 30 m. from Detroit, in 1837; to Ann dams of ice.—Where the principal part of the Arbor, 38 m., in 1839; to Kalamazoo, 145 m., in city is situated, the ground rises gradually from 1845; and to Chicago, 282 m., in 1851. The the river to the height of from 20 to 30 feet, at railroad from Detroit to Toledo (60 m.) was coma distance of 15 to 30 rods from the river bank; pleted in 1857, connecting at Monroe with the it then falls off a little, and again rises gradual- Michigan southern road. The Detroit and Milly to the height of 40 to 50 feet above the river, waukee roa from Detroit to Lake Michigan, which renders the drainage very good. The opposite Milwaukee, was opened for travel in whole country for more than 20 m. back of the 1858; and a road from Detroit to the foot of

Pop. Year.
770 1850.

Pop. 21,019 40,378

Year. 1810. 1820. 1930. 1834 1840. 1845.

4,969 1836..
9,102 1858.

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Articles.

1851.

1858.

231,040

Vessels.

1856.

1&st.

Steamers.

10

1

1

83

Lake Huron, opposite Port Sarnia, the termi- foreign imports $1,139,791 64. The imports by nation of the Grand Trunk railway in Canada, railway of flour and grain in 1857 and 1858 were will be finished in the course of 1859.-Detroit as follows: is the great concentrating point of the produce, commerce, banking, and heavy business of the whole state. There are numerous large ware- Flour, bbls.

482,192 houses on the river, beside the great freight Wheat, bushels.

650,674 $39,704

447,219 depot of the Central railroad, which is 800 feet Oats,

196,564 150.155 long and 100 feet wide. The retail trade of the city is very large, and the wholesale busi- The number of vessels built in the Detroit colleoness has become extensive also. Nearly all the tion district during the fiscal years 1856–7, endmerchants in the upper lake region, as well as ing June 30, with their aggregate tonnage and in the interior of the state, make many of their the total tonnage of the district, are as follows: purchases in Detroit, and a large proportion of them buy all their goods there. The largest branch of industry is the sawing of lumber. There are

Ships and barks.. on the river within the city limits 9 large steam

Brigs saw mills, which cut from 3,000,000 to 8,000,

Schooners 000 feet each per annum, making in the whole Sloops and boats... about 40,000,000 feet annually of pine lumber, Total number built. the logs being floated down to the mills from Tonnage of do..

7,626 6,764 Tonnage of district..

39,659 Lake Huron and the creeks and streams which fall into the St. Clair river. Ship and boat The assessed valuation for purposes of taxation building has also been a very large and impor- was, in the latter part of 1858, $16,360,000, with tant branch of business. The Michigan central a city debt of about $300,000. railroad company have an extensive workshop for DETROIT RIVER. See DETROIT. the manufacture of cars, and for repairing their DEUCALION, king of Phthia, in Thessaly, locomotive engines. The Detroit locomotive and son of Prometheus and Clymene. Accordworks are connected with a large foundery, ma- ing to ancient tradition, being, forewarned by chine shop, and boiler factory, for the manufac- his father of an approaching deluge, he built a ture of locomotive and other engines, and the ship in which he and his wife Pyrrha were casting of mill irons and machinery of various saved from an inundation which destroyed all kinds. There are many other establishments, the rest of mankind. When the waters sublarge and small, for all kinds of machine work, sided, their vessel rested on Mount Parnassus, and brass and iron casting, beside shops for and their first care was to consult the oracle of working in wood, making sash, blinds, doors, Themis as to how the world should be repeopled. casings, &c.; 2 steam pail factories, one steam Being advised to throw behind their backs the flouring mill, 2 large tanneries, and several brew- bones of their great mother, and interpreting moeries. Two miles below the city works have ther to mean the earth, they cast stones behind been erected and in operation several years for them, from which sprang up men and women. smelting native copper and copper ore from the DEUTERONOMY (the second law; Gr. der shores of Lake Superior; 10 m. below, a blast repos, second, vouos, law), the 5th book of the furnace and rolling mill have been in operation Pentateuch, containing the history of what passseveral years. The furnace is employed in smelt- ed in the wilderness during about 5 weeks (from ing ironstone from the upper peninsula. From the beginning of the 11th month to the 7th day 10 to 15 m. from the south shore of Lake Supe- of the 12th month), in the 40th year after the rior there are several hills of ironstone, very departure of the Israelites from Egypt. In it rich in the finest quality of iron, which will fur- Moses recites to the people the events which nish an inexhaustible supply. 'The following had taken place in their history, and explains table shows the industrial progress of the city again the law which had been received at Sinai

. from 1855 to 1857 :

DEUX PONTS (Ger. Zweibrücken, two bridges), a canton and town in the circle of the Palatinate, Bavaria; pop. of the canton, about 150,000; of the town, 7,920. The canton was

formerly an independent duchy, and in 1795 Taverns.

came by inheritance into the possession of the Mechanic shops..

king of Bavaria. During the wars of the French Stationary steam engines..

revolution it passed into the hands of the Forwarding houses. Iron machine shops.

French, to whom its possession was confirmed

by the treaty of Luneville in 1801. In 1814 it Breweries Bakeries....

was finally restored to Bavaria. Much of the Fire engine houses.

canton is mountainous, but in the valleys and Flour mills.....

on the lower hills agriculture is carried on to a

considerable extent. It has extensive forests, The estimated value of the leading articles of and iron, copper, and freestone are found. export in 1857 was $10,996,399, and of the total Much attention is also paid to the raising of

Establishments.

1865.

1856.

1857.

Stores.
Groceries.

Offices.

835 260 49 175 843 46 24 10

7 17 21

883
247

52
236
899
50
26
11

8 20 27

420 280

56 255 421 69 29 10 11 23 28 18 5

Iron founderies.

Saw mills..

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horses, cattle, and sheep.-The town of Deux ferior devatas, who are ministers to the higher Ponts was the capital of the ancient duchy, and gods, such as the 12 Adityas or forces of the once possessed a handsome ducal palace, which sun; the Maruts or winds, the celestial musiwas partially destroyed by the French, and has cians ; in short, endless motley hosts with varisince been converted into a church. The able attributes. (See BRAHMA.) name of the town, which in Latin is Bipontium, DEVANAGARI. See SANSORIT. was given to it on account of the two bridges DEVAPRAYAGA, a town of Gurhwal, Hinacross the Erlbach, near the old castle of the dostan, situated at the place where the rivers dukes. The Bipont editions of the Greek and Bhagirathi and Alakananda unite and form the Latin classics were commenced here in the lat- Ganges. This portion is considered by the ter part of the 18th century.

Hindoos as the most sacred part of that holy DEV (Sanscrit, div, to play, desire, shine, be river, and is believed by them to have the propmad or proud, tease, &c.; Slavic, div-iti, to erty of washing away sins. The town is not wonder ; derir, wild), the Parsee name of the large, and is inhabited principally by Brahmins, peetiare Ahriman, or evil-breeding principle, who are supported chiefly by the contributions of and of his progeny of night, death, darkness

, pilgrims. It is built on an eminence about 100 drought, dulness, dearth, dirt, negation, and star- feet above the river, and contains a celebrated vation. The devs were the producers of these Hindoo temple, built of large stones joined toand of all other dire and dreadful calamities, as gether withont the use of mortar. well as the seducers of men to all moral evils; DEVENTER, or DEWENTER, a fortified city the prototypes of the devils of Christian history of Holland, province of Overyssel, on the Yssel, For the daßodos (scatterer, confounder) itself 8 m. N. from Zutphen; pop. in 1850, 14,378. It seems to be of recent formation in this sense, has narrow streets, spacious market places, bandhaving been unknown to the ancient Greeks. some public promenades, a large town house, a As Ahriman, though akin to-Ormuzd, both being court house, a prison, a weigh-house, 5 churches, the offspring of Zervane Akerene (Slav. trvanie, a synagogue, various literary and educational duration, a privative, and Slav. kraj, margin), institutions, 6 hospitals, and an orphan asylum. or endless time, was his antagonist, so were the It has an excellent harbor, a prosperous trade, 6 arch-devs opposed to as many Amshaspands and extensive manufactories of Turkey carpets, representing the principles of light, life, love, stockings, iron ware, &c. It exports annually law, right existence, and happiness; both being about 600,000 lbs. of butter. also the prototypes of the 7 choirs of devils DE VERE, MAXIMILIAN SCHELE, professor and of angels. Beside the regular army of evil of modern languages and belles-lettres in the spirits, rushing down from the desert of Gobi university of Virginia, born near Wexio, in upon the south-western people of Ormuzd, com- Sweden, Nov. 1, 1820. He first entered the pelling them to leave their native land, Eeriene military and afterward the diplomatic service Veedjo (Iran, pure), under the guidance of of Prussia. Emigrating finally to the United Jemshid, and to change their settlements 13 States, he was appointed in 1844 professor in times, there were especial devs of falsehood, the university of Virginia, a position which he envy, putridity, and all other evil things, dis- continues to occupy. Prof. De Vere has been tinguished by specific names, such as Eshem, an industrious and extensive writer, as well as a the man-killer; Akuman, the ugliest of all; laborious student and teacher. His contribuEpeosho, the destroyer of waters in the shape tions upon a great variety of subjects, of a hisof a dragon-star (probably a comet), &c. The torical, literary, and scientific character, have Darudjs, a particular sort of devs, opposed to appeared in the British quarterly reviews, the the good Izeds, or secondary good genii, are "Southern Literary Messenger," in "Putnam's" also conspicuous. The ever renewed contest of and "Harper's” magazines, and elsewhere. He the two principles will end with the destruc- has published 2 volumes : the first in 1853,"Outtion of the earth by the comet Gurzsher. The lines of Comparative Philology;" the second cosmogony and theology of the Parsees is con- in 1856, “Stray Leaves from the Book of Natained in the Zend Avesta.

ture.” The former is a very full and compreDEVA (Lat. deus, divus), among the Aryans hensive treatise, now in use as a text book at in general

, an epithet of divine persons and the university of Virginia; the latter a graceful things; hence often opposed to the dev of the and pleasing series of papers, dealing with a Parsees. It is commonly applied to the goddess number of curious and interesting subjects, Durgă, the wife of Siva, of terrific form and chiefly in the department of the minute naturalirascible temper. Devakātmajā is the mother ist. The miscellaneous articles contributed by of Krishna, who is also named Devāki. Deva- Professor De Vere to the periodicals mentiontarū is the holy fig-tree, belonging to Sverga ed above have been valuable and interesting; or paradise. Devati denotes a deity; Deva- among them we refer especially to a series of datta, the younger brother of Buddha, who is papers in the “Southern Literary Messenger," called Devadattárraja (Deodatus senior). Deva- entitled “Glimpses of Europe in 1848,” which deva is a name of Brahma; Devapati is Indra, are remarkable for political insight and vivid the god of the sky; Devayajna is the Homa coloring. He has made himself master of Eng or burnt sacrifice; Devarishi, a celestial saint. lish, and writes it with much perspicuity, force, There are a great many classes or choirs of in- and elegance.

66

DEVEREUX, ROBERT, 1st earl of Essex, born wounded in the knee, and the queen is said about 1540, died in Dublin, Sept. 22, 1576. He to have expressed her gratification that some succeeded his grandfather early in the title of one had taken him in hand, as otherwise there Viscount Hereford, and recommended himself to would be no ruling him. In 1590 he married the Queen Elizabeth by his bravery and good con- daughter of Sir Francis Walsingham, the widow duct in suppressing the rebellion of the earls of of Sir Philip Sidney, and in the following year Northumberland and Westmoreland, in 1569. had command of a fruitless expedition in BritFor his service in driving them into Scotland tany against the Spaniards, who were attempthe received the garter and the earldom of Essex. ing its conquest. Wben, in 1596, alarm was Afterward, in 1573, he was persuaded to under- excited by the hostile preparations in the Span. take an expedition against Ireland, in company ish harbors, he was joined with Lord Admiral with other noblemen and gentlemen. In consid- Howard in command of the expedition against eration of his contract to furnish half the ex- Cadiz, and entered the city by land soon after pense of the enterprise, he was to have one-half the engagement in the harbor, in which 13 of the colony as soon as it was established. The Spanish ships of war were taken or destroyed. expedition was directed against the Irish prov. The intrigues of the Cecils, who had regarded ince of Ulster, but in its prosecution Esser was Essex with jealousy from his first introduction subjected to many trials and disappointments, to at court, caused him to be coolly received on the desertion of his friends, and inability to his return; but he quickly recovered favor, the carry out his plans. He was obliged to make queen preferring

him as an accomplished courtier peace with O'Neal, when, by continuing the and Sir Robert Cecil as a man of business. Two war, he had the fairest prospects of driving him subsequent expeditions which he condacted out of the country. Harassed with his difficul- against Spanish shipping, in one of which Lord ties, he retired to England, but was again in- Thomas Howard and Sir Walter Raleigh were bis duced to return, with the title of earl marshal seconds, met with little success. The queen reof Ireland and the promise of support and assist- ceived him with frowns and reproaches, and he ance. As these promises were but poorly kept, retired to Wanstead; nor would he be pacified he was overcome with grief, and the agitation by her acknowledgment that the charges against of his mind threw him into a fatal dysentery. him were unfounded, but after a long negotisThere was suspicion of poison, which was not tion he accepted the office of hereditary earl diminished by the marriage, soon after, of his marshal as indemnity for the promotion that bad countess to the earl of Leicester.

been given to his rivals. In 1598 he quarrelled DEVEREUX, ROBERT, son of the preceding, with the queen about the appointment of deputy 2d earl of Essex, born at Netherwood, in Here- in Ireland, and when she boxed him on the ear, fordshire, Nov. 10, 1567, executed in the court of and bade him “ go and be hanged,” for turning the tower, Feb. 25, 1601. He succeeded to his his back to her in presence of her ministers, be title in his 10th year, and in 1578 was sent by swore that he would not endure such an affront his guardian Lord Burleigh to Trinity college, even from Henry VIII. himself, and withdref Cambridge, where after 4 years he took the from court. Only a formal reconciliation Ess degree of master of arts. He retired to his seat ever effected. In 1599 the province of Ulster at Lampsie, in South Wales, but appeared at was in rebellion, and Essex, invested with an court in his 17th year, and his youth, address, usual powers, accepted the lord-lieutenantoy of and spirit soon captivated Elizabeth. In 1585 Ireland. His campaign resulted only in a temhe accompanied the earl of Leicester to Holland, porary armistice, and completed his ruin. He and displayed his personal courage in the bats returned in basté, retired from his first andience tle of Zutphen, in which Sir Philip Sidney fell with a cheerful countenance, but was imme mortally wounded. In 1587 he was appointed diately ordered to consider himself a prisoner in to the honorable post of master of the horse, and his own house, and was for a time delivered to in the following year the queen ostentatiously the lord keeper to be kept in “ free custody." showed her favor for him while reviewing the After months of hesitation, both on his own army at Tilbury, created him captain-general of part and that of Elizabeth, he at length conthe cavalry, and conferred on him the honor of ceived the plan of forcibly banishing his enethe garter. He succeeded Leicester as prime fa- mies from her majesty's council. At the besd vorite, and his attendance was constantly requir- of a force of 80 knights or gentlemen, and about ed at court. In 1589, when an expedition against 200 other persons attached to him by friendship Portugal was undertaken by Drake and Norris, or fear, he made his way into the city, but was Essex suddenly disappeared from court, followed disappointed in expecting the people to rise in the armament, and joined it on the coast of his favor; he completely failed in his design, Portugal, where he was a leader in taking the and took refuge in Essex house, where he was castle of Peniche and in advancing upon Lisbon. besieged and forced to surrender. He was comThough he had departed without the permission mitted to the tower, tried for treason, condemnof the queen, he was quickly reconciled with ed, and executed, the queen reluctantly and ir. her after his return, and at once assumed a resolutely signing the warrant. He was an sesuperiority over Sir Walter Raleigh and Sir complished scholar, a patron of literature, and Charles Blount, the rival competitors for royal the most frank and impetuous of the politicians favor. He was challenged by Blount and of his time. He erected á monument to Spen

ser, gave an estate to Bacon, and was the friend of his infirence. As sovereign of the demons, of Wotton and other men of learning.

he figured prominently in the practice of magic DEVEREUX, ROBERT, son of the preceding, and in many of the poetical legends of the mid3d earl of Essex, born in London in 1592, dle ages. In the mysteries he was often repredied in the same city, Sept. 14, 1646. He was sented on the stage, with black complexion, educated at Eton and at Merton college, Oxford. flaming eyes, sulphuric odor, horns, tail, hooked He succeeded to his title in 1603, and in his nails, and cloven hoof. Milton in the character 15th year was married to Lady Frances Howard, of Satan, and Klopstock in that of Abbadonna, who was a year younger than himself. He pro- have personified the devil as a fallen angel, still ceeded to the university and thence to the conti- bearing traces of his former dignity amid the nent, while his wife remained at court, and num- disfigurements caused by sin. The Mephistobered Prince Henry and Rochester (afterward pheles of Goethe is a more malignant character, earl of Somerset) among her admirers. A di- and chuckles in anticipating the ultimate ruin vorce ensued between her and the earl of Essex, which he is preparing by his arts.—The Yezidis, on the plea of his natural incapacity, and she a singular race found in Koordistan and Ar: was soon after married to Rochester. Essex menia, are perhaps the only acknowledged wore led a solitary life in his country house, till in shippers of the devil. They seem to have once 1620 he raised a troop and served under the professed Christianity, then Mohammedanism, elector palatine in the wars of the Nether- and now risk their destiny on devilism. Adlands. He was engaged in several campaignsmitting that the mighty angel Satan, the chief abroad, and as vice-admiral commanded a fruit- of an angelic host, at present has a quarrel with less expedition sent by England against Spain. God, they yet believe that a reconciliation will His second marriage resulted unhappily and in hereafter

take place, and that he will be restored a divorce. At the outbreak of the civil war he to his high estate in the celestial hierarchy. This was appointed lord general by the parliament, is the foundation of their hope, and they esteem laid siege to Portsmouth, and was proclaimed å their chance for heaven a better one than if traitor by Charles. He fought against the king they trusted to their own merits or to the merits at Edgehill (1642), captured Reading (1643), of the leader of any other religion whatsoever. advanced into Cornwall, and, after refusing to (See DEMONS.)-Among the most complete negotiate with the royalists, met with a succes- theological treatises on the subject are those of sion of disasters which forced his army to capit- Mayer, Historia Diaboli (2d ed., Tübingen, ulate, he himself escaping in a boat to Plymouth. 1780); Semler, Versuch einer biblischen DämonHe repaired to London, where a parliamentaryologie (Halle, 1785); and Schulz, Untersuchung deputation waited on him in honor of his faith- über die Bedeutung des Worts Teufel und Satan ful services. He aga¡n raised a corps, but ill in der Bibel.—The devil, as the ideal of evil, vice, health soon obliged him to quit his command. craft, cunning, and knavery, has played a promAs early as 1644 he suspected Cromwell of a inent part in literature. The following are exdesign to obtain the supreme command. of the amples : Hocker, Wider den Bann-Teufel (Magarmy, abolish the house of lords, and erect a deburg, 1564); Musculus, Wider den Ehe-Teufel new government according to his own princi- (Frankfort, 1566); Fabricius, Der heilige, kluge, ples. He therefore urged his impeachment be- und gelehrte Teufel (Eislingen, 1567); Luberti, fore the house of lords, and Cromwell took re- Fast-Nachts-Teufel (Lübeck, 1573); Brandvenge by proposing the self-denying ordinance," müller, Der Geiz-Teufel (Basel, 1579); Musāus, by which members of both houses were exclud- Melancholischer Teufel (l'ham, 1572), and Speed from all offices, whether civil or military. culativischer Teufel (Magdeburg, 1579); the This measure having passed, Essex ceased to be Theatrum Diabolorum (Frankfort, 1565, cona parliamentary general, but for his services taining 20 old German writings similar to the £10,000 per annum was voted to him out of preceding); Velez de Guevara, El diabolo cothe sequestered estates of the loyalists. He cuelo (Barcelona, 1646); Damerval, Le livre de died in the next year, and was interred in West- la diablerie (Paris, 1508); Le diable bossu, Le minster abbey, the houses of parliament express- diable femme, Le diable pendu et dépendu, Le ing their respect for his memory by attending diable d'argent, Le diable bubillard (all early his funeral.

in the 18th century); Le diable confondu DEVIL (Gr. daßolos, scatterer or accuser), (the Hague, 1740); Le diable hermite (Amsterin Jewish and Christian theology, the sov- dam, 1741) ; Le Sage, Le diable boiteux (Paris, ereign spirit of evil. The doctrine of the fa- 1755); Frédéric Soulie, Mémoires du diable thers of the church, founded upon certain pas- (Paris, 1844); the "Parlyament of Deuylles," sages of the Scriptures, makes him the leader printed by Wynkin de Worde (1509); the “Wyll of a rebellion in the angelic world, the enemy of the Denyll and Last Testament;" the "Devof God, the author and constant promoter of ill's White Boyes” (1644); “Devil turned Roundsin, now suffering chastisement for his crimes, head” (London, 1642); the “Devill of Mascon" and destined to eternal punishment. Though (Oxford, 1658); and Defoe, the "Political Hiscalled the prince of this world, and though all tory of the Devil, as well Ancient as Modern" heathendom was the effe his agency, yet (London, 1726). his power was broken by the work of Christ, so DEVIL-FISH, a cartilaginous fish of the ray that Christians can rise superior to the might family, and the genus cephaloptera (Dumóril).

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