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production of dew were imperfectly compre- to reflect the heat that radiates from the surhended previous to the researches of Dr. Wells, face, and turn it back, so that the requisite difand the publication in 1814 of his essay upon ference of temperature between the surface and the subject. This treatise, pronounced by Dr. the air can no longer exist. Any other overThomson to be “one of the most beautiful ex- shadowing object, as a tree or a bush, has the amples of inductive reasoning in the English same effect as the cloud; and the gardener, fearlanguage," presents in clear form the various ing that when the dew is changed to hoar frost phenomena as observed by him for two suc- the results of this radiation may reach upon the cessive years in the vicinity of London. The plants the freezing temperature, throws over observations are criticized by Sir John Leslie them a thin sheet or mat, which retains the radifor want of address and delicacy in the ex- ating heat as it is retained by a cloud. Numerous periments, and omission to make use of the observations have been made upon the relative hygrometer and pyroscope ; and he expresses capacity of metals and other substances to receive much regret that Dr. Wells should have sought dew. It is probable that they may be arranged to explain the production of the cold by the in the same order as that which would repreaid of the “very loose, cambrous, and vision- sent the relative rapidity at which they would ary hypothesis of M. Prevost of Geneva, con- be cooled down when exposed under a clear sky. cerning what is gratuitously called radiant This rate of cooling would evidently vary in the heat." According to Prof. Leslie, the low tem- same substance according to its structure and perature of the bodies upon which the dew col- the smoothness or roughness of its surface. lects is induced by the descent of cold air, which Twigs and bushes change their temperature is precipitated in distinct pulsations, determined much more rapidly than the same material by the application of the ætheriscope, by which would in a solid block. The polished surfaces their intensity also is measured. Two requisites of metals receive less dew than other subare essential, it appears, for the abundant pre- stances; and bodies laid upon them lose in part cipitation of dew; one is the saturation of the their capacity for receiving this deposit by reaatmosphere with moisture, and the other a son of the contact. Probably the worst conchilled surface to condense it. The atmosphere ductors of heat as a general rule, other circumis likely to contain the most moisture for its stances of texture, smoothness, &c., being the temperature after rains, when the air is cooled, same, receive the most dew. It is deposited and abundant evaporation is going on from ob- freely upon glass. The electrical condition of jects upon the surface, and through the pores these objects has no influence upon their colof the soil. This evaporation tends to chill the lecting dew. The quantity of dew which has surfaces from which it is taking place, and the gathered in a single night has been so great, blades of grass and all shrubs and light bodies that it could be determined by the rain gauge. Dear the ground assume a much lower tempera- Dr. Dalton estimates the amount precipitated ture than that of the air above them. Dr. Wells annually in England to be 5 inches. In some states that this difference of temperature be- countries it is so copiously produced, that the tween the grass and the air 4 feet above the want of rains such as fall in other regions is not ground amounts in clear and still nights to 8° seriously felt by the vegetation. Along portions or go, and in one instance he observed a dif- of the western coast of both North and South ference of 14°; but in cloudy nights the grass America rain clouds are rarely seen in many was sometimes as warm as the air. Bodies of years; the Cordilleras have stripped the air passa filamentous structure, like cotton, flax, hair, ing over them in the trade winds of nearly all silk, gossamer, &c., and of a downy nature, as its moisture, and the pleasantly cool and clear swan's down especially, are particularly subject nights along the Pacifio coast are particularly to be thus affected, and the deposit of dew first favorable for the deposition of dew. In the dry takes place upon them. Each growing plant regions of Palestine, according to Maundrell, the has its own peculiar power of condensing moist- dew gathering upon the tents wets them as if it ure, which is no doubt proportioned to its re- had rained all night. The great deserts alone quirements of this refreshing agent. When the receive no moisture by rain or by dews. Their rays of the sun cease to strike directly upon the heated surface presents no cool object to arrest surface, the dew-gathering objects soon mani- any vapor that may pass over it; and the fall of fest the want of that temperature which dur- the temperature of this surface can rarely reach ing the heat of the day had kept them above the a point at which the little moisture contained in dew point. If no wind is stirring to mix the the air above could be so condensed as to satuair and produce uniformity of temperature, the rate it. The vapors of the Mediterranean may blades of grass may exhibit moisture upon their be swept by the Etesian winds over the sandy surface before the sun has reached the horizon, plains of Sahara, but the clouds are no sooner and soon after having passed it drops are likely touched by the búrning rays reflected from these to collect. If it be a cool night of spring or than they disappear like the morning mists beautumn, succeeding a hot day, the deposition fore the rising sun. of dew is likely to increase as the night becomes DEW, Thomas RODERIO, an American writer colder; and in the latter half more is precipi- on government, history, and political economy, tated than in the early part of the night. Should born in King and Queen co., Va., Dec. 5, 1802, clouds gather, the process ceases, these seeming died in Paris, France, Aug. 6, 1846. He was
graduated at William and Mary college, and eagerly welcomed for the richness and variety began the study of the law; but his health of his conversation. In the summer of 1846 be failing, he spent 2 years in the south of Europe, married, and immediately afterward embarked in the autumn of 1827 was elected professor with his bride for a short European tour. He of political economy, history, and metaphysics lived only to reach Paris, and died there sodin William and Mary college, and in 1836 was deply on the night of his arrival. His remains made president of that institution. In 1829 repose in the cemetery of Montmartre. he published his “Lectures on the Restrict- DEWEES, WILLIAM Potts, an American phy. ive System,” which had been delivered be- sician, professor of obstetrics and diseases of fore his college class. It was brought out at a women and children in the university of Penn. moment when feeling ran high on the subject sylvania, born at Pottsgrove, Penn., May 5, 1768, of the tariff, between protectionists and free- died in Philadelphia, May 18, 1841. His greattraders; and though emanating from the closet grandfather, who was a Swede, was one of the of a thinker removed from the agitations of po- early settlers on the banks of the Delaware litical warfare, it took a strong hold on the pub- river, before the arrival of William Penn. The lic mind, and the subsequent adoption of the father of Dr. Dewees died while the subject of compromise of 1832 may be attributed in part this notice was yet young; and being left withto its silent influence. About the same time, out any pecuniary ineans, he was emphatically a serious, and it was thought at first alarming the architect of his own fortune. He attended rebellion of the slave population was quelled several courses of lectures at the university of in Southampton co., Va. So great were the Pennsylvania, and in 1789, without taking any terrors inspired by this event, that, combining formal degree, commenced the practice of med with a preexistent desire to abolish slavery on icine at Abington, Penn. The degree of M.D. the part of the leading men of the common- was at a subsequent period conferred on him by wealth, they led to an able and protracted de- the university. The yellow fever, which visited bate in the Virginia legislature, in which the Philadelphia in the summer and autumn of diversity of sentiment was by no means so 1793, having sadly thinned the ranks of the great upon the policy of emancipation as with physicians there, in December of that year Dr. respect to the mode in which this should be Dewees resolved upon selecting this new and effected. At this juncture, Mr. Dew's essay enlarged field for his labors. Here he achieved on "Slavery " appeared. The change of opin- for himself a high and enduring reputation, ion it brought about was extraordinary and in- more especially in that important departinent stantaneous. Whatever may be thought of to which be devoted particular attention, midthe positions taken by the writer, it must be wifery, previously much neglected in America admitted by all that he sustained them with To no one in this country is the medical progreat ability, and it is certain that the essay set fession more indebted for its progress in this at rest, at that time, the question of emancipa- branch of the science than to Dr. Dewees. In tion in Virginia. Mr. John Quincy Adams de- 1812, being threatened with a pulmonary atfeoclared that this essay inaugurated a new era in tion, he relinquished the practice of his profes the history of the country, and it is believed sion, and for the 5 subsequent years derated that the pro-slavery doctrines now so generally himself to the severe physical labor of agrientertained in the southern states of the Union culture, at Phillipsburg, Penn. In 1817, boware chiefly due to the moral weight of the novel ever, he returned to the field of his former argument in favor of domestic servitude. When triumphs. Subsequently he published - Inacthe “Southern Literary Messenger" was estab- gural Essays,” “Medical Essays,” “System of lished in the year 1834, Mr. Dew became one Midwifery," of which latter 12 editions have of its regular contributors, and published in been printed; in 1825, “A Treatise on the its pages a series of papers on the distinguish- Physical and Medical Treatment of Children" ing characteristics of the sexes, which attracted and in 1826, "A Treatise on Diseases of Femuch attention. But his most elaborate work males," of which 2 last named volumes 10 eliwas published in New York, in 1853, 7 years tions have been printed. His last systematie after his death, under the title of “A Digest of work was his “Practice of Medicine," which the Laws, Customs, Manners, and Institutions was published in 1830. In 1826 he was elected of the Ancient and Modern Nations.” It was adjunct professor, and in 1834 professor of obmodestly called by the author “ Notes on His- stetrics and diseases of women and children in tory," and had been previously printed in sheets, the university of Pennsylvania. In this latter though in an unfinished state, for the use of his year, although attacked by paralysis, he was classes in college. It is a treatise on the history not prevented from delivering the full course of the world from the earliest ages down to the of lectures for the season of 1834–5. At the first French revolution, and deals more with the commencement of the following year he was philosophy of history than the mere relation of obliged to resign, and to seek a more genial events, but it exhibits all the best traits of the climate. After spending one winter ia Cuba author's mind. In person, Mr. Dew was tall and and the following summer in the North, he setlithe, his temperament was nervous, and histled in Mobile. About a year before his death movements were somewhat awkward and con- he returned to Philadelphia, where he rezided strained; yet in the social circle he was always when he died.
D’EWES, SIR SYMONDS, an English antiquary, 1814, published a "Journey through the United born in Coxden, Dorsetshire, Dec. 18, 1602, States and Canada in 1837" (Leipsic, 1838). died April 18, 1650. He was admitted to the DEWEY, Chester, D.D., LL.D., an Ameribar, but never practised law, and lived on his can clergyman and teacher, born at Sheffield, property at Stow Hall, in Suffolk. He was Mass., Oct. 25, 1784. He was graduated at high sheriff of Suffolk in 1639, and was one of Williams college in 1806; studied for the minthe Puritan members expelled from the house istry; was licensed to preach in 1808, and durof commons by “Pride's purge.” He come ing the latter half of that year officiated in Tyrmenced collecting materials for a history of ingham in western Massachusetts. The same England at the age of 18, and though the fruits year he accepted a tutorship in Williams college, of his research were not published by him, they and in 1810 was appointed professor of mathewere of great use to Selden and other writers. matics and natural philosophy, an office which After his death a valuable compilation of his he discharged for 17 years. During his connecwas given to the world by his nephew Paul tion with the college he did much to advance the Bowes, under the title of “The Journals of all standard of scholarship, and enlarge the course the Parliaments during the Reign of Queen of study in his own and kindred departments, Elizabeth " (folio, London, 1682). His “Auto- Over the students his influence was often benebiography and Correspondence, edited by J. O. ficially exerted. Between 1827 and 1836 he was Halliwell (2 vols. 8vo., London, 1845), contains principal of the “Gymnasium,” a high school some interesting pictures of his times and con- for boys in Pittsfield, Mass., and in the latter temporaries, intermixed with much that is use- year he removed to Rochester, where he was less and with a comical display of vanity. principal of the Rochester collegiate institute
DE WETTE, WILHELM MARTIN LEBERECHT, until 1850, when he was elected professor of a German theologian and biblical critic, born at chemistry and natural philosophy in the uni. Ulla near Weimar, Jan. 14, 1780, died at Basel, versity of Rochester, which position he still June 16, 1849. Having studied at Weimar and holds. Professor Dewey has been a frequent Jena, he was appointed professor of philosophy, contributor to the “ American Journal of Science and subsequently of theology, at Heidelberg, and Arts," and is the author of several special and received in 1810 a professorship at the botanical treatises, including a “History of the university of Berlin. This situation he lost in Herbaceous Plants of Massachusetts," written consequence of a letter of consolation written for the state government. Until recently he to the mother of Sand, the murderer of Kot- has been in the habit of employing his vacations zebue, which was regarded by the government in lecturing at the medical colleges of Pittsfield as extenuating this act of political fanaticism. and Woodstock, Vt. In the course of his long He retired to Weimar, and was afterward elect- career as a teacher of youth he has delivered ed professor of theology by the university of over 4,000 lectures, and preached nearly as Basel. Here he met with an undisturbed acknow- many sermons. He has effected much for the ledgment of his merits, was made citizen of Ba- advancement of public schools, and was active sel, member of the committee of education, and in the establishment of the “Teachers' Instishortly before his death rector of the university. tute," of which he has been president. De Wette distinguished himself by his lectures DEWEY, ORVILLE, D.D., an American clerand sermons as well as by numerous works. gyman, born at Sheffield, Mass., March 28, 1794, The latter belong to the most remarkable pro- was graduated at Williams college in 1814; purductions of German theological science and sued his divinity studies at Andover theological criticism. The most important of them are: seminary from 1816 to 1819; preached 8 months * Contributions to an Introduction to the Old as agent for the American education society; Testament” (2 vols., 1806-'7); “Commentary declined an immediate and permanent settleon the Psalms” (1811); “Manual of Jewish ment on account of unfixed opinions in the
" Archæology” (1814); “Religion and Theolo- ology, but accepted a temporary call at Gloucesgy” (1815); “Christian Dogmatics” (2 vols., ter, Cape Ann (with a candid explanation of 1813, 1816); “Critical and Historical Introduc- his unsettled views), and here became a Unition to the Old and New Testaments” (1817–26; tarian; soon after became an assistant of Dr. the Introduction to the Old Testament was trans- Channing, preaching two years in his pulpit
, lated and enlarged by Theodore Parker, Boston, and forming with him a life-long intimacy; 1843, 2d ed. 1858; and that to the New, by in 1823 accepted the pastorate of the UniFrederic Frothingham, Boston, 1858); “ Chris- tarian church in New Bedford, where he retian Morality” (3 vols., 1819–21); “Theodore, or mained 10 years, antil, broken in health, he the Sceptic's Conversion” (1822; translated by sought restoration in his first voyage to EuJames F. Clarke, Boston, 1841); "Lectures on rope, June, 1833. The “Old World and the Practical Ethics" (1823; translated by Samuel New” (2 vols., 1836), one of the freshest and Osgood, Boston, 1842); Opuscula Theologica most instructive records of travel, contains the (1830); “The Essence of Christian Faith” history of his two years' absence. In 1835 he (1846); a new translation of the Bible, executed was called to the 2d Unitarian church in New together with Augusti in 6 vols. (1809-'14); and York, which, during his ministry, built the an unfinished edition of Luther's works. - LUD- “ church of the Messiah," and became a very WIG, son of the preceding, born at Berlin about large and prosperous society. In 1842, his health
again failing, he went abroad for two years, and area, 675 sq. m.; pop. in 1855, 18,508. In returning in 1844 to his post, was compelled by 1850 the productions were 704,600 bushels of continued ill health to dissolve his connection corn, 22,401 of wheat, 45,737 of oats, 2,083 tons with his church in 1848, and retire to his pater- of hay, and 18,833 lbs. of wool. There were 6 nal farm in Sheffield, long and piously preserved churches. Bituminous coal is the chief mineral by him, at great sacrifices, for the use of his product. The county was named in honor of mother and sisters. Here hé devoted the rem- De Witt Clinton. Capital, Clinton. nants of his strength to the preparation of a DE WITT, Jan, a Dutch statesman, born in course of lectures for the Lowell institute at Dort, Sept. 1625, murdered at the Hague, Ang. Boston, on the “Problem of Human Life and 20,1672. From his father, who had been a memDestiny," which was repeated twice in New ber of the states of Holland, he inherited repabliYork, and in Brooklyn, New Bedford, Baltimore, can principles opposed to the power of the house Washington, Charleston, St. Louis, Louisville, of Orange, which had been regarded with suspiNashville, Madison, Cincinnati, and Sheffield. cion from the time of Barneveldt. In 1652 he beThis course was followed, in 1855, by another camegrand pensionary of Holland, an office which Lowell course on the “Education of the Human gave him great influence in the federal assemRace,” which was almost as widely repeated. bly of the Seven United Provinces; and he iroMeanwbile he filled the Unitarian pulpit in mediately exerted himself to break up that comAlbany one winter, and in Washington two. bination of offices in the hands of the princes of In 1858 he was again settled as pastor over the Orange, which had made their power almost sorUnitarian society in Church Green, Boston, ereign. The last stadtholder had died in 1650, known as the “New South," where he now is. and his son, afterward William III. of England, The first book which Dr. Dewey published was was an infant; and at this favorable time the a little work, which made a noise in its day, en- party of De Witt succeeded in abolishing the titled “Letters on Revivals.” During his min- office of stadtholder, and declaring the statesistry at New Bedford he contributed much to general supreme. In 1654 he negotiated the the “Christian Examiner” and the “North peace of Westminster with Cromwell, by a secret American Review.” On leaving New Bedford, article of wbich the members of the house of he published a volume of sermons, which pro- Orange were in future excluded from the highduced a marked sensation. His various works est offices of state. After the restoration of since have been collected and published in 3 Charles II., England declared war against Holvols. (New York, 1847). They consist of “Dis- land; but though her arms were at first stecourses on Human Nature, “Discourses on cessful, the sagacity of De Witt restored the Human Life,” “Discourses on the Nature of fortunes of his countrymen, and obliged her to Religion,
,” “Discourses on Commerce and Busi- sue for peace. The negotiations were hastenness,
""Miscellaneous and Occasional Discours- ed by the appearance of De Ruyter with a por. es .” “The Unitarian Belief," “ Discourses and erful fleet in the Thames, where he burned the Reviews," including several articles which first English shipping in the Medway; and a treaty appeared in the " Christian Examiner.” His was concluded at Breda in July, 1667. When works have been reprinted in London, 1844, in the aggrandizing policy of Louis XIV. began to an octavo volume of nearly 900 pages.—The aim at the possession of the Spanish Netherlands, application of religion to the whole sphere of De Witt became obnoxious to a strong party in human life is the characteristic of Dr. Dewey's the state, which sought to elevate William of writings, and the central purpose of his mind. Orange to the dignity of his ancestors. He For this work he is admirably fitted both by hastened to form a triple alliance with Sweden nativo endowment and the discipline of ex- and England, but violated the federal constituperience. His writings exhibit a philosophical tion by causing the treaty to be at once ratibed tendency, much practical knowledge, wide and by the states-general, instead of being first referlively sympathies, and rare dramatic talent. As red to the council of each province. Though the a pulpit orator, he enjoys a high reputation for measure may have been justified by the emer. earnestness, originality, and power of impres- gency, it was a principal cause of the hostility to sion.
De Witt. Louis XIV. succeeded in detaching DE WITT. I. A S. E. co. of Texas, drained by England from the alliance, and in forming a the Guadalupe river ; area, 898 sq. m.; pop. in counter alliance between England and France 1858, 3,786, of whom 1,189 were slaves. It against Holland ; and in 1672 the United Prop. abounds in fine scenery, and has a hilly or roll- inces were invaded by French armies, which ing surface. The soil, particularly in the valley advanced nearly to Amsterdam. The blame rss of the Guadalupe, is fertile. În 1850 it pro- thrown on the grand pensionary; and by the duced 541 bales of cotton, and 67,560 bushels of popular voice the young prince of Orange was corn Vime of real estate in 1858, $545,000. called to command the Dutch forces by land and The acrty was named in honor of De Witt, an sea, and was nominated stadtholder. Cornelius, empresario under the Mexican government of the brother of Jap De Witt, was suspected of what we called De Witt's colony. Capital, having plotted against the life of the prince, and Clintoa. II. A central co. of Illinois, mostly was imprisoned at the Hague. The grand penlevel, comprising forests of valuable timber and siopary resigned his office, went to visit his fertile peres remarkably easy of cultivation; brother, and perished with him by the violence
of a mob. His abilities and exemplary private duced with the forming of the sprout, the diascharacter were applauded even by his political tase and acetic acid first appearing, and then opponents. His principal political work, on the converting the starch of the grain into dextrine, “True Interest and Political Maxims of the Re- from which it passes into sugar, and this into public of Holland," was translated into English alcohol. When starch is boiled to produce this by Dr. Campbell (London, 1746).
gum for stiffening linens, its change into sugar DEXTER, SAMUEL, an American statesman may be effected by continuing the boiling. No and jurist, born in Boston in 1761, died while change in the chemical composition takes place on a journey at Athens, N. Y., in 1816. He was in this process, but the alteration is probably in graduated at Harvard university in 1781, with the arrangement of the particles among themthe highest honors of his class, and received in selves. In both starch and dextrine the con1813 the degree of LL.D. from the same univer- stituents are, carbon 12 atoms, and hydrogen sity. Immediately after leaving college he began and oxygen 10 atoms each. Grape sugar, into the study of law, and being admitted to the bar which they pass, differs from them only by takin 1784, after some years of practice in Lunen- ing another atom of hydrogen and oxygen, or, borg, in Chelmsford, in Billerica, and in Charles- what is the same thing, one atom of water. town, he removed to Boston, and had his home Dextrine forms a mucilaginous solution with hot there during the remainder of his life. He was or cold water, from which it is precipitated by repeatedly chosen to the legislature of Massa- alcohol. It is prepared in France to considerable chusetts, and in 1798 was elected senator of the extent from potato starch, to be afterward ferUnited States. While senator he was appointed mented and
converted into brandy. It is also secretary of war by John Adams in 1800, and used by the French pastry cooks and confectionin the same year secretary of the treasury. He ers. In medicine it may serve the same uses was afterward, at different times, offered for- as gam arabic, and in surgery it is applied to eign missions, but always refused them. About the
preparation of bandages for fractures. For the year 1802 he withdrew from political life, this purpose it is triturated with f of its weight and returned to his profession; and there he of camphorated spirit, till it acquires the conoccupied a high, and in some respects the highest sistency of honey. Water is then added, and place. He was not regarded as a man of exten- the bandage is immersed in the mixture. As sive professional learning, or as eloquent in the British or “ artificial” gum, it is employed by ordinary sense of that term; but he was well the calico printers for thickening their colors. acquainted with the leading principles of law, It is sold in the form of a brilliant white powand possessed the faculty of learning rapidly der, as a mucilage, and in lumps like those of and well all that was needed in any particular natural gums. Its smell and taste of potato oil case, by study in rem. While he seldom in- distinguishes it from gum arabic, and it differs dulged in figures or ornaments of any kind, his from natural gums in not forming mucic acid powers of argument were almost irresistible. by the action of nitric acid, and in being conHe was often spoken of as “the lawyer for des- vertible into grape sugar. The name is derived perate cases,” because no case seemed desperate from its property of turning more than any in his hands. As a politician he was in early other body the plane of polarization to the right life a decided federalist; and he never approved hand side. all the principles or doings of the republican DEY, in Algiers, from 1600 to 1710, the comparty of that day. He argued against the va- mander of the armies of the state, subject to a lidity of the embargo with all his strength, and pasha appointed by the Porte. In 1710 the digalways maintained the unconstitutionality of nity of pasha was united with that of dey, and that measure. But, on the other hand, he dif- the dey was the highest officer of Algiers from fered from his party in reference to the war of that time till the conquest of the country by the 1812. While, however, he left his own party, French in 1830. he could not be said to have joined the other; DEYRA DOON, or DEHRA Doon, a fertile and when they nominated him as the republican valley of British India, between the S. W. base candidate for governor, in 1814, he immediately of the lowest and outermost ridge of the Himapublished an address to the electors of Massa- layas, and the N. E. slope of the Sewalik mounchusetts, in which he declared that he did not tains, the former having an elevation of 7,000 belong to the party which had nominated him, or 8,000 feet, and the latter of about 3,000; and differed radically from them. He was, how: lat. 30° and 30° 32' N., long. 77° 43' and 780 ever, retained as their candidate; and his com- 24' E.; area, 673 sq. m. ; length, 5 m.;
breadth, petitor, Gen. Brooks, the candidate of the fed- from 15 to 20 m. It is bounded S. E. by the eralists, was elected by a majority of only 2,000 Ganges and N. by the Jumna, is drained by out of 47,000 votes. He was the first president their tributaries, and with the hilly region called of the first society formed in Massachusetts for Jounsar Bawur forms a district under the lieuthe promotion of temperance.
tenant-governorship of the N. W. provinces. DEXTRINE, also known as BRITISH Gum, a The productions are rice, maize, grain, cotton, soluble variety of starch, obtained by boiling sugar, opium, indigo, plantain, and hemp. Every starch in water, or heating it to the pera- English plant is said to thrive luxuriantly, and ture of 392°, or by the action upon it of dias- considerable success has attended the cultivation tase or acids. In the malting of grain it is pro- of tea. The climate during part of the year is