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000 inhabitants; but owing to the predatory tion and the diarrhæa ceases; if this should not disposition of the Koords, who by their attacks be the case, a moderate opiate or an anodyne have rendered unsafe the intercourse with Bag- combined with an astringent are all that will be dad and Aleppo, its prosperity has declined, and found necessary. When diarrhea is dependent it now contains no more than 40,000 inhabitants, on exposure to cold, a bland, unirritating diet, the eater part Turkish, the rest mostly Ar- the warm bath, and the use of opiumor of opium menian. Some trade is, however, carried on and ipecacuanha in small doses, may be bad newith Aleppo, and the manufacture of cotton and course to; in such cases the patient is generally silk goods, though much diminished, is still con- benefited by wearing a flannel bandage around tinued. The streets, like those of other eastern the abdomen.--Young infants at the breast cities, are narrow and dirty, and most of the sometimes suffer from bowel complaint; here houses are constructed of rough stone covered it is commonly caused by over-feeding. Ordiwith a plaster composed of mud and straw. Darily nature provides against this by the facilThe town contains many mosques, an Armeni- ity with which the infant vomits; the stomach an cathedral and other Christian churches, nu- frees itself from the excess of food, and no inismerous baths, caravansaries, and bazaars, and chief is done; but when the infant does not is well supplied with water, which is introduced vomit, diarrhea is caused, and undigested card by a fino aqueduct, and distributed through the is present in large quantity in the evacuations, city in numerous stone fountains. The walls are The obvious remedy' is a prolongation of the built of a dark-colored basalt, quarried in the intervals at which the child is suckled. During neighborhood, and many of the principal build- dentition in infants, from the large qnantity of ings of the city are constructed of the same ma- blood sent to the digestive organs, and the rapid terial, whence the Turks call the place Kara evolution which they are undergoing, the bowels Amid, or Black Amid; Amida being the an- are irritable, and diarrhea often supervenes; cient name of the town. A British consul re- this is best guarded against by care in the dies sides here.
and a proper observance of hygienic regulations DIARRHEA (Gr. diappew, to flow through), The severer forms of the complaint which occur a disease characterized by the occurrence of in large cities, from the combined effect of sa frequent, loose, alvine discharges. In a proper impure atmosphere and the excessive best of system of nosology diarrhæa would scarce find a our summers, are spoken of under the bead of place; it is a symptom rather than a disease, and CHOLERA INFANTUM. is produced by a number of different patholo- DIAS, A. GONÇALVEZ, a Brazilian poet, bora gical conditions. It is present in the course of in Caxias, Ang. 10, 1823. He was educated in typhoid fever, is a frequent accompaniment of Portugal, and returning to his native country, phthisis, and is sometimes an attendant upon published at Rio de Janeiro in 1846 a volumns albuminuria and other forms of blood poisoning; of poems entitled Primeiros cantos, which was it is caused by inflammation and ulceration of followed by his drama of Leonor de Mendonça the bowels. Those slighter forms of the com- (1847), Segundos cantos (1848), and Citimas plaint only will be noticed here which are inde- cantos (1850). In 1848 he was chosen profes pendent of constitutional causes, and which are sor of national history in the college of Don produced by a temporary irritation or sub-in- Pedro II. ; in 1850 he was sent on a scientific flammation of the intestinal mucous membrane. mission to the provinces bordering on the AmaDiarrhea is often caused by the use of crude and zon; on his return he was employed in the office indigestible food, or even by food ordinarily of the minister of foreign affairs, and in 1855 vas wholesome taken in too great quantity or va- charged with a scientific mission to Europe. His riety. Fruit, particularly when acid and unripe, poetry is exceedingly popular in Brazil. uncooked vegetables, as cucumbers and salads, DIAS, BARTHOLOMEO, a Portuguese Darinfood in a state of incipient decomposition, thé tor, born in the latter part of the 15th century, flesh of immature animals, as young veal, &c., lost in a storm at sea, May 29, 1500, while on are all liable to act upon the bowels. Certain his way from Brazil to India. In 1486 he sait articles, as mushrooms, shellfish, the richer va- ed on an expedition to explore the W. coast of rieties of ordinary fish, as salmon, from pecu- Africa, and without knowing it was carried liarity of habit disagree with particular indi- around the southern point of the continent sod viduals and produce diarrhea. The same is landed at the mouth of Great Fish river, where true of a total change of diet; food perfectly he discovered that he was on the E. coast. The wholesome to those accustomed to it, and the stormy cape he called Cabo Tormentoro, a name water used habitually in certain districts of which the king of Portugal changed into Cape country, often cause bowel complaints in the of Good Hope. Dias subsequently sailed on azstranger. Emotions of the mind, particularly other African expedition under Vasco da Gams, grief and anger, in some persons promptly occa- and he commanded one of the vessels in the fleet sion an attack of diarrhoea; others are affected with which Cabral discovered Brazil. It was in the same way by sudden changes of temper- on this expedition that he perished. ature, wet feet, or exposure to cold. Where DIAS, HENRIQUE, a Brazilian general, born & diarrhea is caused by the ingestion of food ren- Pernambuco at the beginning, died in the latter dered irritating by its quantity or quality, the part of the 17th century. He was a freed pecta purging itself soon removes the cause of irrita- who by his superior attainments rose in 1639 to
the supreme command of the colored soldiery third are imperfectly diathermanous. These of the Brazilian army. He took a conspicuous subjects were first investigated in 1811-'12, by part in the protracted warfare which finally led M. Prevost of Geneva, and M. de la Roche in to the overthrow of Dutch supremacy in Brazil. France, but our knowledge of them is mainly
DIASTASE (Gr. diotnie, to separate). When due to M. Melloni, who began in 1832 a series the grain of wheat, oats, or barley begins to of remarkable investigations, which won for germinate, there is formed at the base of the him from M. de la Rive the title of " the Newsprout a peculiar nitrogenous compound, very ton of heat.”. These researches, determining soluble in water, called diastase, the exact com- as they did the transmission of an invisible position of which has never been determined. agent, heat, and often in degrees far too feeble It is also found in the germ of the potato. to be detected by the nicest sensibility of the It seems to be gluten in an altered form. By hand or by the ordinary means, would have the action of this substance and of acetic acid, been impossible but for the invention, by Nobili which also now first appears in the seed, the and Melloni, of a new thermoscopic apparatus, mucilaginous substance called dextrine, formed consisting of a thermo-electric pile connected from the starch of the grain, is converted into with a highly sensitive galvanometer; the delstarch sugar. This by fermentation passes into icacy of the arrangement being such that if, alcohol. It is therefore an essential element for in a room at ordinary temperatures, the human the process of brewing. It may be obtained by hand were presented in a line with the appadigesting bruised barley malt with a little cold ratus and at the distance of several feet, the water, then expressing it through cloth. The heat radiating from the hand would cause the liquor is then treated with sufficient alcohol to needle to be sensibly deflected. Some of the destroy its viscidity and cause the albumen to results discovered with the aid of this appaseparate. This is removed by filtration. An ratus will be briefly stated. A plate or crystal additional quantity of alcohol then throws down of rock salt, even if an inch in thickness, was the diastase in an impure state. It is redissolved found, after diminishing the incident heat 7.7 in water and again precipitated with alcohol. per cent. by reflection, to transmit the enWhen separated and dried, it is a white, taste- tire remainder; this body, only, arrested within less, solid substance, without action upon gum its substance no sensible portion of the heat or sugar, but capable at a temperature of 160° rays. Hence, rock salt has been styled the of converting starch suspended in water into true glass for heat; and its permeability by dextrine, and this into grape sugar. One part heat exceeds even that of glass by light. of dextrine, it is found, is sufficient to cause Smoked, or coated with soot, so as to be quite 2,000 parts of starch to undergo this change. opaque, this body still allowed many of the
DIATHERMANCY AND ATHERMANCY. heat rays to pass through it; and the same The various dispositions of light entering the was true of smoked quartz and black glass. But substance of different bodies are familiar. citric acid, alam water, and limpid candy, alSome bodies, extinguishing the light, are term- though quite transparent, almost totally arrested opaque ; others, through which it passes ed the heat of the sun, of a flame or other source without sensible diminution, transparent, or of intense heat, while they cut off entirely the diaphanous; but in most media both diapha- rays from bodies raised to about red heat, and neity and extinction occur, in degree. Results of all temperatures below. Bodies are not, entirely similar are now found to hold in the therefore, diathermanous in proportion as they case of heat. All may observe that the sun- are transparent. But the amount of transbeams after passing through the air or through mission of heat rays is found to depend on window glass are still very sensibly warm, at least 4 particulars: 1, the nature of the while the glass and the air may remain at the source of heat; 2, the intensity of heat of same time in a great degree unwarmed. By the source; 3, the nature of the medium; and a double convex lens of ice, the heat of the solar 4, its thickness. Solar heat has the greatest beam has been brought to a focus, and gun- penetrating power ; that of bodies in an inpowder and other combustibles fired, while the candescent state passes through the same meice itself remained quite unaffected by the dium in greater quantity than that of bodies at heat passing through it. A pane of glass held a dark heat; while of the heat of naked flame before a fire, however, stops the transmission rock salt transmits 92.3 per cent., Iceland spar of the heat striking it, and becomes warmed. passes 39, white topaz 33, and alum 9 per cent.; Froin these facts, we conclude that from sources and up to a certain thickness in every case, the of heat there proceed outward on all sides rays amount transmitted diminishes with increase of heat, just as from luminous bodies we have of thickness of the medium. Beyond a certain light rays; moreover, that there are media, as increase of the number or thickness of the the air, which transmit heat rays freely, while plates, however, the diminution of heat ceases. others arrest (or, as it is often with doubtful The heat rays that can get through the first half propriety phrased, absorb) these rays; still a inch or inch of glass, for example, will then go on third class of bodies both transmitting and undiminished through a much greater distance; arresting portions of them. Bodies of the first so that it seems that certain heat rays are siftof these classes are termed diathermanous; ed out by each medium, as being incapable of those of the second, athermanous; those of the moving through it with freedom; the others
then pass on. If, again, the heat beam which from spores presents the same dissimilarity besuffers no more loss by going through glass between the young and the adult forms. There now received in rock crystal, in the first part are also numerous genera which can be accuof this medium it suffers a remarkable diminu- rately distinguished not only by the difference tion ; other rays are sifted out, and a diminish- of form or outline, but by their own peculiar ed beam passes. The same thing happens with striations, markings, and dots. Both in the sin. light in colored media. The sunbeam in going gle and associated species there is a distinct pel. through a certain depth of a red glass or solu- lucid peduncle or footstalk. This is sometimes tion has its bluish green rays sifted out and ex- considerably dilated above, or else forked, sometinguished; the remainder, on being passed into times repeatedly. In this case, each frostule a bluish green medium, is lost in like manner; remains attached, the base dilating as may be a feeble beam only escapes, or none at all. Hence, required. This arrangement gives a fan-like the heat beam, like the beam of light, is regard- appearance of great beauty. But in the threaded as a sheaf of heat rays of varying degrees like species it is only the corners that remain of refrangibility; or we have a true heat spec- attached; as no stem or footstalk is visible here, trum. Dark and feeble sources of heat, it is it has been conjectured that it exists only in those found, emit rays analogous to blue and violet plants which have grown from spores or in the rays of light (Whewell), and highly luminous seedling forms. Certain channels or apertures are sources such as are analogous to yellow and red so arranged as to convey the water to the inner rays. The former, however, are proved to be cellular membranes, and thus to afford nutriment. the less refrangible heat rays; so that it is the The same curious conjugation to be seen in other more refrangible heat rays which are the more algæ has been detected in the diatomaceæ by transmissible. This department of the subject Thwaites, and has been confirmed by Berkeley has received the name of thermochrosy, or heat and Broome. It is computed that vast areas of coloration. In this view, then, rock salt is a solid earthy matter are due to the growth, presbody quite colorless to heat; while alum, water, ence, and decay of these minute organisms. ice, and some other transparent bodies, are Many of the most beautiful are found in the nearly heat-black. The true heat color of guano of commerce, doubtless swallowed in water, however, is dark red, since the few rays the food of birds, and still remaining in perfect it transmits are of the more refrangible class; preservation. In the United States, masses of and if this beam be received in a glass tinged several inches in thickness are found on the green with copper, and the heat color of which bottom of ponds, composed of myriads of these may be considered blue, the remaining rays organisms, which on being exposed to desiccaare lost; the heat beam is entirely arrested, tion become as white and friable as chalk. though a greenish light still passes. This com- Even peat bogs and meadows abound with them. bination is then, apparently, a total black for The polishing powders sold under the name heat. Where it is required to admit light with- of Tripoli are composed of these natural siliout heat, therefore, this combination, or, as or- cious fragments. The soundings on the shores dinarily more convenient, a solution or plate of of Victoria Barrier, in water whose average alum, may be made the medium; where heat is depth is 1,800 feet, were found by Dr. Hooker to be admitted without light, smoked rock salt to be invariably charged with diatomaceous te or black glass serves the purpose. In some mains. These fossil species are often so identioperations in the arts, workinen exposed to an cal with recent ones, that it were scarcely too intense heat protect their faces to a good de- extravagant to admit the assertion of Ehrengree by wearing a glass mask.
berg, that species are to be found in a living DIATOMACEÆ, minute plants growing in state in situations where they have been propamoist situations, in collections of fresh water gated from times far anterior to the existence or in the sea, consisting of frustules of various of man. The United States are rich in the forms, the walls of which
contain a large quan- diatomacem, both fossil and living. We are in tity of silex, and are often beautifully diversified debted to the perseverance and scientific skill and marbled by striæ or by dots. Notwith- of the late Prof. J. W. Bailey, of West Point
, standing the general resemblance of these N. Y., for a list and arrangement of species curious vegetations to the species of desmi- detected by him. In the tertiary infusoria dies, they are clearly made distinct by the stratum of Richmond, Va., Ehrenberg detected flinty fronds, singular striation, and absence of 20 genera and 46 species, of which all were green coloring matter. Agardh asserts that also European excepting two. This group of many of these organisms have as much affinity American forms is of peculiar interest, because with the mineral kingdom as with the vegetable
, the strata at Richmond are decidedly of marine being in fact vegetable crystals, bounded by right origin, and consequently give at once a general lines and collected into a crystalliform body, and view of these marine microscopic forms along having no other difference from minerals than the North American coast. We shall briefly
no that the individuals have the power of again tice, in conclusion, some of the most remarkable separating from each other. As in the case of of these vegetable organisms occurring in the the desmidiem, there are solitary species, and United States and not uncommon in Europe. others grouped so as to form lines and mem- Of the perfectly free diatoms we have many branes. In some, the production of new plants species of naviculaceæ remarkable for beauty.
symmetry, delicacy, or else for their striations. they also form beautiful spiral rows in other The largest, most common, and most easily dis- directions, so that the curves present no incontinguished, is N. viridis, found in every ditch siderable resemblance to patterns produced by, and pond, of an oblong outline. It can be engine-turning; at other times the spots are detected in great abundance in the ashes of found to form 3 sets of lines, making angles of peat, and in the deposits of infusorial earths. 60° and 120° with each other; and on others İts length is about go of a line. Several of a the spots are disposed without much apparent sigmoid outline are very remarkable for the regularity, frequently having a star-like figure delicacy of their striæ, of which may be men- in the centre. The spots are so small on some tioned pleurosigma Baltica, P. hippocampus, of the disks as to be almost invisible even by but more particularly P. angulata. The lines the highest magnifying powers; on others they of striation upon Nitzschia sigmoidea are about are quite large and hexagonal
. In podiscus Joooon of an inch apart. In fragilaria we Rogerii (Bailey), the whole surface is so beauhave long threads of frustules adhering with tifully punctate, that no engraving could do it considerable firmness at their commissures; justice. The most complicated markings on but in diatoma they adhere only at a single the coscinodiscus scarcely rival the elaborate point, so as to form curious chains of divided ornaments of this truly elegant organism. It or separated joints. Prof. Bailey describes has proved very common in Virginia and Marybacillaria paradoxa as a very interesting spe- land in a fossil condition. The beauty of isthcies, presenting by its curious motions and its mia obliquata, detected in the mud of Boston paradoxical appearance an object well calcu. harbor, can only be appreciated by ocular exlated to astonish all who behold it. At one amination. The diatomacea enter largely into moment the needle-shaped frustules lie side the food of the mollusca. Dr. Hooker found by side, forming a rectangular plate; sudden- dictyocha aculeata in the stomachs of salpa ly one of the frustules slides forward a little taken off Victoria Land, and remains of diatoway, the next slides a little also, and so on maceæ occurred in the same ascidiums examined through the whole number, each, however, between the latitudes of the N. tropic and 80° S. retaining a contact through part of its length The medusæ are also in particular often filled with the adjoining ones. By this united mo- with these forms. See Bailey in “ American tion the parallelogram is changed into a long Journal of Science and Arts," vols. xli., xlvi.; line; then some of the frustules slide together “Proceedings of Essex Institute,” vol. i., pp. again, so that the form is then much like a 33-48, and vol ii., pp. 70, 71; Smith's “ Britbanner Similar motions are constantly go. ish Diatomaceæ ;" Kützing's Species Algarum ing on, and with such rapidity that the eye can (Leipsic, 1849); Berkeley's Introduction to scarcely follow them. The cause of this motion Cryptogamic Botany” (London, 1857). is wholly unknown, but it is most probably me- DIAZ, MIGUEL, an Aragonese explorer, born chanical and not vital. Mr. Smith, in his work in the latter part of the 15th century, died about on the diatomaceæ, estimates this motion as be- 1514. He took part in the 2d expedition of ing zóq inch per second. In meridion vernale Columbus, and having arrived in St. Domingo we have one of the most beautiful of the fresh- in 1495, he became involved in a duel which Water diatoms. It consists of spiral or helicoid- forced him to flee to the southern part of the al chains, to perceive which the specimens must island, where he married the female ruler of the be tilted on edge. It occurs in immense quan- tribe. From information given by her, and with tities in mountain brooks, covering every sub- the coöperation of Bartholomew Columbus, who merged stone, or twig, or spear of grass, in the was governor of the colony, he discovered the early days of spring. Among the groups with gold mines of St. Christopher, and afterward vittate or ribbon-like fronds, we may notice stri- took a conspicuous part in the foundation of atella arcuata, occurring in vast quantities on Nueva Isabella (afterward St. Domingo) in the the filiform marine algæ, and covering them so vicinity of the gold districts. He faithfully admuch oftentimes as to make them glitter in hered to the cause of Columbus until his death. the sunbeams as if invested with crystals. In DIAZ DEL CASTILLO, BERNAL, a Spanish still another natural group, where the striæ adventurer and chronicler, born in Medina del are no longer visible in the frustules or fronds, Campo, Old Castile, about the close of the 15th we find a multitude of microscopic objects, century. He went to seek his fortune in the furnishing
sources for fresh admiration when- new world in 1514, and joined the expeditions ever they are examined. In some of these the which sailed from Cuba to Yucatan under Ferfronds, which are disciform, are marked with nandez de Cordova in 1517, and under Grijalradiating lines, of which coscinodiscus, very va in 1518. He afterward' attached himself common in a fossil state in the Richmond earth to the fortunes of Cortes, and followed that and elsewhere, is most beautiful. In C. linea- chief in all his most important battles and tus the cellules of the frond form parallel lines marches with distinguished valor and loyalty. in whatever direction they may be viewed, and In 1568 he was regidor of the city of GuaC. oculus iridis gives curious colored rings. temala. When Gomara's “ Chronicle of New When perfect, the disk of coscinodiscus is covered Spain" appeared, Diaz began his Historia verwith circular spots in rows corresponding with dadera de la conquista de la Nueva España, the radii. In consequence of this arrangement the object of which was to correct the many
misstatements of his rival, and to claim for of his songs, with a memoir by T. Dibdin, illoshimself and his comrades à share of the glory trated by George Oruikshank, was published in -which Gomara gave almost wholly to Cortes. London in 1850. II. Thomas, son of the preThe work was finished in 1558, and though ceding, born in London in 1771, died there, Sept. destitute of literary merit, and disfigured by the 16, 1841. He adopted the profession of his author's vanity, it nowhere betrays a wilful father, and for many years appeared before the perversion of truth, and is prized for its sim- public as actor, author, and composer. His plicity of style. It was first published at Madrid songs and dramatic pieces are probably as nuin 1632. An English translation by J. I. Lock- merous as those of his father, but are now hart appeared in 1844. A recent American comparatively forgotten. He died in poverty, writer has aşsailed the authenticity of the nar- while employed in compiling an edition of his rative, which he attempts to resolve into a col- father's sea songs, for which he received an lection of fables. (See Wilson's “New History allowance from the lords of the admiralty. III. of the Conquest of Mexico,” Philadelphia, 1859.) THOMAS FRoGNALI, D.D., an English bibliog
DIBDIN. I. CHARLES, an English song writer rapher, nephew of Charles Dibdin, born in and composer, born in Southampton in 1745, Calcutta in 1775, died Nov. 18, 1847. He was died July 25, 1814. He was the 18th child of educated at Oxford and studied for the law, but his parents, who intended him for the church. afterward took orders. In 1807 he became edFollowing his own inclinations, however, he itor of a weekly journal called the “ Director," cultivated the study of music, and at the age of and in 1809 published in the form of a dialogue 16 went to London, where at first he supported his "Bibliomania," reprinted with great enlargehimself by composing ballads for the music ments in 1811. In 1818 he travelled abroad, sellers and by tuning pianos. In 1763–'4 the and in 1824 was appointed to the rectory of St. opera of the “Shepherd's Artifice, ," written Mary's, Bryanstone square, which he beld until and composed by him, was produced at Covent his death. In 1814–15 he published, under the Garden theatre, after which he appeared for title of “ Bibliotheca Spenceriana," an account several years in the joint capacity of actor and of the rare books in Earl Spencer's library, to composer. Among his most popular works were which he afterward added a description of the the « Padlock," the “Deserter," the “Water- earl's seat at Althorp, and an account of the man," and the “Quaker," produced at Drury Cassano library purchased by him. The work Lane, under the management of Garrick. Hav- is often referred to, but is inaccurate. In his ing quarrelled with the latter, he was for several latter years Dr. Dibdin was involved in pecuyears engaged in various theatrical speculations niary embarrassment. His principal works, as manager or proprietor, and in 1789 instituted beside those abote mentioned, are: a species of musical entertainment, in which he graphical Antiquities of Great Britain" (4 vols, was the sole author, composer, and performer. 1810-20); Bibliographical Decameron" ($ So successful did the enterprise prove, that in vols. 8vo., 1817); "Bibliographical, Antiqua1796 he erected a small theatre in Leicester rian, and Picturesque Tour in France and Gerfields, called Sans-Souci, in which he performed many" (3 vols. 8vo., 1821); "Introduction to s until 1805, when he retired from professional Knowledge of rare and valuable Editions of the life in somewhat embarrassed circumstances, Greek and Roman Classics" (4th ed., 2 vols. 870., owing to his improvident habits. A pension 1827); “Reminiscences of a Literary Life" (3 of £200 was procured for him, of which in vols. 8vo., 1836); “ Bibliographical, Antiquarian, 1806 he was deprived by the whig ministry of and
Picturesque Tour in the Northern Counties Lord Grenville. The tory administration, which of England and Scotland" (3 vols. 8vo. 1839). came into power the succeeding year, restored DIČE (plural of die), small cabes of ivory, his name to the pension list, but his improv- bone, serpentine stone, or close-grained wood, idence kept him in poverty until his death. used in gaming. Each of their 6 faces is marked His theatrical compositions, 47 of which are with a different number of points, from 1 to 6, in enumerated in the Biographia Dramatica," such a way that the numbers upon any 2 oppoamount to about 100. Upon his songs, how- site sides together count 7. They are shaken ever, of which he is said to have written up- and thrown from a box on to a table, and the ward of 1,000, his reputation mainly rests. game depends upon the number of points preMost of these were ephemeral productions, and sented by the upper faces. This is one of the many were below mediocrity; but his nautical most ancient of games
, and was said to have been songs and ballads are among the finest specimens invented by the Greeks to divert themselves of their kind in the language ; and some of them, during the siege of Troy._Plutarch makes it like “Poor Tom Bowling," written on the death an early invention of the Egyptians, in whose of his brother Thomas, a sea captain, and "Poor mythological fables it is mentioned. Dice have Jack," are established favorites. They were set been discovered in Thebes, made of bone or to siinple and expressive melodies, and were ex- ivory, and similar to those in use at present. ceedingly popular at the beginning of the pres- Herodotus ascribes the invention of this, as of ent century, having, it is said, been influential in all other games of chance, to the Lydians. It is supplying the navy with volunteers. He pub- alluded to as a favorite amusement by Æschylus lished a history of the stage and some miscel- and Sophocles. The chief distinction between laneous works of no great value. A new edition the ancient and the modern game is, that in the