Obrázky stránek

to gelatine; also containing nitrogen. The sac- the food, leading to the conversion of the starch charine substances cannot form part of any ani- into sugar, the action continuing even in presmal tissue, but, when converted in the body into ence of the acid of the stomach; there is no those of the oleaginous group, may like these satisfactory evidence that saliva exerts any last go to nourish the adipose and nervous tis- other than a physical action upon nitrogenized sues; but by far their greater portion is used in substances. When the food reaches the stomach the maintenance of the animal heat. Starch the digestion is continued by the gastric juice, seems to be converted into sugar, and sugar into secreted by the numerous follicles of the mulactic acid, in which form it is oxidized and cous membrane, lined with lobular cells and burned off; oleaginous matters appear to under- glandular epithelium. Bernard's experiments go oxidation without any preliminary change; show that the secretion is mainly poured out these non-nitrogenized compounds cannot min- toward the pyloric extremity of the organ. The ister to the plastic growth of the body, as is nature of the digestive process has been the proved by the death from inanition of animals subject of much speculation in past times. It fed exclusively upon them. The articles of the was at first supposed that the aliments underalbuminous group serve not only for nutrition, went a coction similar to that which they would but for the maintenance of heat, if required, by experience in a vessel with hot water; to this their decomposition; the proportion of their 4 succeeded the theory of acid fermentation, then elements is the same in all, and they are all of putrefaction, of trituration, and of maceracapable of reduction to a like condition by the tion, till the present belief in the solvent action digestive process, so that, as far as nutrition of the gastric juice was established. The gastric goes, the fibrine of animals, the albumen of eggs, juice is transparent, nearly colorless, and with the caseine of milk, and the gluten of wheat are very slight viscidity. Its most characteristic equally acceptable to the organism. No one of feature is acidity, which is even perceptible to these, however, is alone sufficient to support the taste. Many eminent chemists maintain life; it is very remarkable, as Dr. Prout has that the real agent in the solvent process is free observed, that the only single article of food lactic acid, while others are in favor of free hy. naturally provided for the continued growth of drochloric acid; the latter seems to be true of animals, milk, contains albuminous caseine in man, and the former of dogs and pigs, which have its curd, a good deal of oily matter, and con- been the most frequent subjects of experiment. siderable sugar.-Supposing mastication to have The peculiar organic ferment of the gastric juice been thoroughly performed, the food is first is pepsin, which disposes albuminous matters to acted upon by the salivary fluid, which is se- undergo solution by the contained hydrochloric creted by the parotid, sublingual, and submax- acid, which they would otherwise only partially illary glands, and the follicles of the mucous do únless exposed to a high temperature. The membrane of the mouth. Saliva is but little secretion of the empty stomach is neutral or heavier than water, contains minute corpuscles alkaline, but it becomes acid on the introduction and epithelial scales, and in health has an alka- and during the digestion of food, resuming its line reaction greatest during and after meals. neutral character when this process is finished. It consists of about 995 parts of water in 1,000, From the experiments of Dr. Dalton, it appears and 5 parts of solid matters; of the latter the that an ounce of gastric juice will dissolve a most remarkable is ptyalin, to which the pecu- little over 30 grains of fresh lean meat; at this liar properties of the fluid are due; it closely rate the full digestion of a pound of raw meat resembles, but is not identical with, albumen would require gallons of gastric juice; and and caseine; it acts the part of a ferment, and, this apparently enormous quantity will not be according to Mialhe, 1 part is sufficient to con: considered incredible, if it be recollected that vert 2,000 parts of starch into sugar; it also this fluid after it has done its work of solution is contains a compound of sulpho-cyanogen, not at once reabsorbed into the circulation, so that known to occur in any other animal product, even this quantity might be secreted during the and interesting in a medico-legal point of view; 3 or 4 hours of the digestive process, at an exits salts are nearly those of the blood, and its pense to the blood of not more than 2 or 3 oz. alkaline reaction seems to be due to the basic of fluid at any one time; the fluid does not acphosphate of soda; the “ tartar” of the teeth cumulate in the stomach, but its watery porand salivary concretions consist principally of tions are in continual process of secretion and earthy phosphates and animal matter. The reabsorption as long as any food remains undilimpid secretion of the parotid and sublingual gested, within reasonable limits as to quantity glands saturates the food during proper masti- ingested. Many of the most important phecation, while the viscid submaxillary Auid facil- nomena of gastric digestion have been rendered itates swallowing when the tongue carries the familiar and visible by the experiments of Dr. mass back toward the pharynx. The amount Beaumont and others within a few years on of saliva secreted daily by man will average, ac- Alexis St. Martin, through an opening in whose cording to Bidder and Schmidt, 3} lbs., though stomach the effect of food, stimulants, and sedait varies with the character and frequency of the tives could be seen. The color of the membrane meals. Beside its mechanical action, it is be- was pale pink, its appearance velvet-like, and lieved that the saliva, by its peculiar ferment, its surface lined with a transparent viscid muacts chemically upon the farinaceous elements of cus; the irritation of food caused the innumer

able follicles to become prominent, and to pour fine division without the agency of the gastric out the acid gastric juice; small quantities of juice. Its action on albuminous matters is to very cold water, or ice, after the primary seda- reduce them to a complete solution, alter their tive effect, caused turgidity of the membrane chemical properties, and convert them into aland copious secretion, while ice in large amount buminose (a kind of imperfect albumen), in and long continued retarded the process. The which form they are readily assimilated. In this amount of gastric juice secreted depends on the condition they form definite combinations with requirements of the system, and not on the the solvent liquid, which have been called pepquantity of food taken into the stomach; this tones; these are not mere solutions of the respecis most important to be remembered, since, tive substances in acidulated fluids, for a convertafter the fluid secreted has dissolved all it ing power is exerted by the pepsin, the solvent can, any excess of food must remain undigest- power being due to the acid of the gastric juice. ed, pass into the intestines in a crude state, The process of digestion is far from being

comand become a source of pain and irritation until pleted in the stomach ; the action of the biliary it is expelled. When the system is diseased, and pancreatic fluids has been noticed under BILE there is no craving for food, which if taken and Chile, and the end of the digestive act une would not cause the secretion of the gastric der Cæcum. As mental depression will retard juice, but would remain undigested for 24 or 48 digestion, so a mind at ease and a joyful spirit hours, adding its irritation to the general dis- will promote it. The merry laugh not only ineased state. Excess in eating or drinking causes dicates a mental condition favorable for the erythematic inflammation of the stomach, and natural secretion of the gastric juice, but by acridity of the secreted fluid, which if long con- shaking the sides favors the movements of the tinued disorders digestion, and betrays itself to stomach so essential to perfect digestion ; so that the physician by aphthous ulcerations and other the saying, “Laugh and grow fat," is founded morbid appearances of the mouth and tongue. upon physiological principles. Until digestion The secretion of gastric juice is influenced by, has been partially completed, both orifices of the though not dependent on, nervous agency; it is stomach are closed, a beautiful provision of Dawell known that mental emotion will put a stop ture keeping the pylorus shut, and allowing no to the digestive process, and section of the undigested matter to pass out, unless its faithful pneumogastric nerves arrests for a time the fibres are overpowered by too much or improper elaboration of the gastric fluid. There can be food. Indeed, the digestive system affords some no doubt that the process of gastric digestion is of the most admirable proofs of creative design, essentially one of chemical solution, the solvent whether we consider the mechanism of chewing fluid being prepared by the follicles of the stom- and swallowing, the reduction of different aliach, and its action assisted by the peristaltic mentary articles to a homogeneous chyme, the muscular movements of the organ; the experi- absorption of some parts by the stomach itself ments on St. Martin fully prove these facts, and of others by the special lacteals, the changes both in natural and artificial digestion. Rapiditý effected by the secretions of the liver and pan. of digestion depends so much on the quantity creas, or the removal of superfluous and injuri. and quality of the food, the state of health, the ous substances. When it is remembered what condition of the mind, and the habits of exer- control, for good or for evil, the human race has cise, that it is difficult to determine the relative over these processes, it must be admitted that a digestibility of different articles of diet; it ap- knowledge of the physiology of digestion is of pears from Dr. Beaumont's researches that, other the first importance to health and happiness. things being equal, the flesh of wild animals is For further details on the subject of digestion, more easily digested than that of the allied do- the reader is referred to Todd and Bowman's mesticated races; in this respect venison stands “ Physiological Anatomy," Carpenter's works first, then turkey, then beef, mutton, and veal, on physiology, and the work of Dr. Beaumont in the order mentioned. A certain bulk of on * Digestion," edited by Dr. Andrew Combe; food is necessary for healthy digestion, as has and for fuller information on articles of food to long been practically known by uncivilized na- the titles

ALIMENT and DIETETICS. tions; soups and fluid aliment are not more read- DIGGES, LEONARD, an English mathematiily chymified than solid substances, and cannot cian, born in the parish of Barham, Kent, died alone support the system in vigor. Moderate about 1574. He was educated at Oxford, was exercise before a meal facilitates digestion. A possessed of an ample fortune, and devoted himtemperature of 98° to 100° F. is requisite for self to mathematical studies. He wrote “Teethe perfect action of the gastric juice; hence tonicum, briefly showing the exact Measuring the ingestion of cold and iced substances, so and speedy Reckoning of all manner of Lands, generally used at the present day, must be very Squares, Timber, Stones, Steeples, &c." (1556); prejudicial to digestion. The most recent ex- Pantometria, a practical geometrical treatise periments go to show that the action of the (1591);

and“Prognostication Everlasting of right gastric juice is confined to nitrogenized sub- good effect

, or Choice Rules to judge the Weastances, and that it exerts no influence on ther by the Sun, Moon, and Stars ” (1555).starchy, saccharine, or oily matters. Starch is Thomas, only son of the preceding, died in 1595. acted upon by the salivary Auid, sugar is dissolv- He was graduated at Oxford, adopted the profesed, and oily substances are reduced to a state of sion of a soldier, and was appointed muster-mas


ter general of the forces sent out by Elizabeth to action of the pulse. The effects of digitalis
assist the Netherlands. He wrote several mathe- more closely resemble those of tobacco than
matical treatises and other works, among which any other agent. It possesses in common with
may be mentioned Ale, seu Scalæ Mathemat- green tea the property of preventing sleep. In
icæ (1573); “ A Letter on Parallax” (1573); medicine it is usually employed: 1, to reduce
" A Geometrical Treatise named Stratioticos, the heart's action; 2, to promote the action of
requisite for the Perfection of Soldiers” (1590); the absorbents; 3, as a diuretic; and 4, on
“A Perfect Description of the Celestial Orbs account of its influence over the cerebro-spinal
according to the most ancient Doctrine of the system. Large quantities of digitalis are ex-
Pythagoreans” (1592), and some others. ported from Germany to Cuba, where it is

DIGIT (Lat. digitus, finger), in arithmetic, mixed with tobacco in the manufacture of
one of the 10 figures or symbols by means of cigars.
which all numbers are expressed. In astronomy, DIGITIGRADES, the tribe of the typical car-
it designates a 12th part of the diameter of the nivora, so called because they walk on the ends
sun or moon. Thus, an eclipse is said to be of the toes, as distinguished from the planti-
of 9 digits when three-fourths of the diameter grades, which, like the bear, place the whole
of its disk are concealed.

foot upon the ground. This tribe includes the
DIGITALIS, a genus of exogenous plants be- mustelidos or weasels, the canidæ or dogs, and
longing to the natural order scrophulariaceæ. the felidæ or cats. All have the cheek teeth
Digitalis purpurea (Linn.), purple foxglove, with cutting edges, the lower shutting within the
is a small shrub found in pastures and about upper, dividing the flesh of their prey like the
hedges on banks of streams, in a gravelly or blades of scissors. As their food would indicate,
sandy soil. Calyx 5-parted, unequal; corolla they have a simple stomach and a short intes-
campanulate, the limbs obliquely 4-lobed; sta- tine. Their carnivorous propensity may be
mens 4; stigma simple; capsule ovate-acumi- measured by the tubercle or heel on the lower
nate; root of numerous long slender fibres, carnivorous tooth, and the number of false mo-
biennial; stem erect, 3 or 4 feet high, commonly lars in front and of tuberculous teeth behind it;
simple roundish with slight angles, downy; those having the simplest carnivorous teeth, and
leaves alternate, ovate-lanceolate or elliptic- the fewest molars in front and behind, like the
oblong, crenate, downy, rugged, and veiny, of cats and the weasels, are the most sanguinary.
a dull green color, tapering at the base into the characteristic marks in the skeleton are the
winged footstalks, lower ones largest; raceme long metacarpus and metatarsus, the elevation
terninal, long, simple, of numerous large, pen- of the os calcis, and the shortness of the pha-
dulous, odorless flowers. Fuchsius is regarded langes which alone rest upon the ground; and
as the earliest botanist who mentions this plant, in the cats, the retractile claws. The extremities
which he named digitalis (Germ. Fingerhut, fins are formed for leaping and springing; from the
ger stall), on account of the blossoms resembling pelvis as the fixed point, the 3 portions of the
the finger of a glove. The term foxe-glove oc- limbs are movable in alternately opposite di-
curs in a MS. Glossarium Ælfricæ, written be- rections; by the simultaneous flexion of these
fore the Norman conquest, and in a MS. Saxon joints, and their sudden extension by means of
translation of Apuleius, both of which are among powerful muscles, the greatest force is given to
the Cotton MSS. in the British museum; but no the spring, the elevated and elongated heel af-
Latin or Greek name was given to this plant fording the principal mechanical advantage in
previous to Fuchsius in 1542. This beautiful the digitigrade foot.
shrub derives its chief interest from its medicinal DII, the Latin generic name for all the gods.
properties, which reside in the leaves and seeds, The instinctive tendency of man, prompted also
the latter being small, roundish, and of a grayish- by every thing in the external world, is to believe
brown color. The effect of foxglove has been in a divine agency and government. Amid the
tried on dogs, horses, rabbits, turkeys, the do- grand movements of the universe, and with con-
mestic fowl, and frogs, and on all it has been sciousness of noble passions and faculties, he de-
found to act as a poison. According to Orfila, mands the origin, the law, and the destiny of him-
the first symptom of poisoning in carnivorous self and the objects by which he is surrounded;
animals is vomiting. The cerebro-spinal symp- be asks what absolute masters govern the phe-
toms observed in animals are diminished mus- nomena of nature, impel the streams, unchain
cular power, convulsive movements, tremors, the tempests, illumine and move the skies, guide
and insensibility. When given in small doses the procession of the seasons, and start the
to man, it is found to exercise a remarkable in- germs of life. Asia, the birthplace of man, and
Auence over the circulation, frequently reducing the theatre of the earliest human societies, gave
the pulse from 70 or 80 to 40 or 50 beats in the the first answers to these inquiries, sometimes
minute. Dr. Baildon found that his own pulse deifying the elements, the heavenly bodies, and
was reduced by the use of digitalis from 110 eminent men ; sometimes marking the con-
to 40 beats.per minute while he occupied a re- stant antagonisms of nature-how the shore
cumbent position, but upon rising it increased confronts the sea, the wind and ocean wrestle
to 70 beats. This action, however, is far from together, and conscience and passion strive for
being uniform. Dr. Sanders indeed asserts that the mastery of the human will—and therefore
its use is invariably attended by an increased deifying two opposite principles of good and evil,

either of which would be supreme but for the was degraded by the apotheosis of impious and other; and sometimes attaining the conception monstrous Roman emperors, and passed away of one supreme deity whose spirit pervades all as Christianity gradually advanced. things. The Greek and Roman mythology, DIJON (anc. Dibio or Divio), a town of though it received some elements from the crea- France, former capital of the duchy of Burgun. tions of the East, was mainly the work of the dy, now the chief town in the department of poets and legislators of Greece. Created and Côte d'Or, seat of a bishopric, of a royal court, professed by the most artistic people of the past, of tribunals of the first resort, and of a univer: it was submitted to by the triumphant Romans; sity with faculties of law, the sciences, and during many centuries morality found support in belles-lettres; pop. in 1856, 29,766. It is of an it, and misfortune a refuge ; philosophy adopt- oval form, with several suburbs, and lies at the ed it, and poetry rendered it immortal. The foot of a chain of mountains in a fertile vale, at principal divisions of nature were personified the confluence of the rivers Ouche and Suzon, on into great divinities, and forms, attributes, and the railway from Paris to Lyons, 160 miles S. a name were given to the smallest objects in the E. of Paris. It is generally well built, and has universe. Fable too and tradition become trans- numerous handsome public places and elegant figured into mythology, and many of the gods and houses. It is enclosed by ramparts, and its en

, demigods were but the kings, heroes, and sages virons furnish delightful promenades. Dijon who preceded the historical times

. Of divinities contains many remarkable buildings, the princiof various ranks, Hesiod says there were no few. pal of which are the cathedral, formerly the er than 30,000 who inhabited the earth, and to Cistercian abbey of St. Benigne, a massive this immense number many more were after. Gothic edifice founded in 35 and rebuilt in ward added. The Romans generally made 3 1271, which contains the magnificent mausoclasses of the gods. The first of these, the dii leums of Philip the Bold and of John the Fear. majores, were 12 in number, 6 males and 6 less; the church of Notre Dame, built in the females, and their names are thus combined by 13th and 14th centuries; the church of St. Ennius in 2 hexameters:

Michael, which dates from the 15th century, Juno, Vesta, Minerva, Ceres, Diana, Venus, Mars,

remarkable for its front and its castle-like solidMercurius, Jovi, Neptunus, Vulcanus, Apollo. ity; an ancient castle, the work of Louis XI., These deities corresponded with the 12 Olym. which served for a time in the 18th century as pian gods of the Greeks, and constituted the the prison of the duchesse de Maine, Mirabean, divine council which presided over the course and the chevalier d'Eon; the state palace, of human affairs. The Greeks added to these which contains archives and monuments of the 12, Alexander the Great as the god of conquests, middle ages of great value; and a palace of the but he was not recognized as such by the Ro- princes of Condé, built by Louis XI. and XII. mans. The second class were the 8 dii selecti, It has also a school of the fine arts, 8 colleges, Janus, Saturn, Genius, Sol, Bacchus, Tellus and 2 libraries, one of which contains 40,000 Pluto, Luna, who were sometimes classed with volumes. Its industry is active and varied, enthe superior gods. The third class were the dii ployed in the manufacture of linens, hosiery, minores, comprehending a crowd of beings to vinegar, and candles, in distilleries and bleachwhom limited divine honors were paid, and who eries, and in commerce in grain and wines. were regarded as possessing a species of divine The origin of Dijon is traced back to times prenature. Among these were the indigenous gods, ceding the Roman dominion. Under Marcus attached to certain places of which they were Aurelius it was surrounded by walls flanked the guardians, as the penates and lares, the pro- with towers, and was embellished and enlarged tectors of home and family. The woods, rivers, by Aurelian. It was burned by the Saracens in fields, mountains, forests

, and solitudes were all the 8th century, and sacked by the Normans in peopled with fauns, sylvans, satyrs, nymphs, the 9th. It was again ravaged by fire in 1127, dryads, and hamadryads. The agitation of the and was for 3 centuries the residence of the air came from the flight of the Zephyrs; the dukes of Burgundy and the seat of their brilrainbow was the scarf of Iris; sound reverber- liant court. By them its present fortifications ating through the rocks was the nymph Echo; were constructed. In 1513 it was besieged by and all nature under the charm of this mytholo- the Swiss, and saved itself only by a humiliating gy became endowed with life and intelligence. treaty. It is the birthplace of some of the most There were the implacable Parcæ in collision eminent men of France, of Bossuet, Crébillon with the sharply-cut Greek personality; and the elder, Piron, Rameau, Longepierre, Lamonthe avenging Furies, side by side with the noye, Cazotte, Guyton-Morveau, and the duke more heroic than moral Greek instincts. Some of Bassano. theologians have considered mythology founded DIKE, in geology, a wall of trap or other ig; upon religious ideas once revealed to man, but, neous rock, which traverses other rocks, and in consequence of length of time and the action appears to have been produced by the flowing of an exuberant imagination, at length over- of melted matter into a deep rent or fissure. grown with fable. It was never so native to Dikes are distinguished from veins by the the Romans as to the Greeks, and before the greater uniformity of their contents

, by the parera of Augustus the faith in it had ceased to be allelism of their sides, by their not ramifying either a strong religious or ästhetic feeling. It into smaller veins, and by their usually larger di

mensions. The name was given them from by day and night, and give alarm whenever the their freqnently projecting above the surface like danger appears imminent and the tide threatens a wall, owing to the degradation of the softer rock to overflow. The people then hasten to the around them, dike being in the north of Eng- point, and by mats of straw and rushes and land and in Scotland a provincial name for wall. large sheets of sail-cloth buried in the sand they They are met with from a few inches to more raise a temporary bulwark, to be more securely than a mile in thickness. In volcanic eruptions built before the approach of the next tide.they are seen in process of formation, as deep Dikes are often constructed as barriers for resrents open and are filled with liquid lava. In ervoirs of water, and for this purpose they are the English coal mines trap dikes are occasion- built on several well established plans. The ally met with in underground operations. They loose materials excavated for the channel or there form a wall across the line of the coal basin are piled up in a firm bank and consolibeds, cutting them off, and causing them at dated by rolling with heavy rollers. Sometimes to be thrown out of place. In the United times they are rendered more secure by buildStates they occur likewise in the gold mines of ing within them along their central line a pudNorth Carolina and in other metalliferous dis- dle bank of selected clayey earth, mixed with tricts. The term is also used to denote a ditch, sufficient sand to give it tenacity, so as not to and is probably derived from the word to dig; crack in drying. This should be carried down but as applied to a sea wall or embankment, it to a solid foundation, and may be advantagecomes no doubt from the Dutch word dijk, of ously bedded upon a layer of concrete. It is the same signification. Such earth works were built up a little later than the bank on each in former times a common means of defence, side of it, and both are rolled on the addition and were built around castles and fortresses. of every layer of 6 inches with a heavily ribbed In Holland are the most remarkable dikes in the roller of cast iron. The use of any material world, constructed to prevent the overflow of of the nature of quicksand is to be carefully the lands reclaimed from the sea. Their im- avoided in any part of the embankment. Next mense importance may be appreciated from the the water it is well to face the work with a fact that a single inundation from the sea in layer of broken stone that will pass throngh a the year 1277 caused the destruction of 44 2 inch ring, and over this should be laid a slopvillages; and in 1287, only 10 years afterward, ing wall of flat stone at an inclination of 1 base 80,000 persons were destroyed by another, and to 1 vertical, or from that to one of 3 base to 1 its present extent and shape were given to the vertical. The broken stone within is a guard Zuyder Zee. In the 15th century about 100,000 against the embankment being penetrated by persons were again destroyed through the im- any small water animals. The dike around the perfection of the dikes, when their construction great reservoir of 106 acres in the central park, was undertaken in the most thorough manner, New York, is made on the plan given above, and a law was enacted enforcing their being which is approved by the engineers of France kept in order. At present this work is con- and England. It is 16 feet 8 inches wide at ducted on a systematic plan and at great cost. top, with an inner and outer slope of 1} base Embankments are made toward the sea with to i vertical. The puddle bank of clay in the heavy timbers filled in with stone, and the sure centre, which reaches to within a few feet of face is covered with bundles of flags and reeds the top, is 16 feet thick. The depth of water fastened down by stakes. Piles also are driven around the margin is 34 feet. At the surface into the sand, and protected by planking as well of the water the thickness of the embankment as, by earth, turf, and stones. These artificial is 24 feet 9 inches, and at 30 feet below it is 114 dikes are often 40 feet above ordinary high feet 9 inches. The French engineers give the water, and wide enough at top for a common preference to this mode of construction to that roadway. Frequently the slopes are covered of a wall of masonry alone or of an embankwith wicker work made of willow twigs, and ment within a wall. Stone work by settling is the willow tree is extensively cultivated to far- liable to injury that can be repaired only at nish these supplies, which require frequent re- great cost, especially if the structure be connewal, as also to bind together by its roots the cealed within an embankment. Where room loose sands. Walls of masonry are built in some is an object, as in the streets of a city, the outer of the most exposed situations, and rows of sides of the dike are conveniently held up by piles outside protect the dikes from the action steep walls of stone, the object of which is of the waves. It is estimated that the annual neither to add to the strength nor to the imexpense of keeping up the dike of Helder and that permeability of the work. of West Cappel, at the western extremity of DILETTANTE (pl. dilettanti), an Italian the island of Walcheren, is about $30,000 each. term, naturalized in France, England, and GerThe whole expenditure in Holland for maintain- many, signifying an amateur, and applied to a ing its dikes

and regulating the water levels is person who especially interests himself in any annually from $2,000,000 to $2,500,000. Engi- art, without knowing its fundamental

principles, neers are constantly employed, and every provi- and without making it an object of thorough sion is made of materials that may be required study. The term dilettante designated originalfor immediate repairs. Watchmen are employed ly a lover of Italian vocal music, and was at one during the winter months to patrol the dikes time the name of a party which' maintained the

« PředchozíPokračovat »