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made himself first known in literature by a pub- Williams, a missionary long resident in New Zealication of poems in 1838, which was followed land, whose letter states that they were taken by a series of novels, without, however, winning from the banks and bed of fresh-water rivers, much reputation until 1840, when his Lieder buried only slightly in the mud, and probably eines kosmopolitischen Nachtwächters appeared. quite recently; that the birds formerly existed Since then he has published a great variety of in considerable numbers, and must have attained poems, tales, books of travel, &c., among which during a very long life á height of 14 or 16 feet. his Gedichte (Stuttgart, 1845) are the most suc- The bird to which these bones belonged was cessful. In 1850 he was appointed director of called moa by the natives. The names given by the royal theatre at Munich on account of the Owen were dinornis giganteus, height at least 10 success of his tragedy Das Haus des Barneveldt. feet; D. ingens, 9 feet; D. struthoides, 7 feet; D. His attention was probably drawn to the stage dromioides, 5 feet; D. didiformis
, 4 feet; and D. by Jenny Lutzer, the Viennese prima donna, otidiformis, of the size of the great bustard. who became his wife in 1844.
From these specimens he inferred that the wings DINKA, DENKA, or Donka, a district of were quite rudimentary; that the large cervical eastern Soodan, Africa, between lat. 9° and 12° vertebræ supported a powerful beak; and that N., extending along the right bank of the Bahr- its strong legs were used in scratching up the el-Abiad, or White Nile, which separates it from soil to obtain the nutritious roots of the ferns the territory of the Shillooks, S. W. of Sennaar which are so characteristic of those islands. and N. of the river Sobat, which separates it He draws a portrait of this gigantic bird, the from the land of the Nuehrs; the eastern boun- highest living form in that part of the globe, dary is unknown. It consists of a low and with no terrestrial mammal to contest its posmarshy plain, subject to frequent inundations, session of the soil before the arrival of the first and containing but few isolated mountains, Polynesian colony. Such large and probably among which is the Jebel Niemati, or mountain stupid birds, without the instinct or perhaps the of the Dinkas. A number of long swampy isl- ability to escape or defend themselves, would ands covered with reeds and a dense growth of soon become extinct under the persecution of creeping plants, which extend along the right man, whose sole aim would be to obtain a supbank of the Bahr-el-Abiad, are described as ply of animal food from such easy prey; the forming a barrier against invasion from that diminutive apteryx would escape for a longer quarter on the W. boundary. The shores pre- period, but even this is almost on the point of sent magnificent scenery, being lined with tam- extinction. In a 3d memoir (p. 307), read in arinds, creepers of a large species, and the lotus 1846, an examination of a larger number of shining in great numbers like double white lilies. specimens confirmed the deduction as to the The inhabitants, called Dinkas, are a savage and rudimentary condition of the wings by the disugly race of negroes. They are said to worship covery of a keelless sternum; showed that the the moon, and never to commence warfare when species of this essentially terrestrial genus were that luminary is above the horizon. They are heavier and more bulky in proportion to their rnled by chiefs and a king, and have a city on height, more powerful scratchers, and less swift the Bahr-el-Abiad.
of foot than the ostrich, but in different degrees DINORNIS (Gr. deivos, terrible, and opvis, according to the species; and indicated an afbird), a gigantic extinct bird, whose bones have finity to the dodo in the shape of the skull, with been found in New Zealand. The history of a lower cerebral development, and consequently this genus, established by Prof. Owen, is one of greater stupidity. Ho formed a new genus, the most remarkable examples of the correct- palapteryx, of the species ingens and dromioiness of the great laws of the correlation of parts des, characterized by a posterior or 4th toe, so beautifully elaborated by Cuvier. In vol. iii. the 3 of the dinornis all being anterior toes; of the “Transactions of the Zoological Society he added the 3 new species, D. crassus, D. casulof London,” p. 29, is the first paper by Owen on arinus, and D. curtus, all of small size. In a this subject. He had received from New Zea- 4th paper (p. 345), read in 1848, he establishes land a fragment of a femur, 6 inches long, and a new genus, aptornis, in which he places what with both the extremities broken ; from its tex- he formerly called D. otidiformis ; this has a tare and size he concluded that it belonged to a large surface for the hind toe, a strong perfobird of the struthious order, but heavier and rated calcaneal process, and a more posterior more sluggish than the ostrich; the bone was position of the condyle for the inner too; it renot mineralized, and retained much of its ani- sembles the apteryx in the comparative shortmal matter, though it had evidently remained ness of the metatarsus. In this he describes in the ground for some time; this was in 1839. perfect skulls and beaks of these birds, from In a 2d memoir (p. 235), communicated in which he concludes that the dinornis, though 1843, he gives descriptions of portions of the resembling the struthionidæ in the extraordinary skeletons of 6 species of a struthious bird, which development of the legs and the rudimentary he called dinornis, which appeared to have be- condition of the wings, does not come very close come extinct within the historical period in the to any existing struthious birds in its adze-like north island of New Zealand, as the dodo had beak, crocodilian cranium, form of the pelvis, in Mauritius; these specimens, 47 in number, and proportions of the metatarsus. . The genus had been sent to Dr. Buckland by the Rev. Mr. palapteryx belongs to the struthionidæ, being in some respects intermediate between apteryx and taining the bones of the Irish elk, mammoth, dromaius. The law of the geographical localiza- &c., to that of England; and that the last of tion of animals, so remarkably illustrated in the the moas was destroyed by the earliest inhabrecent progress of geology, receives an addi- itants of New Zealand, as the dodo was extir. tional confirmation by this occurrence in the pated by the Dutch colonists of Mauritius, and river banks of New Zealand of remains of gigan. the Irish elk by the early British and Celtio tic birds allied to the small species still existing tribes. In a more recent paper in the “ Proonly in the same islands. In vol.iv. of the “Trans- ceedings of the Zoological Society," for April 8, actions" (p. 1), in 1850, the feet and the ster- 1856, Prof. Owen describes the D, elephantonum are described, and 2 new species are alluded pus, the most extraordinary of all for the massive to, viz.: D. rheides, and P. robustus ; further de- strength of the limbs and the general proporscriptions of the skull, beak, and legs are given on tions of the breadth and bulk to the height; be pp. 59, 141, of the same volume. Some years be- states it to be the opinion of Mr. Mantell that fore the discovery of these bones in New Zealand, this species existed in the middle island with attention had been drawn to remarkable impres- the first Maori natives. From a consideration sions in the new red sandstone of the Connec- of these species, it appears that those of the ticut river valley, in Massachusetts, which were north island were distinct from those of the believed to be footprints of birds, the largest south; Cook's straits proved an insurmountable of which must have exceeded the ostrich in barrier to birds which could not ily, and could size. Geologists were unwilling to admit the hardly, if at all, swim. existence of birds at this remoto epoch on the DINOTHERIUM (Gr. DELVOS, terrible, and simple ground of these tracks, and did not dare Anplov, animal), an extinct pachyderm of imto construct even in imagination a bird of such mense size, whose bones have been found in the stupendous size as would be required for the middle tertiary or miocene deposits of Europe, largest footprints. But the subsequent discov- Asia, and Australia. A few teeth were found ery of D. giganteus demonstrated the existence in France during the last century, and the early of birds, at a comparatively recent period, part of the present. In 1829 Prof. Kaup diswhose tracks would have been larger than the covered in the sands of Eppelsheim a sufficient fossil impressions ; these recent birds would number of bones to lead him to form a new have made tracks 22 inches long and 6 wide, genus for this, the largest of terrestrial quadruconsiderably larger than these of the Connec- peds. Cuvier thought it allied to the tapir from ticut valley. The occurrence of these gigantic the character of its premolar teeth, and many birds in New Zealand, with their wingless bodies, writers, and among them Pictet, classed it with and reptile-like condition of the respiratory ap- the manati and herbivorous cetaceans. Prof. paratus (from the non-permeability of their Kaup considered it a pachyderm, intermediate bones to air), adds much to the evidence that between the mastodon and the tapir. In 1836 similar apterous and low-organized birds existed the discovery of a cranium by Dr. Klipstein in America during the red sandstone epoch, seemed to settle the position of the dinotberium "the age of reptiles," when the cold blooded among the pachyderms; in 1837, this head was and slow-breathing ovipara exhibited such va- exhibited at Paris, where several casts were rious forms and so great a number of species. taken. It is nearly 4 feet long, 2 feet broad, It has been suggested by Prof. Owen that New and 14 feet high, its summit divided into 2 parts Zealand may be the remnant of a large tract by a well-marked ridge, and its occipital surface over which the struthious family formerly wide and oblique, with a globular occipital conranged; he says: “One might almost be dis- dyle; the nasal aperture is very large, as in the posed to regard New Zealand as one end of a elephant and mastodon, with the large suborbital inighty wave of the unstable and ever-shifting foramina indicating the possession of a proboscis. crust of the earth, of which the opposite end, The lower jaw is remarkable for its curve downafter having been long submerged, has again ward, and its 2 tusks pointing in the same direcrisen with its accumulated deposits in North tion, forming a hook about 3 feet in length and America, showing us in the Connecticut sand- describing of a circle. The primary teeth appear stones of the permian period the footprints of to have been 12, 3 on each side of each jaw, and the gigantic birds which trod its surface before the permanent teeth 20, 5 on each side of each it sank; and to surmise that the intermediate jaw; the front 2 on each side, making 8, are prebody of the land-wave, along which the dinornis molars, and resemble those of the tapir; the upmay have travelled to New Zealand, has pro- per 12 teetlı, the true molars, resemble those of gressively subsided, and now lies beneath the the mastodon in their transverse ridges, but differ Pacific ocean.” (Op.cit. vol. iii. p. 328.) Though from them in their square form; they are develmany of these bones are apparently of recent oped vertically, as in man and most mammals, date, and though it is not impossible, in the while those of the elephant family are developed opinion of some, that the dinornis, like the ap- horizontally. If the bones of the trunk and teryx, may still exist in the interior of these extremities attributed to this animal really be. islands, they belong to a certain extent to the long to it, which is exceedingly doubtful, it would class of extinct genera. Dr. Mantell thinks they have a length of 18 feet and a height of 14, belong to a period as remote, in relation to the 2 feet longer and higher than the largest massurface of New Zealand, as the diluvium con- todon discovered. The shoulder blade is de
scribed as like that of the mole, indicating that organized in 1752, and named in honor of Gov. the fore feet were adapted for digging in the Dinwiddie. Capital, Dinwiddie Court Honse. earth. It is not very easy to decide whether DINWIDDIE, Robert, lieutenant-governor this animal was most terrestrial or aquatic in its of Virginia, born in Scotland about 1690, died habits. Pictet, in his Traité de paléontologie in England, Aug. 1, 1770. While acting as clerk (1853, vol. i. p. 371), expresses the opinion that to a collector of the customs in one of the Britit was a herbivorous cetacean, from the long ish West India islands, he was instrumental in and hanging tasks which a terrestrial animal detecting and exposing the frauds practised by could hardly use, the depression of the occipital his principal, and as a reward for his services bone (this being nearly vertical in the pachy- he was soon after appointed lieutenant-governor derms), the wide opening of the nasal fossæ, the of Virginia. He arrived in the colony in 1752, form of the intermaxillaries and of the ocular and remained until Jan. 1758, when he returned and temporal fossæ ; he would make it an aqua- to England. His administration covered a stirtic animal, though coming nearer the probos- ring period in colonial history, and he proved cidians than does the existing manati; living himself a zealous and active officer, although near the mouths of rivers, it fed upon the fleshy totally ignorant of military affairs. He had, portions of plants which it rooted up with its however, the sagacity to discern the capacity of tusks. On the contrary, Owen, Kaup, and De Washington, whom in 1753 he appointed adjuBlainville consider it a terrestrial proboscidian, tant-general of one of the 4 military districts of intermediate between the mastodon and tapir. Virginia, and sent as a commissioner to exposThese two opinions are really not very different tulate with the French cominander on the Ohio from each other, since it is now generally agreed for his aggressions upon British territory: At that the manati and dugong, or the herbivorous the outbreak of hostilities with the French and cetacea, must be removed from the order of Indians, he called upon the governors of the cetacea and placed among the pachydermata, other provinces to make common cause against of which last they are the embryonic type. them, and convened the house of burgesses (For details on this subject see the “Proceedings of Virginia to devise measures for the public of the American Association for the Advance- security. Entertaining peculiar notions of the ment of Science,” 3d meeting, in Charleston, royal prerogative and of his own importance, S.C., March, 1850, p. 42.) Considering then thé ho was highly incensed at the tardiness of the dinotherium to be a true pachyderm, its favorite latter body in voting money for the public deelement, air or water, may be a matter of ques- fence, and at their refusal to put it under his tion. It has no incisor teeth ; its inferior tusks absolute disposal. In 1754 he suggested to seem admirably adapted to drawing its heavy the British board of trade the propriety of body out of water upon the banks of rivers; taxing the colonies for the purpose of raising they would also serve for rooting up aquatic funds to carry on the war, and in the sucplants, assisted by the mole-shaped fore feet. ceeding year he was one of the 5 colonial govDr. Buckland suggests that the tusks served to ernors who at an interview with Gen. Braddock, anchor the animal to the shore, while it slept in at Alexandria, Va., memorialized the ministry the water. It cannot be far from the truth to to the same eñect. After the defeat of Bradcall it an aquatic pachyderm, similar in habits dock, he continued to busy himself with the to the hippopotamus, living in lakes and marshes. military operations on the frontiers, displaying The best known species D. giganteum, Kaup) great incapacity, and wearying Washington, then was found at Eppelsheim, a few leagues south in command of the colonial troops, by frequent of Mentz, in clayey marl ‘about 18 feet below exhibitions of ill temper, folly, or caprice. He the surface, in connection with bones of other enjoyed little popularity in Virginia, where his pachyderms; their remains have been found arrogance brought him into collision with the only in the miocene strata. Other smaller spe- legislature, while his avarice led him to exact cies are described, as the D. Cuvieri (Kaup), illegal or obsolete fees, such as a pistole for every D. minutum (H. de Meyer), and D. proavum patent granted, a perquisite which no governor (Eichwald), in Europe; D. Indicum (Cautley and liad claimed for many years. At the time of Falconer), from the Sivalik hills; and the D. his departure he was also charged with having australe (Owen), of Australia.
appropriated to his own use the sum of £20,000 DINWIDDIE, a S. E. county of Va., bound- which had been sent by the British government ed N. by the Appomattox river, and $. W. by as a compensation to Virginia for moneys exthe Nottoway; area, 540 sq. m.; pop. in 1850, pended by her beyond her proportion, and which 25,118, of whom 10,880 were slaves. It has a he never satisfactorily accounted for. rolling surface and a soil well adapted to grain DIOCESE (Gr. dloumnois, administration), an and tobacco. In 1850 it produced 304,556 bush- ecclesiastical division of a state, the circuit of a els of Indian corn, 60,275 of wheat, and 1,782,521 bishop's jurisdiction. In Roman antiquity, the lbs. of tobacco. There were 3 cotton factories, term diocæsis designated one of the 4 prefect25 flour and grist mills, 3 newspaper offices, 36 ures or civil divisions into which the einpire churches, and 1,092 pupils attending schools and was partitioned by Constantine the Great; and academies. Value of real estate in 1856, $2,- at a later period the empire became divided into 537,279. It is intersected by the railroad from 14 dioceses or prefectures, which comprehended Richmond to Weldon, N. o. The county was 120 provinces. The civil constitution was fol
lowed in the government of the church, and stantius, surnamed Chlorus, son of a noble Mothe diocese was originally a great ecclesiastical sian, and father of Constantine the Great. These district, embracing several bishoprics, and under two princes received the title of Cæsars, and barthe primacy of the bishop of the principal city, ing repudiated their wives, Galerius married the who bore the title either of metropolitan, arch- daughter of Diocletian, and Constantias the stepbishop, exarch, or patriarch. The diocese is daughter of Maximian. Britain, Gaul, and Spain now in the Roman Catholic church the district were assigned to Constantius ; Galerias received subject in ecclesiastical affairs to the authority the Illyrian and Danubian provinces; Italy, Afof an archbishop or bishop; in the episcopal rica, with Sicily, and the islands of the TyrrheProtestant churches, the district ruled by a nian sea, were held by Maximian ; while Dioclebishop; and in the Evangelical church of Ger- tian, the head of all
, retained under his own many, the combination of parishes under the dominion Thrace, Egypt, and the provinces of care of a superintendent. In England, every Asia. By this arrangement, on the death of diocese is divided into archdeaconries; each either of the Augusti, as Maximian and Dioclearchdeaconry at least nominally into rural dean- tian were styled, the Cæsar who had been aseries; and every deanery into parishes. sociated with him was to be his successor, and
DIOCLETIAN, VALERIUS, a Roman emperor, another Cæsar was to be appointed. These born at Doclea or Dioclea, a small village near four princes, it was thought, would hold one an:Salona in Dalmatia, A. D. 245, died in Salona other in check, so that no one of them would in 313. He was of obscure parentage, but by be able to attain to uncontrolled power. The his abilities rose rapidly in the army. On the plan was for a time successful. Maximian subdeath of Numerian in 284, he was named em- dued the rebellious provinces of western Afriperor by the troops, then returning from the ca; Diocletian reduced and secured Egypt; Persian expedition which they had commenced Galerius not only, under the superintendence under Carus, but had abandoned on the sudden of his father-in-law, compelled the haughty Perdeath of the latter. They retreated under his sians to make a treaty which secured the fronson Numerian, who died on the march, not im- tiers of that part of the empire for 40 years, but probably at the instigation, if not by the hand, of also vigilantly guarded the Danubian frontier ; Arrius Aper, his father-in-law. The death of Nu- while Constantius invaded Britain, which for inerian was concealed for a time, but the soldiers, several years had been detached from the rest having discovered it, chose Diocletian emperor, of the empire under the rule of the usurper and the latter immediately plunged his sword Carausius, and restored that island to the coninto the bosom of Aper, thus avenging the death trol of the Roman emperors. But the evils of of Numerian, and at the same time happily ful- this system of division, though not immediate, filling an old prophecy which he had received were certain ; and the permanent splitting of from a druidess in Gaul
, to the effect that he the empire into 2 distinct governments was its would reign when he should have slain the wild legitimate result. After a prosperous reign of boar (Lat. aper). But Diocletian was not with- about 21 years, Diocletian, moved by his infirm out a rival; Carinus, brother of Numerian, was health, or, as is said, by the persuasions or menrecognized as emperor in Europe. The armies of aces of his son-in-law Galerius, voluntarily rethe hostile sovereigns met near the small city signed the throne (305), and retired to Salons in of Margus, not far from the Danube in Mæsis, his native country of Dalmatia, where he passed where victory declared itself in favor of the the remaining 8 years of his lifo in retirement. veteran legions of the West; but Carinus, eager- Maximian, according to a previous agreement, ly following the flying enemy, was killed by abdicated at the same time, but was not so conone of his own officers, and his army readily tented in a private station as Diocletian, and, s acknowledged Diocletian as his successor. The few years later, wrote to his former colleague, latter soon, however, thought it necessary to as- proposing to him to resume the reins of governsociate with himself a colleague in the supreme ment. The reply of Diocletian has become celedominion, and fixed his choice on Maximian, brated. “Would you could see," he says "the his old companion in arms, a rough barbarian, cabbages planted by my hand at Salona; Fou whom he invested with the imperial dignity in would then never think of urging such an at286, and in whom he found a useful assistant tempt.” Diocletian introduced great changes and a constant friend. The Roman empire was in the Roman state. He struck a severe blow beset with enemies and torn by factions. The at the waning influence of the senate by the repeasants of Gaul rose in arms; Mauritania was moval of his court from Rome to Nicomedia, in rebellion; Egypt was disturbed by external reduced the numbers and the importance of the enemies and internal convulsions; while all prætorian guards, divided the provinces so as to along the frontier, from the Euphrates to the lessen the power of the provincial governors Rhine, the barbarians were threatening to de- and increased the dignity and ceremony with stroy the empire by the invasions of their count- which the emperor was surrounded. He is de less hordes. Maximian subdued the Gallic peas- servedly censured for persecuting the Christians; ants, Bagaudæ, as they were styled, but Diocle- but it is supposed, as he himself seemed to be tian was compelled to strengthen the empire by favorably disposed to them during the greater raising two more Roman soldiers to the purple, part of his reign, and as he was much under the Galerius, son of a Dacian shepherd, and con- influence of Galerius, a superstitious savage,
that he may have been induced to pursue this the “Papal Fiction of Purgatory" (1619); & course by the artful persuasions of the latter. French translation of Job, Ecclesiastes, and CanIt must be remembered also, that the greater ticles (1638), of the Psalms (1640), and of the part of these persecutions took place after Dio- whole Hebrew Bible (1644); Glossæ in Sancta cletian had resigned his authority.
Biblia (fol. Geneva, 1641), in Italian; and a DIODATI, DOMENICO, an Italian archæolo- great number of other theological and controgist and theologian, born in Naples in 1736, versial writings. died there in 1801. He wrote several works on DIODORUS, commonly called Diodorus Siecclesiastical history, and one on the coins of the OULUS, & Sicilian historian of the time of Cæsar Italian states; but the work by which he became and Augustus, was born in Agyrium, but the widely known, and which will remain one of precise epochs both of his birth and of his the most curious monuments of ingenious spec- death are unknown. He spent 30 years in comulation, is entitled De Christo Græce loquente posing a universal history, and in the preparaE.ercitatio, qua ostenditur Græcam sive Helle- tion of this work he traversed a large portion nisticam Linguam cum Judæis omnibus, tum ipsi of Europe and Asia. The first 6 books treated adeo Christo Domino Apostolis, nativam ac of the times anterior to the Trojan war; the ternaculam fuisse (Naples, 1767). The strange 11 following extended to the death of Alexander theory that Greek was the native language of the Great; while in the 26 remaining, the histhe Jewish people in the time of Christ, not only tory was brought down to the time of Julius Cæfamiliar to the cultivated classes, but the dialect Of this extensive work, which was styled of the common people, is advocated in this work Βιβλιοθηκη, or Βιβλιοθηκη “Ιστορικη (library, or with remarkable subtlety, nice comparison of historical library), we have now only 15 books passages, and a great variety of proofs, both ex- entire, and a few fragments of the rest. The ternal and internal. The Della Cruscan academy first 5 books, containing the ancient history of made him at once one of its associate members, the eastern nations, the Ethiopians, Egyptians, and the delighted empress of Russia, patron of and Greeks, and the 10 from the 11th to the the Greek church, sent a gold medal to the man 20th inclusive, comprising the history of events who had done such service to the language of from the second Persian war, 480 B. O., down to the sacred records.
302 B. O., remain entire. Many fragments of DIODATI, GIOVANNI, a Swiss theologian, born the other books are preserved in the works of in Geneva in 1576, died in 1649. His parents, Photius, and in the Eclogæ, or selections, made refugees from persecution, had found that homé by order of the emperor Constantine Porphyin Geneva which was denied them in their na- rogenitus. The Bibliotheca is the only work tive city of Lucca. At 21 years he became, on of Diodorus of which we have any knowledge, the nomination of Beza, a professor of Hebrew. the collection of letters attributed to him being In 1608 he was made parish minister in the probably a forgery. It is written in the style of Reformed church, and in 1609 became professor annals, and the events are narrated in a confusof theology. On a visit to Venice he had sev- ed and discordant manner; but the work is valeral interviews with Fulgentius and Fra Paolo uable as giving us, if not always information of Sarpi, the famous historian of the council of facts, at least of the opinions of men, with regard Trent, at the time that they were resisting the to a period in history concerning which our insecular influence of the papacy. In 1618-'19 formation is so exceedingly meagre, that the Diodati, already noted as a preacher both in slightest addition to it is of great value. The France and Switzerland, attended the synod of first 5 books are especially prized on this acDort, where, with Theodore Tronchin, he repre-count. Most of the events treated in the other sented the church of Geneva, and was one of ten are better told by Thucydides and Xenophon, the 6 ministers appointed to draw up the ar- who are silent, however, upon the Carthaginian ticles of faith. In this synod he showed him- wars in Sicily related by Diodorus. The best self a zealous Calvinist, and offended many by modern editions of his works are those of L. his bitterness against the Remonstrant party. Dindorf (6 vols. 8vo., Leipsic, 1828), and Müller In 1633 he drew up, along with Le Clerc, a (Paris, 1842–4). That portion of his history preface to the confession of faith of Cyril Lucar, which relates to the successors of Alexander patriarch of the Greek church at Constantinople. was translated into English by Thomas Stocker This remarkable and unfortunate prelate had (4to., London, 1569). His whole work was transbeen for many years the associate, correspond-lated by Thomas Cogan (fol., London, 1653), ent, and admirer of the leading reformers, and and by G. Booth (fol., London, 1700 or 1721 ; was indefatigable in his efforts to engraft Lu. republished, 2 vols. royal 8vo., London, 1814). theran and even Calvinistic ideas upon the creed DIOGENES, a Cynic philosopher, born in Siof the eastern church. In 1645 Diodati relin- nope, in Pontus, Asia Minor, about 412, died quished his office as professor, and passed the near Corinth, 323 B. O. His father was a bank, remaining years of his life in retirement. He er, and was condemned for having adulterated was considered by many to be the most learned the coinage; and whether his son was involved biblical scholar of his day. Among his works in the same condemnation or not, it is certain are an Italian version of the Bible (1607); a free that the latter left his native country and took Italian translation of the New Testament (1608); refuge in Athens. Here he became a disciple of Mortis Meditatio Theologica (Geneva, 1619); Antisthenes, the founder of the Cynic school of