Obrázky stránek
PDF
ePub

at least after the 8th century, was universally Dionysius consented to an arrangement, by adopted as the commencement of the era. which he was allowed to depart in safety to

DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS, & Greek Corinth. He passed the remainder of his life historian and rhetorician, born in Halicarnassus, in a private condition, with low associates, perin Caria. He removed to Rome early in the forming, according to various traditions, the reign of Augustus, and 22 years later, shortly parts of schoolmaster, actor, and mendicant before his death, published his work, entitled priest of Cybele. 'Pwuainn Apxacodoyla, or “Roman Antiquities." DIONYSUS. See BACCHUS. It was in 20 books, and contained the history of DIOPHANTUS OF ALEXANDRIA, the only Rome from the earliest mythical times to the era Greek writer on algebra, first mentioned by of the Punic wars, where the history of Polybius John, patriarch of Jerusalem, in the 8th century, begins. There remain only the first 11 books, unless he be identical with the astronomer Diowhich stop with the year 441 B. O., a few years phantus, on whose work Hypatia is said by after the expulsion of the decemvirs. Several Suidas to have written a commentary. There fragments and extracts from the last 9 books are no more definite indications of his era. have been preserved in the collections made by When his MSS. came to light in the 16th cencommand of the emperor Constantine Porphyro- tury, 13 books of bis Apı@jetika were announced, genitas in the 10th century. The best editions only 6 of which have been produced. Another of his works are those of Hudson (Oxford, 1704) treatise by hiin, Ilepu twv Apıduwv IIoavywvwv and Reiske (Leipsic, 1774–6). His rhetorical (“On Polygonal Numbers "), is extant. These compositions have been published separately by books contain a system of reasoning on numGross and by Westermann. There is an English bers with the use of general symbols, and are translation of the “Roman Antiquities," by therefore algebraical treatises, though the deEdward Spelman (4 vols. 4to., London, 1758). monstrations are written out at length in com

DIONYSIUS THE YOUNGER succeeded his fa- mon language. The term Diophantine was apther Dionysius the Elder, as tyrant of Syracuse, plied by some modern mathematicians, as Gauss 367 B. O. At that time he was a reckless young and Legendre, to the peculiar analysis employed man, educated in luxury, and unused to public in investigating the theory of numbers. The affairs. He hastened to conclude a peace with similarity of the Diophantine and Hindoo algethe Carthaginians, abandoned his father's pro- bra renders it probable that both had a common jects of foreign settlements and power, and de- origin, or that one was derived from the other. voted himself to pleasure. The philosopher The best editiou of his works is that of Fermat, Dion was bis uncle, and undertook to excite in Greek and Latin, published posthumously him to a noble career. He conversed with (Toulouse, 1670). They were translated into bim of the doctrines of Plato, and through German by Schulz (Berlin, 1821). The 6 books his influence that philosopher was invited to of the “ Arithmetic' were translated into French visit the court of Syracuse. On coming, Plato by Stévin and Girard (Paris, 1625). A comproposed an amendment to the constitution, plete translation of his works into English was changing the government from nominal de- made by the late Miss Abigail Lousada, but has mocracy and real despotism to a confederate not been published. authority, in which the sovereignty should re- DIOPTRICS, that part of optics which treats side in all the members of the ruling family, of refracted light. See OptiOs. who should form together a college of princes. DIOSCORIDES, PEDacius or PEDANIUS, & The monarch rejected this proposal, and soon medical and botanical writer of the 1st or 20 after took up his residence in Locri, and gained century A. D., probably a native of Anazarbus some advantages against the Lucanians; but the in Cilicia. He made collections of plants in wild orgies to which he surrendered himself Italy, Gaul, Greece, and Asia Minor, and wrote drew upon him the contempt both of his sub- a treatise in 5 books on materia medica (IIepu jects and of foreigners. With a small band of 'Yans lampens), a work which enjoyed the highexiles, and with two vessels laden with arms, est reputation until the 17th century. It is now Dion landed in Sicily (359 B. C.), and was joined chiefly valuable as illustrating the opinions of by thousands as he marched toward Syracuse. physicians in ancient times, and as giving us Dionysius had instantly returned from Locri, some idea of their attainments in natural history. but his troops were defeated, and he was obliged It has been translated into the Arabic, Italian, to retreat to the citadel; and finding it impos- Spanish, French, and German languages, and sible to retain his power, he collected his most many editions of it have been published in Latin valuable property, and sailed away to Italy, and Greek. while his friends still kept possession of the DIP, in geology, the inclination of a stratum stronghold. In 346 he availed himself of in- of rock from a horizontal line. The angle of ternal dissensions to recover his power in the inclination is measured by an instrument called city, and continued to reign there during the a clinometer, and the magnetic needle which is next 3 years. But the former Syracusan empire commonly with it gives the point of the comwas now in fragments; and even the garrison pass toward which the rock slopes or dips.-In which defended the tyrant in the citadel was terrestrial magnetism, it is the inclination which rebellious. Timoleon 'now appeared upon the a needle makes from a horizontal line after it stage, marched against Syracuse in 343, and has been magnetized, when before this it was perfectly balanced in a horizontal position. In cretions and in its tendency to spread when epithe northern hemisphere the north pole of the demic, it resembles in some respects the disease needle dips toward the north pole of the earth, of infants known as muguet. Various causes and in the southern hemisphere the south polé have been assigned for it, and it is generally adis depressed toward the south pole of the earth. mitted to be a specific disease. Dr. Laycock and The line called the magnetic equator, upon others regard it as due to the oidium albicans, which a needle continues in the same horizontal a parasitic fungus, whose sporules and myceliurn plane before and after it is magnetized, is a have been found on the mucous membrane of curved line, not varying from the geographical the mouth, fauces, and alimentary canal; its equator. From this toward either pole the dip irritation induces in the enfeebled membranes an increases in intensity, and by means of a needle increased secretion of epithelial scales and exconstructed with great delicacy, and furnished udation corpuscles, which with the fungus conwith a graduated vertical arc, called a dipping stitute the membrane or pellicle; it seems to needle, the angle is measured and determined act upon the capillaries of the subjacent tissue, for different places upon the surface of the earth. which is red and bleeding. Syphilitic, scarlaIt is found, however, not to be constant in any tinic, or rubeolic inflammation may take on the place, but to follow the motion of the mag diphtheritic form during an epidemic, and the netic poles, which appear to move westward fungus may excite an irritation without forming at an annual rate of about 11' 4". The posi- a pellicle; it is not vesicular por ulcerative like tion of these poles is ascertained by compari- aphthæ, and the redness is deeper. These mison of the angles given by the dipping nee- croscopic parasitic organisms doubtless cause dle in different latitudes. În 1831 Commander more diseased conditions than physicians are as Ross succeeded in reaching the spot in the yet aware of, and the question naturally arises northern hemisphere calculated to be the N. whether the fungous growth is the primary promagnetic pole, lat. 70° 5' 17" N., long. 96° 46' cess, or whether it is secondary, requiring the 45'' W., where he found the dipping needle to nidus of a previously diseased membrane for its take a position within l' of the vertical, and the development. From the occurrence of similar compass needles to be as perfectly indifferent to growths in a variety of diseases, they would polarity as if they possessed no magnetic prop- seem a consequence rather than a cause, spring. erties. For compasses intended to be used over ing up wherever they find a suitable nidus, a wide range of latitude, provision has to be complicating and often masking the original dismade to counteract the effect of dip, in order ease; the fungus of diphtheria, however, is said that the needle may retain a horizontal position. to be peculiar, and different from other similar This is effected by a small weight, so adjusted parasites. The sporules may and do pass from as to be slid along the bar as may be required. one person to another, and the disease is conseIn passing from the northern to the southern quently contagious, rendering necessary the isohemisphere, it must be taken off the south pole lation of the sick. It is most common in the of the needle and placed upon the north end. foul districts of the large cities of France and Dipping needles require to be made with the England, and is attributed to the action of punicest accuracy, and to be free as possible from trid effluvia on the fauces, especially the foul air friction and every other impediment to their of sewers and cess-pools; according to the remotion. By means of a universal joint, or by port of the registrar-general, in March, 1858, reference to a variation compass, the needle is 2,000,000 of the people of London live over such made to move always in a vertical plane coin- subterranean structures, so imperfectly secured ciding with the magnetic meridian of the place. that any variation in the pressure of the atmo-The dip of the horizon is the angle which a sphere forces up the foul air and sends it along line to the visible horizon makes with a horizon- every street and into every house, as if it were tal plane; its magnitude depends upon the height an apparatus specially contrived for passing curto which the observer's eye is elevated. rents of poisonous vapor steadily over the peo

DIPIITHERIA (Gr. di depa, skin), the most ple. The same authority states that in 1857 recent name of a disease of the mucous mem- 15,000 deaths in London were attributed to the branes first described by Bretonneau as diph- aggregate effects of impure air and other sanitherite, characterized by the exudation of a tary defects, and recommends the conducting thick leathery membrane in the throat ; it off of the effluvia of these receptacles through may occupy also any portion of the air pas- pipes running as high as the chimneys. It is sages even to the bronchi, the gastro-intestinal altogether probable that many epidemics in this surfaces, the points of junction of the skin country have had a similar origin, and from the and mucous membrane, and the skin itself account of the symptoms and successful treatwhere it is delicate or deprived of its epidermis. ment of the recent epidemie of singular throat It is allied to some forms of scarlatinous inflam- disease in Albany, it would seem that it was mation, to croup, and to quinsy, with which it diphtheria; it was found in all parts of the city, is often confounded. It is probably, as it has and in almost every block, and raged for several occurred during the last few years in France months with a mortality of about 5 percent. As and England, only an intense epidemic form of diphtheria most severely attacks debilitated con. an old disease, manifesting itself in various forms stitutions, in addition to hygienic and sanitary of throat disease. In the formation of firm con- measures, the general treatment should be by

[ocr errors]

antiseptic tonics and stimulants. To destroy the or not dangerous to disregard them. To oppress fungous growth, the best local applications seem the weak, to deceive the strong, to employ by to be a saturated solution of borax, and alkalies; turns force or artifice as policy seemed to rethe chlorate of potash; the liniment of acetate quire-such was the aim and such was the art of copper; corrosive sublimate gargles; solu- of ancient diplomacy. The Romans professedly tions of the sulphates of zinc, iron, and copper; regarded all foreign nations as barbarians, to be alkaline, and even common salt gargles. Nic subdued and made tributary whenever opportrate of silver, though the most popular, has not tunities occurred. They made treaties and proved the most successful application. Wounds formed alliances, but renounced both without affected with the fungus should be treated on scruple when it became convenient to do so. similar principles.

Christianity first elevated diplomacy to a nobler DIPLOMACY (Gr. Olti oua, from Ondow, to position by teaching the brotherhood of man double or fold), the science or art of conducting and of nations, within the pale of the church at the official intercourse of independent states, least, and by giving them the supreme law of and particularly of negotiating treaties. Thé the gospel, and finally, during the middle ages, term is of very recent origin, having first come by recognizing the pope as the supreme head into general use in the courts of Europe since and arbiter of the Christian commonwealth. the end of the 18th century. It is not to be The most ancient specimens of diplomatic corfound in Johnson's dictionary, and a French respondence which have come down to us are writer on the subject states that it is not in any those contained in the Excerpta Legationum, vol. dictionary anterior to 1819. The art itself, how- i. of the Byzantine historians, or the 53d book ever, is as ancient as the division of mankind of the great historical compilation made by orinto peoples and nations. In the earliest periods der of the emperor Constantine Porphyrogeniof history heralds and ambassadors make their tus. Among them is a curious account of the appearance, bearing messages from king to king embassy of Maximin, a high officer of the Byor from state to state. The Romans had a col- zantine court, who was sent by the emperor lege of heralds, 20 in number, supposed to have Theodosius, about the middle of the 5th cenbeen instituted by Numa, whose functions em- tury, on a mission to Attila, the king of the braced every thing connected with the decla- Huns, who received him in his capital on the ration of war and the making of treaties. But banks of the Danube, at or near the place where regular and permanent embassies at foreign the city of Buda now stands. The details of courts do not seem to have been maintained by this mission are highly interesting, and it would any nation until the 16th century A. D. Am- seem to have been conducted very much in the bassadors were sent for special occasions, and manner of an embassy of modern times. In the returned home when they had accomplished the middle ages diplomacy partook of the general particular object of their mission, or had found rudeness, and was comparatively crude and simits accomplishment impracticable. They were ple. The relations of states were not compliclothed with a sacred, and to some extent a cated, and little forethought for anything beyond priestly character, and their personal privileges immediate emergencies seems to have been exwere seldom disregarded even by the rudest ercised by the statesmen of the period, except barbarians. The heralds whom Darius the Per- by the popes, who had almost constantly in sian king sent to the Grecian cities to demand the view a well-defined policy for extending and symbols of submission, earth and water, some of strengthening their ecclesiastical dominion. It whom were put to death at Sparta and at Athens, is to the Italian republics that we owe the first were looked upon less as ambassadors than as marked development of the science of diplobearers of a hostile and insulting message ; yet macy, the characteristic of which is that as far both the Spartans and Athenians afterward ex- as possible it substitutes reason and intellect for pressed their regret for the act, and attributed brute force, and teaches respect for justice and some of the misfortunes which subsequently be- the rights of others, and is therefore peculiarly fell them to divine judgments for the crime. The favorable, when not perverted, to weak, unwarpeculiar and complicated relations of the Grecian like, and commercial states. The Italian repubstates with each other gave rise to a very active lics, exposed to the attacks of great military diplomatic intercourse between them, carried on monarchies, cultivated diplomacy with peculiar generally by means of formal deputations of en

Their politicians, conspicuous among voys, at the head of whom was sometimes placed whom was Macchiavelli, whose diplomatic cora man of distinguished eminence. Throughout respondence has been pronounced the finest antiquity, indeed, embassies of importance do in existence, became celebrated for their unnot appear to have been confided to the discre- rivalled skill in the science, and it was long the tion of a single person, but rather to a commission practice of the greater states of Europe to emof 2 or 3 or even more of equal rank. Ancient ploy Italians in negotiation, on account of their diplomacy appears to have been guided by no supposed peculiar aptitude for the subtleties other rules than those of apparent self-interest, of the profession. The ambassadors of Venice though to some extent a kind of international were especially famous, and the relations of law was recognized among the Grecian repub- their missions which they regularly made to lics. Engagements and treaties were observed the senate have a high reputation among histoonly so long as it seemed profitable to observe rians, for the deep and accurate insight which

care.

[ocr errors]

they give into the policy and manners and Statesmen occupied themselves incessantly with characters of the courts to which they were projects of aggression or defence, and with accredited. Italian plomacy was in general forming or dissolving leagues and combinations. profound, cautious, and unscrupulons. It occu. Aspirations after universal empire were enterpied itself much in forming combinations and tained on the one hand, and apprehended on alliances, and did not disdain to buy or bribe the other. Artifices unknown to primitive diministers, confessors, and mistresses, to corrupt plomacy were freely resorted to, such as secret generals, steal or forge documents, and some- articles and separate articles in treaties; and it times even to employ poisoning and other forms has been suspected that even sham treaties of assassination to accomplish or promote its were promulgated to mislead or blind the genobjects. These malpractices, however, were not eral public. This period is also remarkable for confined to Italy, but characterized the diplo- the number of its treaties for the regulation of macy of all Europe to as late a period as the commerce and navigation. During the period 16th century.-A great impulse was given to between the treaty of Utrecht (1713) and the diplomacy by the fall of the Byzantine empire, beginning of the French revolution (1789) the the invention of printing and of gunpowder, the diplomacy of Europe assumed an aspect very discovery of America, and the general intellec- different from that of the preceding century. tual development and political fermentation of Exhausted by foreign and civil wars, the nations Europe in the 15th century. Henry III. of longed for repose. France and Austria saw France created the office of minister of foreign themselves counterbalanced, and their dreams affairs in the last year of his reign, and the first of universal dominion dissipated, by the apminister appointed to it was Louis de Révol, who pearance of new powers on the stage. Russia held the post from Jan. 1, 1589, to Sept. 17, 1594. and Prussia took their place in the front But it is to the reign of Henry IV. of France rank of European nations, while Great Britain (1589–1610) that the origin of the modern system acquired the mastery of the seas, and devel. of diplomacy has been traced by writers on the oped prodigiously her commerce, industry, and subject. That monarch was served by distin- internal resources. This was an age of intelguished statesmen and negotiators, preēminent lectual and moral revolutions, which preceded among them the famous Sully, by whom the forms and prepared the stupendous political revolaand usages of diplomacy were brought to a de- tions that marked the latter part of the cen. gree of perfection before unknown. Diplomacy, tury. New ideas, new opinions, new motives, indeed, was a favorite instrument with Henry gained admission, and acquired predominant IV., who was all his life surrounded by singular. influence in the minds of the ruling classes of ly delicate and difficult complications of a mixed Europe, especially in France, Germany, and political and religious character. He was the England. The extension of commerce and the inventor of the system of mediations, which has growth of colonies in America, Africa, and the often since been found so convenient a mode East Indies, led to the remodelling of a branch of averting war without wounding the pride of of diplomatic service, the consular system, and nations. He had great and comprehensive plans to its restriction within nearly its present limits. of federation and for the preservation of perpet- –The French revolution and the long wars ual peace among the states of Europe, to effect that sprung from it wrought a great change in which he relied chiefly upon diplomacy. The the materials and tendencies of diplomacy, by despatches of his ambassadors and ministers are sweeping from the map of Europe a number of remarkable for their ability, sagacity, and ele- effete states, by raising up gigantic combinations vation of sentiment. Cardinal Richelieu (1624 against Napoleon and against the revolutionary -'42) continued in the foreign policy of France spirit, and by converting the current of events the method of Henry IV., and directed his di- in Europe from a mere contest for supremacy plomacy chiefly against the house of Austria. between monarchs into a conflict of antagonisHe is generally considered the founder of the tic principles, and a desperate struggle for expresent system of maintaining permanent lega- istence on the part of the royal and privileged tions at foreign courts, instead of sending spe- families against the increasing intelligence and cial and transient embassies, though long before aspirations of the people. In 1815 the diplohis time resident embassies were kept by the macy of the great continental powers sought to Venetians at several courts. It was during his strengthen itself against revolution by assuming administration that French began to supersede the cloak of sanctity, by forming the holy alliLatin as the language of diplomacy in Europe, ance, the object of which was to maintain what for which it is peculiarly well adapted by its was called legitimacy, to keep things as they clearness and precision. Diplomacy greatly en- were, to regulate as one family the Christian larged its field of action in the 17th century. Em- states of Europe, and especially to check the tenbassies were sent from western Europe to coun- dencies of the smaller kingdoms toward constitries that had been hitherto out of the pale of tutional government. The diplomatists of this civilized intercourse-to Russia, to Persia, to period were remarkable for ability and for the Siam, and to other remote and barbarous re- world-wide celebrity that some of them attained, gions. The ambitious and warlike policy of as the Frenchman Talleyrand, the Austrian MetLO IV. exercise a marked influence upon ternich, and the Russian Nesselrode. Several the character of the diplomacy of his times. very memorable congresses of diplomatists also distinguished this period, such as that at Vienna accredited directly to sovereigns. The third or. (1814), at Aix la Chapelle (1818), at Troppau der of diplomatic agents, chargés d'affaires, are, (1820), at Laybach (1821), and at Verona (1822). with few exceptions, accredited not to the sovThe rapid decay of the Turkish empire, and ereign of the country to which they are sent, the changes made in it by the separation of but to the department of foreign affairs. The Greece and the long revolt of the pasha of diplomatic agents of the United States are Egypt, together with the ambitious designs classed, by act of congress, 1856, as ambassaof Russia, bave opened a new and wide field to dors, envoys extraordinary and ministers pleniEuropean diplomacy, since 1820, which has potentiary, ministers resident, commissioners, been still further enlarged by the renewal of and chargés d'affaires. Consuls-general and revolutionary outbreaks in 1848, and the revival consuls are also sometimes invested with diploof the French empire in the person of Louismatic powers in countries where the United Napoleon in 1852. The prodigious growth of States have no other authorized representatives. the United States of America during the same-See Marten, Précis du droit des gens modernes period has also introduced a new and pecu- de l'Europe (new edition, Paris, 1857). liar element into diplomacy, by raising to the DIPLOMÀTICS, the science of the knowledge position of a power of the first rank a repub- of ancient documents, and especially of their age lic which does not acquiesce in all the princi- and authenticity. The charters of grants from ples of international law established by the sovereigns to individuals and corporations were monarchies of Europe, and holds itself en- formerly called diplomas, and the word is applied tirely aloof from the sphere of their traditional to all letters, documents, and pieces of writing of policy. In practice, the diplomacy of the United a public nature that have come down to us from States, inaugurated by Franklin, Adams, Jay, the middle ages and the subsequent centuries. and Jefferson, has maintained an honorable repu- The public documents of the ancients, that is tation for directness, intelligence, and success, to say, of the Greeks and Romans, have perthough, unlike all other civilized governments, ished, except such as were inscribed on stone the republic does not maintain a regularly or metal. But a vast mass of MSS. of the midtrained corps of diplomatic agents especially dle ages exists in Europe, whose dates and educated for and devoted to the profession. authenticity can only be settled by careful and Among the most striking instances of the suc- skilful investigation. The quality of the parchcess of American diplomacy may be mentioned ment or paper, and of the ink, and the style of the negotiations conducted by Commodore the handwriting, afford the means which are Perry and Mr. Townsend Harris, which have relied upon by those versed in the science of resulted in opening Japan to the commerce of diplomatics to determine the age of the docuthe world. More recently the chief exertions ment. Formerly ink was made of soot, and red of American diplomacy have been directed to ink made of vermilion was sometimes used. the condition and destiny of the island of Cuba Those who apply themselves to the study of and of the Spanish American republics. A line diplomatics can easily distinguish the ink and of policy in these quarters, marked by novel the parchment and paper of one epoch from and decided features, was shaped out under the those of another. The variations in handwritadministration of President Pierce, and con- ing are also so great that by the character alone tioned by President Buchanan, of which tho it is possible to pronounce within 40 or 50 fullest expositions are contained in the document years when any diploma was written. In commonly called the Ostend manifesto, though Europe the study of diplomatics has been much it was actually issued from Aix la Chapelle cultivated. The standard book of reference on (1854), and the annual message of President the subject is the Nouveau traité de diplomaBuchanan in 1858.-The superintendence of the tique, par deux Bénédictins (6 vols. 4to., Paris, diplomatic relations of a country is in modern 1750). times, and among civilized nations, generally DIPTERA (Gr. des, twice, and a tepov, wing), intrusted to a particular officer of state, who, an order of insects, containing the fly, moson the continent of Europe, is usually styled quito, &c., characterized by 2 wings, 2 knobbed minister of foreign affairs (in some instances the threads (halteres, balancers or poisers) behind prime minister is at the same time minister of the wings, and a horny or fleshy proboscis. foreign affairs); in England, the secretary of They undergo a complete transformation; the state for foreign affairs; in the United States, larvæ, usually called maggots, have no feet, simply the secretary of state. The appointment and have the breathing holes generally in the of diplomatic agents belongs to the executive, posterior part of the body; the pupæ or nymphs though in the United States the appointment are either incased in the dried skin of the larvæ, must be confirmed by the senate. The highest or naked, showing the wings and legs free and grade of diplomatic agent is that of ambassador. unconfined. The head is large, globular, conIn the diplomacy of the Roman Catholic states nected with the body by a very slender neck, of Europe the legates and nuncios of the pope and is capable of a considerable pivot-like motake rank with the highest class. The second tion; the greater part, especially in the males, grade of diplomatic agents includes envoys, or- is occupied by the brilliant compound eyes, the dinary and extraordinary, ministers plenipoten- single ocelli, when they exist, being on the top tiary, the internuncios of the pope, and all agents of the head. Under the head is the proboscis

VOL. VI.-32

« PředchozíPokračovat »