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or sucker, which in some kinds can be drawn up muscular, and pyriform. The uriniferous vesand concealed in the mouth; it consists of a sels are long, and generally 4 in number, openlong channel, ending in 2 fleshy lips, and enclos- ing into the lower extremity of the stomach; ing on its upper side from 2 to 6 fine bristles, the ovaries consist usnally of numerous short 3 sharp as needles, and making the punctures or 4-chambered tubes, terminating in a sbort or so familiarly known in the case of mosquito a convoluted oviduct; the testicles are 2, simple, bites; as this apparatus takes the place of the and generally of an oval or pyriform shape, jaws of other insects, these wounds may prop- with long vasa deferentia ending in the ejacu. erly be called bites. The saliva which iows latory duct in common with 2 simple accessory into the wounds causes the well-known swell- mucous glands, and with horny valves enveloping and itching, the irritation in some skins ing the projecting copulatory organ. The larve, amounting to inflammation. The sheath serves or maggots, are without legs, generally whitish, to maintain the lancets in position, and the lat- and vary exceedingly in form and habits; the ter having made their punctures form a groove larvæ of the mosquito are aquatic, breathing along which the vegetable or animal fluids rise with the head downward through the tubular by the suctorial power of the insect and the tail surrounded with feather-like appendages, force of capillary attraction. In the flies which and the pupw tumble about in water by means only lap their food the proboscis is large and of 2 oval fins. These larvæ, and those of most fleshy. The antenne in the gnats are long and fies which have 4 or 6 bristles in the proboscis, many-jointed, in the flies short and thick, at the have a distinct horny head, and cast their skins base of the proboscis

. The wings are generally to become pupe, which are generally of a horizontal, delicate, with many simple veins in brownish color; many have thorns and prickles them; the posterior wings are metamorphosed on the body by which they work their way out into the balancers or poisers. Some entomolo- of their coverings; a few cover themselves with gists, as Latreille, think the poisers do not cor- silken webs and spin cocoons. The larvæ of respond to posterior wings, but are vesicular other flies, with a soft retractile head, living by appendages connected with the posterior respi- suction, increase rapidly in size, and change ratory trachew of the chest. Just behind the their form without casting off their skins, which wing joints, and in front of the poisers, are 2 shorten and harden, forming a case within which small convex scales, opening and shutting with the larva changes into a pupa, which comes the wings, and called winglets. The thorax is forth a tly by forcing off one end of the case. often the hardest part of the insect, composed Though this order contains the bloodthirsty principally of the intermediate mesothorax. mosquito, the disgusting flesh fly, and many inThe abdomen is not always united to the thorax sects depositing their eggs in the bodies of liv. by the whole of its posterior diameter, and in ing aniinals, it is a most useful one, supplying many females ends in a retractile jointed ovi- food to insectivorous birds, and themselves conpositor by which the eggs are deposited. The suming decomposing animal and vegetable sublegs, 6 in number, are usually long and slender, stances which would otherwise infect the air. with 5 articulate tarsi and 2 claws at the end, Their life in the perfect state is short, very few beside 2 or 3 little cushion-like expansions, by surviving the rigor of winter. Among the means of which they are able to ascend the genera with many-jointed antennæ the followsmoothest surfaces and to walk with the back ing are the most interesting and best known: downward with perfect security. According to Culex (Linn.), containing the well-known gnats Marcel de Serres, the dorsal vessel (the heart) in and mosquitoes, whose larvæ and pupa are so diptera is narrow and its pulsations frequent. common in stagnant water, called wigglers and Respiration in the adult is carried on by vesic- tumblers, and whose adult females pierce with ular and tubular trachew. The nervous system their lancets and annoy by their nocturnal hum consists of an aggregate of cerebral ganglia, and the human race from Lapland to the tropics; in some of 9 other ganglia, 3 in the thorax and 6 the best known species are the C. pipiens of in the abdomen, connected by longitudinal sim- Europe, and the C. Americanus of this country, ple commissures or cords; the larvæ have usu- which is probably distinct. The genus cecidoally one more pair of ganglia than the adults, myia (Latr.) includes many species interesting and have the commissures often double. The to the agriculturist, as the Hessian fly (C. deproboscis being the transformed under lip, often structor, Say), the wheat fly (C. tritici, Kirby), geniculate, the perforating bristles may be re- the willow gall-fly (C. salicis, Fitch), injurious in garded as maxillæ, mandibles, and tongue. In the larva state. The genus tipula (Linn.), espethose larvæ which have a distinct head, as in cially the T. oleracea (Linn.), commonly known the mosquito, the jaws are arranged for masti- in England by the name of Harry Long-legs, is cation, though some of the pieces are wanting; noted for its depredations in the larva condition but in the acephalous maggots the mouth is on the tender roots of meadow plants. In the suctorial. Communicating with the gullet is a genus simulium (Latr.) are the black fly and the thin-walled vesicle, the sucking stomach, in midges of the northern parts of this country; which the fluids swallowed are temporarily the black fly (S. molestum, Harris) fills the air deposited; the stomach proper is long and nar- during the month of June in Canada and the row, and makes many convolutions in the ab- northern states; it flies in the daytime, and is domen. The end of the intestine is short, so savage that every bite draws blood, in some

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skins accompanied by considerable irritation; larva state these asilians live in the ground, it is black, with transparent wings, and about where they do much mischief to the roots of is of an inch long. After continuing through plants. The soldier flies (stratiomydæ) have 2 Jane, it is followed by another species (S. noci- spines on the hinder part of the thorax; the rum, Harris), called * no-see-'em” by the In- proboscis contains only 4 bristles, and ends with dians of Maine from their minuteness ; they fleshy lips adapted for sucking vegetable juices; come forth toward evening, creep under any they are fond of wet places, and their larva kind of garment, and produce a sharp, fiery pain live in stagnant pools, some thrusting their without drawing blood; they are very trouble- breething tube out of the water; they undergo some to travellers and new settlers in July and transformation within the hardened larval skin. August. Among those with few joints in the The genus stratiomys (Geoff.) has a broad oval antennæ is the genus tabanus (Linn.), which con- body, of a dark color, with yellow markings on tains the large horse flies, as the T. bovinus each side, and the antennæ somewhat spindle(Linn.), of a dark brown color, and an inch long, shaped. The genus sargus (Fabr.) is said to common in Europe, where there are more than have no spines on the thorax, a slender body, 40 other species; the most common of the of a brilliant grass-green color, about $ an inch American species are the T. atratus (Fabr.), of a long, with a bristle on the end of the antennæ. black color, with a whitish bloom on the back; These insects delight in sunny weather, being the eyes are very large, of a shining black color, dull and inactive in cloudy days; the larvæ are with 2 jet-black bands across them; it is about found in dung and rich mould. The syrphido an inch long, with an expanse of wings of 2 have also a fleshy proboscis, and live on the inches; the orange-belted horse fly (T. cinctus, honey of flowers; they resemble bees, wasps, Fabr.) is smaller and less common, black, with and hornets in the shape and colors of their the first 3 rings of the body orange; a smaller bodies, and they sometimes lay their eggs in the species is the T. lineola (Fabr.), with a whitish nests of these insects; others drop their ova line along the top of the hind body. In the among plant lice, which the young eagerly feed summer these flies are very troublesome to cat- upon. The larvæ of the genus helophilus (Meig.) tle and horses, being able to pierce through were named by Réaumur rat-tailed maggots, the thickest hide with their 6-armed proboscis; from the great length of their tubular tails, which a strong decoction of walnut leaves applied as a serve as respiratory organs; the experiments of wash is said to keep them off. The golden-eyed Réaumur show that while the insect lies conforest flies (chrysops, Meig.) are known by their cealed in mud, its respiratory tube may reach brilliant spotted eyes and their banded wings; 5 inches to the surface of the water; it seems smaller than horse flies, they resemble thern in to be composed of 2 portions, which slide one their habits, frequenting woods and thickets in into the other like the joints of a telescope; July and August; some are wholly black, some of the larvæ of this family live in rotten others striped with black and yellow. The wood. The family conopidæ resemble slenderbee iy (bombylius æqualis, Fabr.) flies with great bodied wasps; the antenna are long and 3swiftness through sunny paths in the woods, jointed; the proboscis long, slender, and genichovering over flowers and sucking their honey, ulate. The genus conops (Linn.) is generally of like humming birds; it is about $ of an inch a black color, and about $ an inch long; more long, shaped like a bumble-bee, and covered than 20 species are described, usually found on with yellowish hairs; the expanse of the wings flowers in June and July, but not in large numis about an inch; they are divided longitudi- bers; the females deposit their eggs in the nally into 2 equal parts by the colors, the outer larva and the perfect insects of the humble-bee, half being dark brown and the inner colorless. in whose bodies their young undergo metamorAmong the flies which prey on other insects, phosis. The common stable fly belongs to the seizing them on the wing or on plants, is the genus stomoxy8 (Fabr.); the flesh fly to the genus genus midas (Latr.), of which the orange-banded sarcophaga (Meig.); the house fly and the meat species (M. filatus, Fabr.) is sometimes 17 inches fly to the genus musca (Linn.); the flower flies long and 27 inches in expanse of wings; the to the genus anthomyia (Meig.); the cheese fly general color is black; it frequents the woods to the genus piophila (Fallen.); the dung fly to in July and August, where it may be often seen the genus scatophaga (Meig.); the fruit and gall Aying or basking in the sun; the larva is a cy- flies to the genera ortalis (Fallen.) and tephritis lindrical maggot, growing to the length of 2 (Latr.); these will be described in the article Fly. inches; the pupa measures 14 inches in length, The gadflies or bot flies, comprising the genera is of a brown color, with forked tail, 8 thorns æstrus (Linn.) and gasterophilus (Leach), affecton the fore part of the body, and numerous ing respectively the ox and the horse, will be sharp teeth on the edges of the abdominal rings; described under Gapply. Varions winged and it pushes itself half out of its hole when the fly wingless ticks, infesting the horse, sheep, and is about to come forth. The genera laphria birds, belonging to the order of diptera, but (Fabr.) and asilus (Linn.) are also predaccous in forming with the spider flies the order homathe winged state; in the former the antenna loptera of Leach and the English entomologists, are blunt at the end, in the latter slender-point- will be treated in the article Tick; they ined; the former resemble large humble-bees include the genera hippobosca (Linn.), melophatheir thick and heavy bodies and legs; in the gus (Latr.), and ornithomyia (Latr.). -At the end of this order may be mentioned the genus consisted of 5 members, and was chosen one nycteribia (Latr.), the spider fly, a wingless each year by the council of ancients from a list insect resembling a spider ; the small head of candidates presented by that of 500. The seems a mere tubercle on the anterior and dor- directory promulgated the laws and enforced sal portion of the thorax; the eyes are like their execution, appointed the ministers and minute grains; the thorax is semicircular; the other principal functionaries of the state, had antennæ are extremely short, inserted close the management of the military and naval forces, together, and immediately in front of the eyes. finances, and foreign affairs, and the right of This genus nestle in the bair of bats, among repelling hostilities, though not of declaring which they move with great rapidity; according war. The directors received a large salary, the to Col. Montagu, when they suck the blood of palace of the Luxembourg as their residence, and bats they are obliged to place themselves on a guard of 240 men. They were responsible, detheir backs on account of the dorsal position of cided questions by a majority vote, and presided the head. This last division of the diptera is by turns 3 months each, the presiding inember not produced from eggs deposited in the usual having the signature and the seal. During their manner, but the larva is hatched and developed term of office none of them could have a per. within the body of the mother, and is not born sonal command, or absent himself for longer till it arrives at the state of pupa; hence these than 5 days from the place where the councils genera have been called pupipara by Latreille; held their sessions, without their permission; the pupa when born is nearly as large as the and after they had left office they could hold do parent, enclosed in a cocoon, the altered skin of command for 2 years, nor be reëlected for 5. the larva at first soft and white, but soon grow. In those days of violent struggles at home and ing hard and brown; it is notched at one end, abroad, the balance of power established by where the mature insect escapes. The order of this constitution excited antagonism between diptera makes up for the small size of its mem- the different branches of the government, and bers by their countless swarms.

usurpations followed as a natural consequence. DIPTYCHA (Gr. 8is, twice, and muß, fold, The convention decreed, by a law not included tablet), registers used during the first Christian in the constitution, that in the first election § centuries, formed of 2 tablets of wood or ivory, of the members of the 2 councils should be upon which were inscribed the names of those chosen from its own body. This arbitrary act most distinguished in church and state. They led to violent agitations in Paris, and finally to were thus of 2 kinds, the sacred and profane. On an insurrection of the royalist sections on the the former were catalogued the names of popes, 13th Vendémiaire (Oct. 5, 1795), which was bishops, martyrs, founders of religious establish: suppressed by Barras and Bonaparte. The conments, and in general all benefactors of the clergy. vention having held its closing session on Oct. The names of the living were on one side of the 26, the 2 councils held their first on the 28th, tablet, and of the dead on the other. It was the and on Nov. 1 elected Barras, Laréveillièredeacon's office to recite these names during the Lépeaux, Rewbell, Letourneur, and Carnot, as service. The profane diptycha belonged espe- directors, all of whom had voted for the death cially to the consular dignity, and upon their of Louis XVI. Their first proclamation, writtablets were engraved the

name and titles of the ten on a broken table in a destitute room of the consul, and also animals and gladiators as sym- Luxembourg, promised a firm rule, and inspired bols of the games which he was going to ex- confidence; and in spite of the exhausted pohibit to the public in entering upon his duties. sition of the state, the terrible depreciation of Every consul after his nomination had several the currency, the destitution of the army, and a of these diptycha, which he distributed among pressing famine, trade, speculation, and even las. his principal officers, as modern princes some- ury soon revived. The democratic and commatimes send their portraits to privileged favorites. nistic conspiracy of Babeuf was easily suppressed

DIRECTORY, EXECUTIVE (Fr. directoire exé- (May, 1796). Čarnot organized the armies, and cutif), the name given to the executive govern- directed their movements and victories; Moreau ment of the first French republic by the constitu- received the command of the army of the Rhine, tion of Fructidor, year III. (Aug. 1795). This Jourdan that of the Sambre and Mense; Hoche constitution was framed by the moderate repub- suppressed the insurrection in the Vendée, and lican party, whose influence prevailed in the Bonaparte conquered Italy. But the elections convention after the fall of Robespierre and the of the year V. (May, 1797) gave the royalists a committee of public safety, and was adopted in preponderance in the councils, which was supthe primary assemblies of the people. The leg- ported by the minority of the directory, while islative power was vested by it in 2 assemblies, Barras, Laréveillière, and Rewbell sided with the council of 500, and the council of ancients, the minority in the legislative bodies. The which numbered half as many members, aged movements of the royalists became more and at least 40. Both were chosen by graduated more threatening, when the majority of the elections, and į of each were renewed every directors agreed to save the republic by an year. The former had exclusively the right of act of violence. This was executed with the proposing laws, the latter that of sanctioning aid of the army on the 18th Fructidor (Sept. them. The judicial authority was coinmitted 4, 1797). More than 50 members of the 2 to elective judges. The executive directory councils, with Carnot and Barthélemy, who had


replaced Letourneur, and a number of other thought that these desirable objects could be atinfluential persons, were condemned to trans- tained by taking the Bible alone as a guide, and portation, and a persecution of both royalists its express teachings as the only authoritative and anarchists was commenced. Merlin of standard of faith and practice, allowing meanDouai and François of Neufchâteau were sub- while entire liberty of opinion in relation to all stituted for the 2 proscribed directors, of whom matters not fully revealed. Upon these prinCarpot escaped to Germany. Saved by the ciples a considerable society was formed, conarmy of the interior, the republican rule was sisting chiefly of members from Presbyterian maintained by the victories and extortions of churches, and meetings were held statedly for the armies abroad. The treaty of Campo For- the promotion of the cause of union and for mio was concluded ; Switzerland and the states religious worship and instruction. After some of the church were overrun and revolutionized; time, the question of infant baptism, and, as Bonaparte was sent to Egypt to attack indirectly connected with it, the use of sprinkling as bapEngland, the only remaining enemy of the re- tism, became matters of investigation in the public. But the extreme revolutionary party society, and it was finally after some months carried the elections for the year VI. (May, 1798), decided by a large majority that there was no a part of which were annulled by another vio- Scripture warrant for either practice, and that lation of the constitution. A new coalition consequently, upon their own principles, they against France was formed. The state was ex- were compelled to renounce them. Becoming hausted and avowedly bankrupt. Switzerland then a society of immersed believers, they soon and Italy were lost as rapidly as won. The re- after were united with the Redstone Baptist publicans, too, were impatient of the dictatorial association, stipulating, however, in writing, rule of the directory, in which Treilhard had that “no standard of doctrine or bond of church replaced François, and Sieyès, an enemy of the union, other than the Holy Scriptures, should be directorial constitution, was now elected (May required." By means of this union with the 16, 1798) instead of Rewbell. Finally the coun- Baptists, the principles and views of the Discicils, having declared themselves permanent, ples, ably developed and defended by Alexander compelled Treilhard, Merlin, and Laréveillière Campbell in his writings and public discussions, to resign on the 30th Prairial (June 18, 1799). were widely disseminated, and adopted by many. Barras saved his office by the desertion of his Meanwhile, the diligent study of the Scriptures, associates, and maintained himself with Sieyès contemplated as it were de novo, and from a and the 3 new directors, Gohier, Moulins, and standpoint outside of all denominational and secRoger Ducos, till the 18th Brumaire (Nov. 9, tarian lines, led by degrees to the discovery and 1799), when Bonaparte, suddenly returning from introduction of several characteristics of primiEgypt, by a bold coup d'état overthrew the di- tive Christianity which, as the Disciples held, had rectory and the constitution, and became master been long overlooked and neglected. Among of France under the title of consul. The direc- these, a prominent one was “baptism for the retory ruled France 4 years and a few days, and mission of sins.” As the apostle Peter, to whom had altogether 13 members, of whom only Bar- the keys of the kingdom of heaven were comras officiated during the whole period. mitted, commanded believing penitents who

DIS, a contraction of dives, rich, the Latin asked what they should do to be “baptized in name of Pluto (the giver of wealth), and hence the name of Christ for the remission of sins," sometimes of the lower world. He was espe- and in order that they "might receive the gift cially worshipped among the Gauls, who be- of the Holy Spirit” (Acts ii.), it was believed lieved themselves his descendants, and therefore that the same answer should still be given to reckoned their time by nights instead of days. such inquirers, and that it was the divine plan

DISCIPLES, CHURCH OF THE. The religious thus to impart through the significant institubody, variously designated as "Disciples of tion of baptism that assurance of pardon which Christ," “ Christians," the Church of Christ,” many in modern times have been taught to &c., resulted from an effort to effect union seek in vague emotional impressions. This beamong the Protestant denominations in western came therefore a distinguishing feature of the Pennsylvania. In the beginning of the present reformation urged by the Disciples. Another century several religious movements for this characteristic was the practice of weekly comparpose occurred in different parts of the United munion, after the example of the primitive States, independently of each other, and with- church. In pressing these matters upon the acout preconcert. The one which gave immediate ceptance of the Baptists, a spirit of opposition was origin and distinctive character to the body at length aroused in various quarters, especially dow known as “Disciples," was initiated in in Virginia and Kentucky, and a separation to 1809 by Thomas Campbell, a preacher of piety some extent ensued, many of the Baptists reand distinction among the Seceders, aided by his maining connected with the Disciples. Not son Alexander, to whose ability and energy its long afterward, at the close of 1831, their numsaccessful progress is mainly attributed, and bybers were still further augmented by a union whom it has been chiefly directed. The original between them and a numerous body which had purpose was to heal, if possible, the divisions of originated in Kentucky and some her western religious society, and to develop and establish states, under the labors of B. W. Stone and a common basis of Christian union. It was others, who, some years prior to the movement led by Thomas and Alexander Campbell, had following the example of Philip (Acts viii. 37). separated from the Presbyterian communion, As to government, each church is independent, and in like manner attempted to effect a union but the churches cooperate with each other in of Christians upon the Bible alone. These re- sustaining Bible societies and missionaries at formers, readily adopting baptism for reinission home and abroad. Two classes of officers are of sins, and the ancient order of things as prac- recognized, elders or bishops and deacons, who tised by the Disciples, became entirely assimi- are chosen by the members of each church, and lated with the latter.' Since this period there to whom the interests of the congregation are has been a great and constantly increasing ac- confided. cession both from the world and from other re- DISCORD, in music, a combination of sounds ligious denominations, and it is believed that the inharmonious and disagreeable to the ear, so number of members in the United States is now called in opposition to concord. Discords are about 300,000. There are many churches also employed to relieve a succession of pure conestablished in British America, in Great Britain, cords, being as necessary in music as shade is in and in Australia. Although the Disciples reject painting, and are introduced by certain preparcreeds as bonds of fellowship, and disapprove of atives and succeeded by concords to which they the technical language of popular theology, hold- have a relation. ing themselves bound to speak of the "things DISCOUNT, a sum of money deducted from of the Spirit" in the language of Scripture, they a debt due at some future period in considera. do not materially differ from the evangelical tion of immediate payment. In commercial demoninations in their views of the great mat- transactions it is customary, when a bill is to ters of Christianity. The following synopsis be discounted, to pay to the holder or presenter from the pen of Alexander Campbell is a fair the amount minus the simple interest calcuexpression of their sentiments on the points in- lated for the time the bill has to run. Thus a volved: “1. I believe that all Scripture given person holding a bill for $100 payable in one by inspiration of God is profitable for teaching, year at 7 per cent. would receive $93, which for conviction, for correction, for instruction in would be considered its present value. The righteousness, that the man of God may be per- true discount, however, of any sum for any fect and thoroughly accomplished for every given time, is such a sum as will in that time good work. 2. I believe in one God, as mani- amount to the interest of the sum to be disfested in the person of the Father, of the Son, counted. Thus, in the above instance, the sum and of the Holy Spirit—who are, therefore, one to be deducted from the bill would be, not $7, in nature, power, and volition. 3. I believe that but $6 54 and a fraction, which would amount every human being participates in all the con- at the end of a year to $7. The true rule for sequences of the fall of Adam, and is born into compating discount would therefore be: “ As the world frail and depraved in all his moral the amount of $100 for the given rate and time powers and capacities, so that without faith in is to the given sum or debt ; so is $100 to the Christ it is impossible for him, while in that present worth, or so is the interest of $100 for state, to please God. 4. I believe that the the given time to the discount of the giren Word, which from the beginning was with God, sum.” Elaborate tables have been calculated and which was God, became flesh and dwelt on this principle, but as abatement of the simamong us as Immanuel or 'God manifest in ple interest is generally resorted to, they are of the flesh,' and did make an expiation of sin, 'by little practical value. -Discount on merchanthe sacrifice of himself,' which no being could dise, sometimes called REBATE, is a deduction have done that was not possessed of a super- of so much per cent. from the price of goods human, superangelic, and divine nature. 6. I sold on credit when the buyer finds means to believe in the justification of a sinner by faith make his payment before the stipulated time. without the deeds of law, and of a Christian, DISCUS, among the ancients, the name of a not by faith alone, but by the obedience of circular mass of stone or metal, used for throwfaith. 6. I believe in the operation of the Holy ing, as an exercise of strength. This practice Spirit through the word, but not without it, in was of great antiquity among the Greeks. Hothe conversion and sanctification of the sinner. mer gives an account of a trial of strength of 7. I believe in the right and duty of exercising this kind at the funeral games in honor of Paour own judgment in the interpretation of the troclus. In this case the discus was a large Holy Scriptures. 8. I believe in the divine in- globular mass of iron. Ordinarily it was of a stitution of the evangelical ministry; the author. Hattened form, and about 10 or 12 inches in ity and perpetuity of the institution of baptism length, so that when held in the hand ready to and the Lord's supper.” (“Millennial Harbinger” be thrown, it would extend a little above the for 1846, p. 385.) It is proper to remark, how- middle of the forearm. ever, that with the Disciples the Christian faith DISINFECTANTS, substances used to coundoes not consist in the belief of these or any other teract or destroy noxious odors and exhalations, tenets as intellectual conceptions of religious or whatever may produce infection. The term truth, but in a simple trust or personal reliance is also made to embrace substances used to proon Christ as the Son of God and the Saviour of vent decay of organic bodies, such as may be sinners. They hence require of candidates for found treated of in the articles ANTISEPTICS and baptism no other confession of faith than this, EMBALMING. In the present article disinfect


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