Obrázky stránek
PDF
ePub
[ocr errors][merged small][merged small]

ants will be considered as agents for deodoriz- own bulk; of carbonic acid, 35 times ; of caring and fumigating. As the causes of infection bonic oxide, 9.42; of oxygen, 9.25; of nitrogen, exist in the atmosphere, and are spread over wide 7.50; and of hydrogen, 1.75.' Bodies of animals districts, disinfectants properly include whatever have been buried in charcoal powder, which, is made use of to purify the air, and the term while it did not prevent decay, still arrested all may even be applied to the means employed to escape of disagreeable odors. The gases it reprevent the formation of noxious miasmata, as tained indicated that it exerts an influence in to a proper system of drainage, the destruction causing the decomposition of the exhalations, by fire of vegetable matter exposed to decay, and the combination of their elements to form the thorough ventilation of buildings, the pro- new compounds with the oxygen of the air. visions for abundant supplies of pure air and These properties have caused it to be introlight, and the free use of clear water for wash- duced in the form of coarse grains into a metaling away unclean matters. No more powerful lic respirator, intended to be worn over the disinfectant exists than the fresh wind, which mouth where noxious vapors are present in the stirs up the infectious vapors, dilutes them with air, and it is recommended to be used for prepure air, and sweeps them away. The great venting the escape of bad odors from putrefying plague of London was preceded by an unusual substances, though it has no effect as an anticalm. Violent winds, as hurricanes, are observed septic to arrest their decay. Chlorine, which to arrest the progress of disease; efficient venti- has for many years been in use in hospitals and lation has in many hospitals reduced its ravages other places exposed to noxious exhalations, acts to a wonderful extent. The light and warmth as a powerful disinfectant by producing a chemof the sun has also an extraordinary influence ical change in the injurious compounds, and also in promoting health and vigor, and destroying by arresting decay. It is generated by the desome of the causes of injurious exhalations. composition of hydrochloric acid, which is effectThough the nature of the action of light upon ed by adding to it some black oxide of mangathe animal system is little understood, its bene- nese, and convenient vessels are prepared for ficial effects are too well established for its claim producing the gas as may be required, in large as an important natural disinfectant to be disre- or small quantities. The chloride of lime, as garded. Other agents are abundantly provided it is commonly known, is the usual medium, by nature which man may employ to remove however, for distributing it, the gas being freeinfectious matters. They may be swept away ly evolved on the exposure of the salt to the by running water, or their gaseous emanations air. It is set free by the presence of any acid be absorbed by the earth in which they are fumes, and as carbonic acid is evolved in the buried. Exposure to heat may change their decomposition of organic matters, the noxious properties, or cause their elements to enter into effluvia themselves provide one of the agents for new and harmless combinations; or by a freez- their own disinfection. Vinegar or dilute suling temperature decomposition may be arrested, phuric acid, however, added to the chlorinated and the formation of noisome gases prevented. lime, causes a more rapid evolution of the disPeat bogs present their antiseptic qualities as infecting gas. In consequence of the acrid nameans of accomplishing the same end, and the ture of the vapor, it should be used for fumigatastringent extracts of the bark of trees, such as ing rooms only when these are not occupied by are employed in tanning, possess the qualities invalids; and the same may be said of the disof disinfectants.—In the selection and prepara- infecting solutions, as of the hyperchloride of tion of these agents, none is found more efficient soda, of which chlorine is the active agent. The than that which imitates the great natural dis- more powerful fumes of nitrous acid, which posinfectant, a strong current of heated air. The

sess the highest disinfectant qualities, are liable method of artificially applying it to the removal to the same objection; yet so important is their of noxious effluvia from clothes and articles of application regarded that Dr. Carmichael Smyth, merchandise has been patented in Great Brit- who first proposed their use, received therefor ain, and introduced into various manufacturing from the British government the sum of £5,000. establishments. The articles are exposed in The unwholesome sulphuretted hydrogen is delarge chambers to rapid currents of air, heated composed by these

fumes, as it is by chlorine, the from 200° to 250° F. The infectious matters sulphur being set free and the hydrogen uniting present are decomposed by the heat, or swept with the disinfectants. In coinbination with off in the hot blasts, while these are kept at too some of the metals, chlorine has been much low a temperature for the fabrics to be injured used as a disinfectant, especially with zinc, in by them. It is a method highly recommended the aqueous solution of the chloride of the metfor the use of hospitals, quarantine stations, and al, which is known as the disinfecting fluid of other establishments particularly subject to in- Sir William Burnett. Its use is somewhat obfectious diseases. Earth and porous bodies gen- jectionable, from its poisonous qualities. The erally are employed to absorb injurious vapors ; same compound is advantageously applied to none possess this property in so remarkable à arresting that form of decay in timber called degree as charcoal." De Saussure found that & dry rot. Its properties as a disinfectant are single volume of this substance, prepared from fully treated in the reports of the British navy, boxwood, absorbed 90 volumes of ammonia; of extracts from which may be found in the "Lonsulphuretted hydrogen it took up 55 times its don Medical Times and Gazette," Oct, 1853. Chloride of manganese is an efficient salt of sim- proved to be very valuable. . . . . . A disinilar properties, and being the refuse of chlorine fectant uniting efficiency, cleanliness, agreeable manufacture, may be cheaply procured. The manipulation, and cheapness in an equal degree sesquichloride of iron is another cheap and effi- with this will not be easily found.” cient agent of this class. It is prepared by dis- DISLOCATION (Lat. dis, apart, and locus, solving calcined iron pyrites in strong hydro- place), a term used by geologists to indicate that chloric acid. Its use is attended with none of change which takes place in the position of rocks the objections belonging to the poisonous metal- when torn from their original place, either by lic combinations with chlorine. Nitrate of lead upheaval or subsidence. It is most commonly lias been recommended for its disinfectant prop- applied, however, to that displacement in the erties, particularly in the solution known as Le- osseous structure which results from the direct doyer's disinfecting fluid. It corrects the fetid application of force or other long-continued odors of sulphuretted hydrogen and hydrosul- cause. All the joints are liable to dislocation, phuret of ammonia by decomposing these com- but it most commonly occurs to those which pounds, but it has no antiseptic properties, and is possess the greatest mobility; hence the shoulder objectionable on account of its cost and poison- joint is of all others the most frequent seat of ous nature.- None of the agents yet named com- this accident. The head of the humerus or bine so many advantages as sulphurous acid and bone of the upper arm, forming a ball and socket its compounds with lime or magnesia. In the joint in connection with the scapula or shoulder form of fumes from burning sulphur it has al- blade, is regulated in its motions by very strong ways been highly esteemed for its purifying muscles, and is but slightly impeded in its free nature, and its chemical action upon organic motions by the very shallow socket in which it compounds has long been applied in bleaching. rests. While this arrangement bestows great Beside the property of decomposing and thus freedom of action upon this joint, it renders it destroying effluvia, it also acts as an antiseptic, liable to dislocation in almost every direction. checking fermentation and the formation of pu- The most common is that which occurs wben trid substances. The objection to its use is its the arm is elevated above the head, by means own suffocating odor. This is avoided by using of which the head of the humerus is thrown the acid in combination, as in the form of sul into the armpit. Next in frequency is the disphate of soda, an excellent antiseptic for pur- location of the hip joint, which is generally poses of embalming. Combined with lime and produced by a sudden blow upon the knee magnesia, it is recommended as the best of all when the thigh is flexed toward the abdomen, disinfectants. It is thus prepared by the pa- whereby the head of the thigh bone is drawn tentees, Dr. R. Angus Smith and Mr. A. Mc- backward by the action of the gluteal musDougall

, of Manchester, England; and so highly cles upon the dorsum of the ileum or pelvis. is it approved that the British government have The jaw bone is often thrown out of place in ordered it to be furnished to every transport laughing, and much more frequently in yawnship containing horses. Applied to manures, it ing. This accident sometimes occurs while destroys the disagreeable smell without impair- speaking under undue excitement. The writer ing their properties as fertilizers; on the con- was cognizant of a case in which a female who trary, the salts of which it is composed, even if was talking in an excited manner, while under in great excess, act themselves as stimulants to the influence of a violent fit of passion, had her vegetation on being converted into sulphates, discourse suddenly arrested by dislocation of as they are when spread upon the ground. In the jaw. This displacement may be easily treating of its qualities Dr. Muspratt

, in his remedied by placing the thumbs on the back “Chemistry," remarks as follows: "When mag- teeth so as to press them downward while the nesia is united with sulphurous acid, the most chin is raised by the fingers slowly upward. effective, perhaps the only compound capable Care should be taken to remove the thumbs of serving both ends” (deodorizing and preserv- quickly on the restoration of the joint, or they ing from putrefaction)," is then produced. Me- may be painfully compressed between the teeth. tallic salts bave no beneficial action on manures; -The chief difficulty in restoring a dislocation magnesia alone preserves the phosphoric acid consists in the opposition offered by the muscles, and the ammonia. To the mixture already rendered acutely irritable by the unnatural posimentioned a few per cent. of carbolic acid, or tion of the head of the luxated bone. This is rather of carbolate of lime, are added; the lat- often overcome by reducing the heart's action ter has been found by experience to assist in by general bleeding. The warm bath and emedestroying one portion of the odor with great tics are likewise used to relax the muscles, and rapidity. Being a fine, dry, white powder, it with the same view tobacco moistened with absorbs moisture in stables, &c., wherever it water is sometimes laid upon the abdomen until is deposited ; metallic salts, on the contrary, it induces sickness and a disposition to syncope. must be in solution, and the wet is injurious, The surgeon in reducing a luxated joint ennot only to the hoofs, but also to the health deavors, by a steady application of force exerted generally of cattle. In the sick room it is said in the direction of the joint, either to fatigue to preserve the atmosphere, when sprinkled on the muscles, or seize some moment when they offensive substances, in great purity. In the are relaxed to slip the joint into its socket. Va. veterinary hospitals of barracks it has been rious degrees of force and different appliances

[ocr errors]

that statesman to his party in the adoption of his sensitive character, fond of solitude and the sofree trade policy, are among the most remark- ciety of books, he found no literary friend and able speeches to be found in the annals of the counsellor, and was sent by his parents, to whom British legislature. They established Disraeli's he was an enigma, to travel in France, with the reputation as one of the most powerful debaters hope that adventures and change of scene might and keen and polished satirists in that body. In divert him from the eccentricity of his course. 1849 he became the recognized leader of the con- He lived in Paris, associating with learned men servative party in parliament. A biography of and frequenting libraries, till 1788. On his rehis father, Isaac Disraeli (1849), and a memoir turn he published anonymously a satire “ On of his personal and political friend, Lord George the Abuse of Satire,” in polished verses, which Bentinck (1852), were his next literary produc- was directed against Peter Pindar, then in the tions. In March, 1852, in the first Derby admin- height of his popularity. This venture obtained istration, Mr. Disraeli received the appointment for him the friendship of Mr. Pye, afterward of chancellor of the exchequer, was made a poet laureate, through whose influence the elder member of the privy council, and became leader Disraeli was persuaded to renounce the effort to of the ministerial party in the house of commons. convert a poet into a merchant, and was finally He went out of office with the rest of the Derby induced to furnish means sufficient to enable his ministry in Dec. of the same year. In Feb. 1858, son to gratify his passion for book-collecting and when Lord Derby again accepted the task of for tranquil study. The son now wrote some forming a new cabinet after the downfall of Lord metrical pieces in the magazines, and in 1803 Palmerston, Mr. Disraeli was again selected to fill published a volume of romantic tales. In 1791 the responsible office, the duties of which he had he published the

first volume of his “Curiosities discharged with great ability 6 years before. In of Literature" (2d vol. in 1793; new edition of Feb. 1859, he brought forward in parliament an both vols. in 1794), a product of curious and eleelaborate plan of electoral reform, a principal gant erudition, abounding in discursive and anecfeature of which was the extension of the suf- dotical criticism. A volume of “Miscellanies, frage to the whole body of the educated class or Literary Recreations,” was published in 1796. withont regard to property. The bill was de- After residing for a time in Exeter he removed feated in the house of commons, March 31, to London, and resolved to devote the rest of 1859, whereupon parliament was dissolved. The his life, not to authorship, but to the acquisition political career of Mr. Disraeli thus far is one of of knowledge. Ten years were occupied chiefly the most extraordinary in English history. By with acquiring that store of facts which was the force of talent, industry, and perseverance, un- foundation of his future speculations, and it was aided by wealth or family connections, in spite not till the age of 45 that he resolutely began of the disadvantages of his Jewish origin and of his career of authorship. In 1812 appeared his his reputation as a mere novelist, he has raised “ Calamities of Authors; including some Inhimself to the position of leader of the house of quiries respecting their Moral and Literary commons and of minister of finance in the great- Character;" in 1814, bis “Quarrels of Authors; atest commercial empire of the world.

or some Memoirs for our Literary History, inDISRAELI, Isaac, an English author, born cluding Specimens of Controversy to the Reign near Enfield in May, 1766, died Jan. 19, 1848. His of Elizabe ;" and in 1816, the most finished father removed to England in 1748 from Venice, of his compositions, his “Illustrations of the whither his ancestors, of Hebrew race, had fled Literary Character; or the History of Men in the 15th century from the inquisition in Spain. of Genius, drawn from their own Feelings and In Venice they assumed the name of Disraeli Confessions." All of these works are amusing (originally written D'Israeli), “ a name never and anecdotical, and reveal the author not only borne before or since by any other family, that as a literary antiquary, but as a man of humor, their race might be for ever recognized.” Isaac thoughtfulness, and elegant tastes. His “Curiwas an only son, and was intended for the pur- osities of Literature” had reached the 5th edisaits of commerce, by which his father had at- tion, when in 1817 he added a new volume, tained to fortune. The latter was seriously containing more elaborate essays than the prealarmed when his son during his school days ceding, and the success of the publication was produced a poem;

" the loss of one of his ar- such that he rapidly produced 3 additional volgosies uninsured could not have filled him with umes. He was 5 years in the composition of more blank dismay." He was sent to a college his work on the “Life and Reign of Charles I.," at Amsterdam, where he studied the philosoph- which appeared in 1828–31, and gained for him ical works in fashion at the time, and when 18 the degree of D.C.L. from Oxford. He had years of age returned to England a disciple of long meditated a history of English literature, Rousseau. When informed that a place in the for which all his previous writings had been establishment of a great merchant was prepared preparatory, but in 1839 a paralysis of the optio for him, he replied that he had written and in- nerve prevented him from pursuing his re. tended to publish a poem of considerable length searches, and a selection from his numerous against commerce, which was the corruptor of manuscripts was given to the public in 1841 man; and he at once enclosed his poem to Dr. under the title of “ Amenities of Literature." Johnson, who however was in his last illness During the latter part of his life he resided on and was unable to read it. Of a pensive and his manor of Bradenham in Buckinghamshire. sonal beanty, refined manners, and remarkable political views; the “ Revolutionary Epic" and powers of conversation, soon made him a great the “Crisis Examined " in the same year, and favorite. At the age of 19 he visited Germany, "A Vindication of the English Constitution" " in and on his return to England published in 1826 1835. In 1836, being still unable to get a seat -17 his famous novel “Vivian Grey," the chief in the house of commons, he published a series characters in which were faithful pictures of him- of letters in the London Times” under the sig. self and of persons well known in English society. nature of “Runnymede,” which were read with The originality, vivacity, and wit of this book great interest on account of their remarkable wit gave it great celebrity, and it was translated into and sarcasm. Toward the close of the same year the principal languages of Europe. Simulta- he published a love story, “Henrietta Temple ;" neously with its publication the author became and in the spring of 1837 appeared “Venetia," a editor of a short-lived daily political paper novel, in which he portrayed the characters and entitled the “Representative," on which John appearance of Lord Byron and Percy Bysshe Murray, the publisher, between Jan. 25, 1826, Shelley. At last he achieved the great object of and July 29 following, is said to have expended his ambition. In the first parliament of the reign $350,000. In 1828 Mr. Disraeli published in of Victoria, Mr. Disraeli, being then 32 years of one volume the “Voyage of Captain Popanilla,” age, obtained a seat as representative of the cona gay and good-humored but flimsy satire, servative borough of Maidstone. His maiden which met with little success. In 1829 he left speech was a lamentable failure. Ignorant of England to make an extended tour in Italy, the tastes and temper of his audience, and with Greece, Albania, Syria, Egypt, and Nubia, and the most violent and grotesque gestures, he returned in 1831. He was in Albania at the poured forth the grossest abuse of O'Connell, the time of the massacre of the beys by Reshid only effect of which was to call forth the laughPasha, and witnessed many of the scenes of the ter and ridicule of the house. He closed this civil war then raging there. Shortly after now famous speech in the following words: “I his return he published his second fashionable am not surprised at the reception I have expenovel, the “ Young Duke ;" and in the follow- rienced. I have begun several times many ing year he issued from the press another novel, things, and I have often succeeded at last. I “Contarini Fleming, a Psychological Autobi- shall sit down now; but the time will come when ography," which Heine the German poet has you will hear me." In July, 1839, this predic. pronounced to be “one of the most original tion first began to be fulfilled. He made a speech works ever written.” Its subject is the devel- which was listened to with attention, and praisopment of the poetical nature, and it contains ed for its ability. In that year, too, he pubbrilliant sketches of Italy, Spain, Greece, Asia lished his 5 act tragedy, the Count Alarcos," Minor, Syria, and Egypt. At this time Mr. Dis- founded on an old Spanish ballad, and was reraeli made his first attempt to enter parliament. lieved from pressing pecuniary difficulties by a He presented himself to the electors of High Wy- marriage with the wealthy widow of Wyndham combe, in Buckinghamshire, as a tory-radical, Lewis, his friend and colleague in the repreand was defeated by the whig candidate. In sentation of Maidstone. The happy influence December, 1834, he again sought the support of of this union upon his career he has himself the Wycombe electors, and was again defeated. acknowledged in the graceful dedication of one Perceiving that tory-radicalism did not find fa- of his novels to a “perfect wife." In 1841 he vor with the English people, he next appeared, was elected as one of the representatives of the in May, 1835, at Taunton, as a thorough-going borough of Shrewsbury, and in 1844 published conservative. It was on this occasion that, his most successful novel

, “Coningsby, or the when charged by somebody in the crowd with New Generation,” which within 3 months of the O'Connellism," he called the great Irish agita- date of publication had run through 3 editions, tor a “ bloody traitor;" to which Mr. O'Connell and was translated into several foreign languages. made the memorable retort: “For aught I know, The cause of its extraordinary popularity, apart the present Disraeli is the true heir at law of the from its great literary merit, was the fact of its impenitent thief who died on the cross.” Ex- principal characters being drawn from wellasperated by this taunt, Mr. Disraeli challenged known persons then living. It was regarded O'Connell's son, Morgan O'Connell, who had also as an exposition of the views and designs taken up his father's quarrel; but the challenge of the famous half literary, half political party was not accepted. In the meanwhile Mr. Dis- then attracting public attention under the name raeli wrote and published several books: the of“Young England," of which Mr. Disraeli was “ Wondrous Tale of Alroy," an oriental romance one of the most conspicuous leaders. In 1845 he of extraordinary eloquence and power, based on published “Sibyl, or the Two Nations.” In 1847 the adventures of a prince of the house of David, he was returned as one of the members for Buck. who in the 12th century proclaimed himself the inghamshire, and in the same year he published Messiah, and called the Jews of Persia to arms, “Ixion in Heaven," with other tales, and also appeared in 1833, accompanied by “The Rise “Tancred, or the New Crusade." His repntaof Iskander," a tale founded on the revolt of the tion as a parliamentary debater, and as a lead. famous Scanderbeg against the Turks in the 15th ing member of the conservative party, was now century; a political pamphlet entitled “ What Is established. His severe and effective attacks He?" in 1834, in which he tried to explain his on Sir Robert Peel, for the alleged treachery of that statesman to his party in the adoption of his sensitive character, fond of solitude and the sofree trade policy, are among the most remark- ciety of books, he found no literary friend and able speeches to be found in the annals of the counsellor, and was sent by his parents, to whom British legislature. They established Disraeli's be was an enigma, to travel in France, with the reputation as one of the most powerful debaters hope that adventures and change of scene might and keen and polished satirists in that body. In divert him from the eccentricity of his course. 1849 he became the recognized leader of the con- He lived in Paris, associating with learned men servative party in parliament. A biography of and frequenting libraries, till 1788. On his rehis father, Isaac Disraeli (1849), and a memoir turn he published anonymously a satire “On of his personal and political friend, Lord George the Abuse of Satire,” in polished verses, which Bentinck (1852), were his next literary produc- was directed against Peter Pindar, then in the tions. In March, 1852, in the first Derby admin- height of his popularity. This venture obtained istration, Mr. Disraeli received the appointment for him the friendship of Mr. Pye, afterward of chancellor of the exchequer, was made a poet laureate, through whose influence the elder member of the privy council, and became leader Disraeli was persuaded to renounce the effort to of the ministerial party in the house of commons. convert a poet into a merchant, and was finally He went out of office with the rest of the Derby induced to furnish means sufficient to enable his ministry in Dec. of the same year. In Feb. 1858, son to gratify his passion for book-collecting and when Lord Derby again accepted the task of for tranquil study. The son now wrote some forming a new cabinet after the downfall of Lord metrical pieces in the magazines, and in 1803 Palmerston, Mr. Disraeli was again selected to fill published a volume of romantic tales. In 1791 the responsible office, the duties of which he had he published the first volume of his “Curiosities discharged with great ability 6 years before. In of Literature" (2d vol. in 1793; new edition of Feb. 1859, he brought forward in parliament an both vols. in 1794), a product of curious and eleelaborate plan of electoral reform, a principal gant erudition, abounding in discursive and anecfeature of which was the extension of the suf- dotical criticism. A volume of “Miscellanies, frage to the whole body of the educated class or Literary Recreations,” was published in 1796. without regard to property. The bill was de- After residing for a time in Exeter he removed feated in the house of commons, March 31, to London, and resolved to devote the rest of 1859, whereupon parliament was dissolved. The his life, not to authorship, but to the acquisition political career of Mr. Disraeli thus far is one of of knowledge. Ten years were occupied chiefly the most extraordinary in English history. By with acquiring that store of facts which was the force of talent, industry, and perseverance, un- foundation of his future speculations, and it was aided by wealth or family connections, in spite not till the age of 45 that be resolutely began of the disadvantages of his Jewish origin and of his career of authorship. In 1812 appeared his his reputation as a mere novelist, he has raised “ Calamities of Authors; including some Inhimself to the position of leader of the house of quiries respecting their Moral and Literary commons and of minister of finance in the great- Character;" in 1814, bis “Quarrels of Authors; atest commercial empire of the world.

or some Memoirs for our Literary History, inDISRAELI, Isaac, an English author, born cluding Specimens of Controversy to the Reign near Enfield in May, 1766, died Jan. 19, 1848. His of Elizabeth;” and in 1816, the most finished father removed to England in 1748 from Venice, of his compositions, his “Illustrations of the whither his ancestors, of Hebrew race, had fled Literary Character; or the History of Men in the 15th century from the inquisition in Spain. of Genius, drawn from their own Feelings and In Venice they assumed the name of Disraeli Confessions." All of these works are amusing (originally written D'Israeli), “ a name never and anecdotical

, and reveal the author not only borne before or since by any other family, that as a literary antiquary, but as a man of humor, their race might be for ever recognized.” Isaac thoughtfulness, and elegant tastes. His “ Curiwas an only son, and was intended for the pur- osities of Literature" had reached the 5th edisuits of commerce, by which his father had at- tion, when in 1817 he added a new volume, tained to fortune. The latter was seriously containing more elaborate essays than the prealarmed when his son during his school days ceding, and the success of the publication was produced a poem; "the loss of one of his ar- such that he rapidly produced 3 additional volgosies uninsured could not have filled him with umes. He was 5 years in the composition of more blank dismay.” He was sent to a college his work on the “ Life and Reign of Charles I.," at Amsterdam, where he studied the philosoph- which appeared in 1828–'31, and gained for him ical works in fashion at the time, and when 18 the degree of D.C.L. from Oxford. He had years of age returned to England a disciple of long meditated a history of English literature, Rousseau. When informed that a place in the for which all his previous writings had been establishment of a great merchant was prepared preparatory, but in 1839 a paralysis of the optic for him, he replied that he had written and in- nerve prevented him from pursuing his retended to publish a poem of considerable length searches, and a selection from his numerous against commerce, which was the corruptor of manuscripts was given to the public in 1841 man; and he at once enclosed his poem to Dr. under the title of “ Amenities of Literature." Johnson, who however was in his last illness During the latter part of his life he resided on and was unable to read it. Of a pensive and his manor of Bradenham in Buckinghamshire.

« PředchozíPokračovat »