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jackal, or fox, to the exclusive paternity of the time they are easily caught by the hook; they domestic dogs. As there are undoubted wild ca- feed on garbage, and may properly be called nines which are true dogs, there is no improba- the scavengers of the sea. The young are bility that some of these fossil remains may have brought forth alive, and are often seen swimbelonged to such prior to their subjugation and ming about with the yolk bag attached. In the domestication by man; and there is no more British provinces they are dried, and in the necessity of referring the fossil canines to a sin- winter given to pigs, which thrive well upon gle species than the domesticated ones. The them; the refuse parts are used for manure. size of the fossil dogs is no greater than that of The dog-fish (acanthias) of Europe is a different some living races mentioned in the text.—Those species; its flesh is eaten in Scotland. Along desirous of pursuing the subject of dogs more the east coast of England it is called the bonefully are referred to the writings of Buffon, dog; it is a great pest to the fishermen by cutFrédéric Cuvier, and Col. Hamilton Smith. (See ting off their hooks; according to Mr. Couch, it also BEAGLE, BLOODHOUND, BULL-Dog, Geer- bends itself into a bow for the purpose of using HOUND, HOUND, MASTIFF, POINTER, SPANIEL, its spines, and then by a sudden motion causes TERRIER.)

them to spring asunder in opposite directions. DOG DAYS (Lat. dies caniculares), among Three species of scyllium (Cuv.), of a reddish. the ancients, the period of greatest heat in sum- brown color with numerous spots, are called mer, so named because in the latitudes of the dog-fish in Europe. There is another shark Mediterranean this period nearly corresponded (mustelus canis, Mitch.), also viviparons, called with that in which the dog star rose at the dog-fish. In this genus the teeth are blunt, same time with the sun. To this conjunction forming a close pavement in each jaw; the first all antiquity, and all the later followers of judi- dorsal is in advance of the ventrals; there are cial astrology, ascribed a malignant influence. no spines; the body is cylindrical and elongated, The heliacal rising of the dog star is a very in- of a uniform slato color on the back and sides, definite phenomenon; its precise dates cannot and dusky white below; the head is flat bebe determined, and owing to the precession of tween the eyes. This shark grows to a length the equinoxes it does not now occur till about of 5 feet, and is very common in Long Island Aug. 10, when the greatest heat of the season sound, where it is taken in nets spread for other is often over. So uncertain is the time that the fish; from the form of the teeth it is probable ancients indiscriminately ascribe the evil influ- that the food consists principally of crustacea ence to Sirius and Procyon (the largest stars re- and mollusks; it is not common on the coast of spectively of Canis Major and Minor), though Massachusetts, but is abundant on the shores of there is several days' difference in their heliacal New Jersey, where it is very troublesome to risings. The modern almanac makers some- the fishermen by stealing their baits and driving times reckon the dog days from July 24 to away other more eatable species; its flesh is Aug. 24, and sometimes from July 3 to Aug. 11. coarse, rank, and unpalatable, though occasion

DOG-FISH, & cartilaginous plagiostome, of ally eaten. In Europe the species of this genus the family squalidæ or sharks, and the genus are often called hound-fish; the M. læris (Cur.) acanthias (Risso), of the class selachians of is called the smooth hound from the softness Agassiz. This genus is characterized by 2 dorsal of the skin, and ray-mouthed dog-fish from fins with a strong spine before each; the 1st dor- the peculiar conformation of the teeth. These sal is behind the line of pectorals, the 2d be- sharks are called dog-fish probably from their tween the ventral and caudal spaces; no anal fin; hunting for prey or food in large packs, like temporal orifices large; skin rough in one direc- hounds. The dog-fish of the great lakes of tion, the scales heart-shaped with a central North America is a soft-rayed bony fish, genspine directed backward ; teeth in several rows, erally placed in the herring family, and the sharp and cutting, with the points directed genus amia (Linn.); the spotted lota, one of backward and outward. The common dog-fish the cod family inhabiting fresh water, is also (A. Americanus, Storer) has the upper part of incorrectly called dog-fish by Lesnenr. the body of a slate color, deepest on the head DOG GRASS. See Couch Grass. and lightest on the sides, and white below ; just DOG STAR, or Sirius, the brightest and in under the anterior portion of the lateral line is appearance the largest of the fixed stars, pamed a row of circular white spots, and a few similar from the constellation Canis Major in which it ones are irregularly distributed on the back; appears. It is the Sothis of the ancient Egypthe young are still more spotted; the length tians, and is one of the 6 fixed stars which does not exceed 5 feet. The species is found Ptolemy enumerates in his catalogue as of a from Davis's straits to New Jersey. Dog-fish fiery red (inokippos) color. Seneca also calls it in spring and autumn appear in large numbers (Nat. Quæst. i. 1) redder than Mars. It bas at in Massachusetts bay, and the residents of some present a perfectly white light, and furnishes towns on Cape Cod give up all other business at the only example of a historically proved change these times to fish for them; they are valuable of color in the appearance of a star. It was for the oil from the livers, for the food of cattle, undoubtedly already white in the time of Tycho and for the polishing property of their skin. Brahe, but of the period of its change there is The weight varies from 8 to 25 lbs.; they re- little evidence. The Arabic astronomer El Framain in shallow water 3 or 4 days, at which gani (Alfraganus), of the 10th century, invari. ably follows Ptolemy, and, if Sirius had then mand of the army and the opportunity of profitbeen white, would hardly have failed to notice ing by the frequent strifes and contentions of and remark upon the change. The Egyptians the different councils and classes; and the office reckoned their year from one heliacal rising of became so burdensome, that a law had to be the dog star to another, which was therefore framed (1339) prohibiting any one from laying called the “Sothic year."

it down, and that, in 1367, Contarini had to be DOGE (Lat. dux, a leader), the title of the forced to accept it. The doge was now but the elective chief magistrate in the republics of president of the council, the mouthpiece of the Venice and Genoa. The dignity or office was republic; he received ambassadors, but could called dogato. The doges of Venice were elect- give them no answer of his own, and their leted for life. The first of them was called to the ters he opened in the presence of the senate; dignity in the year 697, when Venice had money was struck in his name, but without his scarcely risen to the importance of a city, and stamp or arms. He was not allowed to leave he and his successors ruled it as sovereigns, with the city, to announce his accession to any but nearly absolute power. But when the state princes of Italy, to accept presents, to posgrew mightier, both on land and sea, through sess estates in foreign countries, or to marry his commerce and conquests, its proud and wealthy daughters to foreigners. His children and relanobles continually strove to check the power tives were excluded from every important office. and influence of their elective head, and the He was surrounded by spies, fined for every government became more and more oligarchical, transgression, and his conduct scrutinized after its form more and more republican, the dogate his death by a tribunal of 3 inquisitors and 5 a magistracy, and finally a mere title. A great correctors. The chief magistrate was powerless, change in the constitution toward the end of while the republic was mighty from its conthe 12th century put the whole legislative quests in Greece, rich from the commerce of the power into the hands of the council of 470; this East, and glorious in the sciences and art; he elected the executive council of 6, and the 60 remained powerless when the republic, stripped pregadi, and the doge was elected by 12 electors, of its eastern possessions by the Turks, of its comchosen by 24 members of the great council. merce and wealth by the new maritime discovThe first chief magistrate thus elected was Se- eries, languished and decayed. The office was bastiano Ziani (1173), who, in order to make his destroyed with the state in 1797, by the French, Jignity, now stripped of every power, at least under Bonaparte.-In Genoa, the first doge was popular, distributed money among the people elected for life in 1339, after the victory of the at his installation; an act adopted by his succes- popular party over that of the nobility, and vol. sors as one of the ceremonies of inauguration. untarily shared his power with a council of state Another ceremony, introduced by the same consisting of 12 members, 6 from the nobility, doge, was that of marrying the sea, by a ring and 6 from the people. But during the long thrown into the waves of the Adriatic, which internal and external contentions of this repubemblem of power over the mighty element was lic, almost continually agitated by schemes of bestowed upon him with many other marks of conquest and party struggles, the dogate was dignity by Pope Alexander III., whom he sup- often modified, and sometimes even abolished. ported in his long and bloody struggle against Andrea Doria, the great admiral, and the dethe emperor of Germany, Frederic Barbarossa. liverer of the republic from the yoke of the A new council of 40, established in 1179, and French in 1528, reorganized it, and his constivested with supreme juridical power, also served tution remained, but slightly altered, till the to circumscribe the prerogatives of the doge. time of the French conquest (1797). According It was in vain that many a chief magistrate to it, the doge, who must be a noble, and 50 covered his office and the state with glory; years of age, was elected for 2 years; he prein vain that Enrico Dandolo, the nearly blind sided in the 2 legislative councils, of 300 and of octogenarian, led the victorious fleet of the 100; had the right of proposing and vetoing 4th crusade to Constantinople (1202–4), that laws; exercised the executive power with 12 he was, at both attacks, among the first to secret councillors; and resided in the palace of storm it, that he refused the conquered impe- the republic. The ceremonies and restrictions rial crown; the growing and grasping might connected with his election and dignity were of the nobility was incessantly bent on the similar to those in Venice. Napoleon, having humiliation of the so-called chief of the state, founded the republic of Liguria, restored this which was completed in the 2d half of the 13th ancient dignity (1802), and abolished both when century, and at the beginning of the next, by elected emperor of the French (1804). the new and last election law, the most corn- DOGGER, the name of a small vessel used plicated instrument of indirect exercise of by the Dutch fishermen, especially in fishing on sovereignty that has ever been framed, by the the Doggerbank. It has 2 masts, and is not introduction under Gradenigo of the hereditary unlike a ketch. nobility and its golden book, and the estab- DOGGERBANK, an extensive shoal in the lishment of the terrible council of 10, supreme centre of the North sea. The water on this bank in power, irresponsible, and judges of the doge where it is most shallow is 9 fathoms in depth, himself. 'Stripped of nearly all his prerogatives, and abounds in fish. An obstinate naval battle the power of the doge was confined to the com- was fought there on Aug. 5, 1781, between the

Dutch and English fleets, in which both were mucilage, and extracts, which last contain the much crippled, and neither could claim the vic- tannic and gallic acid, though in different proportory.

tions. Their medicinal virtues appear similar DOGS, ISLE OF, or Poplar MARSIES, a pen- and equal in both forms. The extract and reinsula in the river Thames, 3 m. below London, sin possess all their active powers. The bark and opposite Greenwich. It is bounded on the may likewise be substituted for galls in the north by the West India docks, and is rapidly manufacture of ink. From the bark of the filling up with establishments for heavy manu- roots the Indians extract an excellent scarlet dye. facturing, iron ship building, gas works, &c. The The florida dogwood is often cultivated as an name is derived from its having been formerly ornamental tree, its large flowers, which rival the place where the king's hounds were kept. the whiteness of snow, affording a pleasing con

DOGWOOD (cornus, Linn.), a shrub or tree trast with the deep green of the surrounding of the order tetrandria monogynia, under the foliage.—The name dogwood is improperly givmiddle size, deciduous, a native of Europe, Asia, en in some parts of the United States to the and North America, of which there are several rhus venenata, a species of poisonous sumach. varieties. C. alternifolia (Linn.), the alternate- DOINA, a German family of counts (Burgleaved dogwood, is a small deciduous tree in- graf), who trace their origin to the times of digenous to North America, and is found in Charlemagne, and many of whom have occnpied shady woods or by river banks in every latitude. high positions in the military and civil service It frequently attains a height of 15 to 20 feet. of Prussia.—KARL FRIEDRICHI Emil, born March The leaves are alternate, ovate, and acute; flow- 4, 1784, president of the military department ers white, May to July; fruit purple, ripening in in the Prussian cabinet and general of cavalry October. Of all the species of the genus the in 1854, when he retired from active service, florida dogwood (C. Florida, Linn.) is the most died in Berlin, Feb. 21, 1859. beautiful, and in its native soil under favorable DOKOS, or Dokoes, a race of negroes said circumstances attains a height of 30 to 35 feet. to inhabit' a region of tropical_Africa, S. of The specific name florida, from floreo, to blos- Abyssinia, near the river Gojeb. They were first som, was bestowed because of the profusion of fully described by the missionary Dr. Krapf, on the flowers it puts forth. Specific characters: the credit of a Galla slave who had visited their branches shining; leaves ovate, acuminate, pale country, and whose relation was thought to bear beneath ;. flowers umbellate, protruded after every mark of truth, and was corroborated by the leaves; leaves of involucre large, roundish, other native accounts. According to this man, retuse; pomes ovate; flowers white and very the Dokos aro 4 feet high, of a dark olive comlarge. It is found as far north as New Hamp- plexion, and perfectly wild. They go naked, shire, but particularly abounds in New Jersey, feed on ants, snakes, mice, and fruits, evince Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, where the considerable intelligence, and are in great resoil is moist; in Florida and the Carolinas it de- quest by the people of Kaffa as slaves. They serts the barrens and is found only in swamps. have no government, no laws, no priority of In Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee, it is not found rank, no national feelings, no idea of marriage, in the forests except where the soil is gravelly. and very little sense of religion. The mother It was first described in Ray's Historia Planta- abandons her child as soon as it is able to prorum, published in 1680, and afterward by Cates- cure its own food. Their country is subject to by in his "Natural History of Carolina.” Wil- almost incessant rains, and on account of the liam Bartram, in his “Travels in Carolina and hostility of the surrounding nations is difficult Florida,” published in 1791, describes a remark- of access. It is rarely visited except by slave able grove of dogwood trees in Alabama, ex- dealers, who surround the wretched savages in tending for 9 or 10 miles. The trees were about their thick forests, entice them down from the 12 feet high, spreading horizontally, their limbs trees in which they take refuge, and drive them meeting and interlocking with each other so into the plains, where immense numbers of them as to form one vast, shady, cool grove, so dense are captured. They have a horror of slavery, and humid as to exclude the sunbeams and but easily become attached to their masters. prevent the intrusion of almost every other They are supposed to be the “pigmies" whose vegetable. The wood of this tree is hard, fine- existence has been a favorite belief since the grained, and susceptible of a high polish. It days of Homer. enters into the construction of many articles of DOL, a French town, capital of a canton of ornament and utility, such as the handles of the same name, in the department of Ille-etmallets, toys, harrow teeth, hames for horse Vilaine; pop. 4,181. It is wretchedly built, but collars, and the shoeing of sleds. The inner contains a fine cathedral, and possesses considerbark of the tree is very bitter, and has proved able historical interest. During the middle ages an excellent substitute for Peruvian bark in in- it was again and again besieged, and passed into termittent fever. Dr. Walker of Virginia, in a many different hands. In 1793 it was garrisoned dissertation on the comparative virtues of the by the Vendeans, and successfully resisted an atbark of these 2 plants, says that a summary tack of the republican troops. The old fortificarecapitulation of the experiments made by bim tions of the town are still standing. Its trade is shows the cornus florida and the Peruvian principally in corn, hemp, and er. bark possess the same constituents, that is, gum, DOLABELLA, PUBLIUS CORNELIUS, a Roman general, celebrated for his profligacy, born about and of the arrondissement 72,185. It is neat and 70 B. C., died 43 B.O. Notwithstanding his de- well built, and situated on the slope and at the bauched character, he became the son-in-law of foot of a hill on the right bank of the river Cicero, and enjoyed several high offices of state. Doubs, near the canal that joins the Rhone and After the death of Cæsar, Dolabella, although the Rhine. The railway from Dijon to Besanthe former had always been his friend, professed çon, which passes the town, gives it some imthe utmost contempt for his memory, and, being portance as a place of transit between Paris and supposed a good republican, obtained the con- Switzerland. It is of great antiquity, having sulship, and afterward from Antony the adminis- been founded by the Romans, and is situated on tration of the province of Syria. On his way the old road leading from Lyons to the Rhine. thither, however, he committed such atrocious Some remains of this work, as well as of an anextortions and crimes that the senate declared cient aqueduct and theatre, are still to be seen. him an enemy of the republic, and he was kill- It was for a time the capital of Franche Comté, ed by one of his soldiers at his own order, to and the seat of a parliament. After having been avoid falling into the hands of his enemies. taken once or twice previously, it was captured

DOLCI, or Dolce, Carlo, or Carlino, an and dismantled by the French in 1674. Italian painter, born in Florence, May 25, 1616, DOLET, ETIENNE, & French scholar and died there, Jan. 17, 1686. His father, grand printer, born in Orleans in 1509, burned as a father, and uncle were all painters, and after the heretic in Paris, Aug. 3, 1546. He was very death of his father, his mother placed him at the fond of classical studies, and was one of the age of 9 with Jacopo Vignali. "Under Vignali's especial admirers of Cicero, who were ridiculed tuition Carlo's genius developed itself with such by Erasmus, and warmly defended by Dolet and remarkable rapidity that after a few years he was others. He was of a rash, impetuous disposition, able to attempt successfully a full-length figure which made him many enemies, who lost no of St. John. He next produced a picture of his opportunity of persecuting him. Having been mother, and the delicacy and tenderness which often accused of cherishing heretical sentiments, marked these early productions attracted much he was at last adjudged an atheist by an ecclesiattention, and procured for him employment at astical court at Paris, in consequence of an exhome and abroad. Pietro de' Medici was among pression which he made use of in his translation his earliest patrons, and brought liim into notice of the Axiochus of Plato, which was not to be at court. He devoted himself almost exclusively found in the original; and for this he was conto sacred subjects, a branch of the art in harmony demned and burned. with his devout disposition. His works are de- DOLGORUKI, the nanie of a princely Rusficient in imaginative genius, but they are all sian family, whose origin is carried back to distinguished by agreeable coloring, a remark- Rurik, and several members of which occupy able relief produced by his skilful management & place in the history of their country. I. of chiaroscuro, a singular delicacy of composi- Grigori, distinguished himself by the valiant tion, and a finish in which he approached al. defence of a monastery near Moscow against the inost the consummate patience and industry of Poles under Sapieha and other generals (1608the great Dutch masters. Although he was ’10). II. Maria, was married in 1624 to Czar proverbially slow in the execution of his paint. Michael, the first of the house of Romanoff, but ings, he amassed sufficient wealth for the honor- died 4 months after. III. YURI, a general in able support of his family of 8 children. The the reigns of Alexis and Fedor, was killed in sameness of expression in most of his pictures the revolt of the Strelitzes after the death of facilitates copies and imitations, which conse- the latter czar in 1682, while defending the quently abound all over Europe. He excelled right of the young Peter the Great to the most in small pictures, and the themes in which throne. IV. MIHAIL, son of the preceding, and he was most successful are borrowed from the minister of Fedor, perished with his father. V. New Testament. Among his best works are the YAKOB, a senator of Peter the Great, noted for “St. Anthony” in the Florentine gallery, tho his boldness and frankness toward his master, “St. Sebastian” in the palazzo Corsini, the "Four died in 1720. It is said that one day, having Evangelists” in the palazzo Ricardi at Florence, torn to pieces an imperial ukase in full council and "Christ Breaking the Brend,” in England, of the senate, he appeased the wrath of the in the marquis of Exeter's collection at Burleigh. czar, who threatened to kill him, by the words: Dresden possesses several of his works, includ- “You have but to imitate Alexander, and you ing “Herodias with the Head of John the Bap- will find a Clitus in me.” VI. Ivan, was the tist” and “St. Cecilia, or the Organ Player." friend of Peter II., to whom his sister Catharino Another of his chief productions, “Christ on was betrothed; but the young czar having died the Mount of Olives," is at the Louvre in Paris. on the day fixed for the marriage (1730), he was -AGNESE, one of his daughters, who married a exiled to Siberia with all his family by Biron, merchant named Carlo Baci, was one of his duke of Courland, the favorite of the empress best pupils, and the most successful copyist of Anna. Recalled from exile, he was accused of his works.

a conspiracy against the life of the empress, and DOLE, a town of France, capital of an arron- executed at Novgorod in 1739, other members dissement of the same name, in the department of the family being beheaded or exiled. VII. of the Jura; pop. of the town in 1856, 9,443, Vasili, commanded the army of Catharine I. in the war against Persia, was made field mar- the basis of the United States coinage and money shal in 1728, banished to Siberia in 1739 as an of account. By the act of April 2, 1792, 371 accomplice of the preceding, recalled by the grains of pure silver and 244 grains of pure gold empress Elizabeth, and died in 1755. VIII. were declared to be equivalent one to the other, Vasili, nephew of the preceding, commander- and to the dollar of account. At that time, as in-chief of the army of Catharine II., conquered now in Great Britain, 113 grains of pure gold the Crimea in a short campaign in 1771, and re- were the equivalent of the pound sterling. The ceived from the empress the surname of Kriin- value of £1 in federal money, therefore, was skoi. IX. VLADIMIR, resided for 25 years as $4 56.5. Prior to this date, and during the conminister of Catharine II. at the court of Frederic federation, the dollar of account, as compared the Great, whose friendship be gained. X. with sterling currency, had been rated at 48. 6d., Yuri, commanded in the wars of Catharine II. which was an exaggerated valuation of the against the Turks and Poles, signalizing himself Spanish dollar; and in precise accordance with by his valor. XI. Ivan, one of the classical this valuation the congress of the confederation poets of Russia, was born in 1754, and died in had established $4 44.4 as the custom house value St. Petersburg in 1823. XII. PAVEL, was the of the pound sterling. The effect of the act of author of a Notice sur les principales familles 1792 was really to reduce the value of our dolde Russie (Brussels, 1843), an English transla- lar of account, but apparently to increase the tion of which, with annotations and an intro- value of the pound sterling about 24 per cent. duction, appeared in London in 1858.

By the act of June 28, 1834, the weight of fine DOLLAR, the monetary unit in the United gold to the dollar was reduced from 24.75 to 23.20 States and several other countries, both of coin- grains; and 3 years later, Jan. 18, 1837, it was ed money and money of account. All values in fixed at 23.22 grains, where it now remains. the United States are expressed in dollars and Comparing this latter weight with the pound cents, or hundredths. The term mill, for the sterling of 113 grains, we find an apparent inJooo of a dollar, is rarely employed. The doi- crease in the value of £1 to $4 86.6, an advance Tar unit, as a money of account, was established of exactly 94 per cent. upon the old valuation by act of congress of April 2, 1792, and the same of $4 44.4. “We have here the explanation of act provides for the coinage of a silver dollar the existing practice in this country of quoting “ of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the sterling exchange at 91 per cent. premium, when same is now current.” The silver dollar was it is really at par. A much more simple and first coined in 1794, weighing 416 grains, of intelligible method would be to state in dollars which 3711 grains were pure silver, the fineness and cents the ruling rate per pound sterling for being 892.4 thousandths. The act of Jan. 18, bills on London, e. g. $4 84, $4 87, $4 90, &c. 1837, reduces the standard weight to 4121 grains, Spanish dollars were chiefly coined in the Spanbut increases the fineness to 1067, the quantity ish American colonies. The best known variety of pure silver remaining 3717 grains as before; was the pillar dollar, so called from the 2 piland at these rates it is still coined, in limited lars on its reverse, representing the “ Pillars of amount. The smaller silver coins are not of Hercules,” the ancient name of the opposito proequal weight proportionally. (See Coins.) The montories at the straits of Gibraltar. The rude act of March 3, 1849, directs the coinage of gold imitation of these pillars in writing, connecting dollars. They were issued the same year, weigh- them by a scroll, is said to have been the origin ing 25,8 grains, i, fine, 23 % grains being pure of the dollar mark ($), now universally familiar. gold. All other coins of the United States are A more plausible explanation is that, as the doleither multiples or subdivisions of the dollar. lar consisted of 8 reals, 8 R. being stamped upon The term dollar is of German origin. During the it, the mark was designed to stand for the piece years 1517–26 the counts of Schlick, under a of eight,” as the dollar was commonly called. right of mintage conferred by the emperor Sigis- The two vertical lines distinguished it from the mund in 1437 upon their grandfather, Casper figure 8. The Spanish American dollars ceased Schlick, caused to be struck a series of silver to be coined when the colonies became indepencoins of 1 ounce weight, and worth about 113 dent, and since 1822 their place in commerce cents of our money. These pieces were coined has been supplied by the dollars of Mexico, at Joachimsthal (Joachim's valley), a mining Bolivia, and Peru. (For values, &c., see Corxs.) town of Bohemia, and came to be known in cir. DOLLART BAY, or THE DOLLABT (Lat. calation as Joachimsthaler, and then for short- Sinus Emdanus or Dollarius), an arm of the ness Thaler; and this name for coins and money German ocean, about 10 m. in length from N. of account has been widely used in the German to S., and 7 m. in breadth. It lies between states ever since. Some German scholars, how- Hanover and the Netherlands, and extends to ever, derive the term Thaler from talent, which the estuary or mouth of the river Ems. It is was used in the middle ages, designating a pound supposed to have been formed by a terrible inof gold. In Norway and Sweden we find the undation in 1277, which destroyed nearly 50 daler, and in Spain the dalera, the famous Span- villages. The sea has since receded in some ish dollar which for centuries figured so con- measure from the Hanoverian shore, and several spicuously in the commerce of the world. It thousand acres of land have been recovered. was the Spanish pillar dollar (called also the mill- DÖLLINGER, IGNAZ, & German physiologist, ed dollar for its milled edge) that was taken as born in Bamberg, May 24, 1770, died in Munich,


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