« PředchozíPokračovat »
Jan. 14, 1841. He was professor of physiology After having completed his survey of the valley at Bamberg, and afterward, when this univer- of the Nile, he was on the point of exploring sity was dissolved, at Würzburg. In 1823 be the Libyan desert when his failing health combecame a member of the academy and a professor pelled him in 1799 to return to France. While of medicine in Munich, and in 1826 professor on his way to Marseilles, his ship was overtaken of anatomy. Among his principal works is by storm and driven into the gulf of Taranto. Grundriss der Naturlehre des menschlichen Or. Seized by the Neapolitans, who at that time ganismus (Bamberg, 1805).
were at war with France, he was, in conseDOLLOND, JOHN, an English optician, born quence of his former offence against the order of in Spitalfields, June 10, 1706, died in London, Malta, detained in prison, while the other pasSept. 30, 1761. He was descended from a sengers were after a short time restored to French refugee family, and was originally a silk liberty. In the prison of Messina he wrote on weaver, but conceiving a passion for the science the margin of the Bible, with a bone sharpened of optics, he went into partnership with his against the walls for a pen, and the black of his son as an optical instrument manufacturer. He lamp smoke mixed with water for ink—the only commenced a series of experiments on the dis- writing materials at the prisoner's command persion of light and other subjects connected his Traité de philosophie minéralogique, and his with the improvement of telescopes and micro- Mémoire sur l'espèce minérale. He recovered his scopes, the results of which were communi- liberty, March 15, 1801, with impaired health ; cated to the royal society in a series of papers, and died soon afterward, while on a visit to his which appeared in its "Transactions” during sister. The results of his researches are embodthe years 1753, 1754, and 1758. These papers ied in his contributions to the Journal de phywere deemed so important by the council of sique,Journal de l'institut, Journal des mines, &c. that learned body, that it awarded to Dollond More than 50 distinct memoirs, many of which the Copley medal, and in 1761 sanctioned his contain valuable additions to the knowledge of election as a member of the society. He was geology and mineralogy, can thus be traced to the discoverer of the laws of the dispersion of his pen, beside his contributions to the Dictionlight, and the inventor of the achromatic tele- naire minéralogique and the Nouvelle encycloscope.-PETER, eldest son of the preceding, born pédie. His most interesting essays are: Méin Spitalfields in 1730, died in Kennington in moires sur le tremblement de la terre en Calabrie; 1820. Soon after entering into partnership Voyage aux iles de Lipari ; Mémoires sur les iles with his father he removed his business from Ponces, et Catalogue raisonné des produits de Spitalfields to St. Paul's churchyard, where he l'Etna'; and on the nature of leucite, anthracite, met with great success. He made several im- pyroxene, &c. The Journal du dernier royage portant improvements in optical instruments, du citoyen Dolomieu dans les Alpes was publishand contributed some valuable papers to the ed by Brunn-Neegaard at Paris in 1802. “ Transactions” of the royal society, one of DOLOMITE, å mineral species named in which was a vindication of his father's claim honor of the French geologist Dolomieu. It to the discovery of the true theory of the re- occurs crystallized in rhombohedral forms, and frangibility of light, which appeared in the also as a rock of granular and crystalline struc“ Transactions” for 1789. The "Dollond opti- ture. The mineral species includes several varical establishment” is still flourishing.
eties, as brown spar, pearl spar, &c. Its hardDOLOMIEU, Déodat Guy SILVAIN TAN- ness is 3.5-4; specific gravity, 2.85–2.92. The CRÈDE GRATET DE, a French geologist, born weight of a cubic foot of the rock is consequentin the village of Dolomieu, in the department ly about 180 pounds. Dolomite is a magnesian of Isère, June 24, 1750, died in Châteauneuf, carbonate of lime, consisting of one equivalent Saône-et-Loire, Nov. 26, 1801. While yet very of carbonate of magnesia and one of carbonate young he killed in a duel a knight of Malta, of lime, or, in 100 parts, 45.65 of the former of which order he was himself a member. He and 54.35 of the latter. It is usually white, but was condemned to death, but the sentence was is also found of various colors. The geological commuted to imprisonment, and in his dun- position of the rock is in the primary and metgeon he devoted himself with ardor to the amorphic group. Of these it is an important study of the natural sciences. On recovering member, being extensively used for the mandhis liberty he obtained a commission in the facture of lime, and also as a building stone. It army, but did not relinquish his scientific in- is found abundantly along the eastern part of vestigations, of which the first fruits appeared the middle states, its range extending through in 1775 in his essay Sur la pesanteur des corps the gold region of the southern states, northà différentes distances du centre de la terre, and ward, passing near Washington, Baltimore, in two translations into Italian on the sub- Philadelphia, thence crossing northern New ject of mineralogy and of volcanic substances. Jersey, and to the south of the highlands Made a corresponding member of the acad- across the Hudson, through western Massachuemy of sciences, he quitted the military profes- setts and Vermont into Canada. The rock sion and devoted the rest of his life to science. also occurs at many localities to the eastward For a series of years he was engaged in explor- of this metamorphic range. The lime made ing Portugal, Spain, Italy, and afterward Egypt, from dolomite varies in quality, not only with whither he went with Napoleon's expedition. the purity of the rock, but also with its tex
Carbonate Carboste od of line,
T. 6. Hunt...
ture, and the manner of burning it. No lime every respect.?” The following analyses of some is more highly prized by masons than that of the best of the American dolomites show how made of the close, compact dolomite called near they correspond in composition to the rethe “hard jointer” of Smithfield, R. I. It is quisite of Professor Daniell : perfectly white, is very strong, taking a great deal of sand, and sets quickly. But the same
Analyzed by kind of rock of other localities, if burned in the common anthracite kiln, finds little favor Hastings, N. Y.. J. W. Draper, M.D..
Sing Sing, Lewis C. Beck, M.D. with masons from its not slacking uniformly. Tuckahoe, Lumps of it remain without slacking until after Roxbury, Vt. it has been laid upon the walls, where they form DOLPHIN (delphinus, Cuv.), a cetacean mamblotches, which by the masons is called “pit- mal, carnivorous in its babits, and found in most ting out.” This is in great measure obviated by of the seas of the world. The dolphins, as gena proper method of burning, and particularly erally restricted, have a convex forehead, and a by the use of wood or a blazing coal instead of beak or snout, armed with teeth, separated from anthracite. Lime of very superior quality has the forehead by a well-marked furrow; they thus been made of the white crystalline dolo- do not acquire the dimensions of the whales, mite found on the Hudson at Hastings and being rarely more than 9 feet long. The body Sing Sing. Its strength was such as to take is fusiform in shape, without evident neck, and about į more sand than other limes in use of terminated by the horizontal tail common to the best qualities. For agricultural purposes all cetaceans; the head is not disproportionmagnesian lime is not in good repute, though ately large, and both jaws are toothed; there the fact of its inferiority does not appear to be are 2 pectoral fins, and toward the middle well established. As a building stone, dolomite of the back there is a fold of the skin which ranks among the best, possessing in a high de- may be called a dorsal fin; the eyes are small, gree the properties of durability and ease of with bare lids; the external opening of the working. It is obtained in large blocks of sound ear is small; the tongue is thick, soft, and but and uniform texture, with good grain for split- slightly movable; the skin is naked and soft, ting, and unmixed with foreign matters. But covered only by a thick mucosity. The teeth different layers in the same quarry vary greatly are simple, conical, and numerous, varying in in quality, so that care is required in selecting number even in individuals of the same species. them. The softness of the stone admits of its The cranium is very small compared with the being easily sawn into ashlar and carved into face, concavo, and much elevated in front and ornamental mouldings. It forms a considerable arched behind; the snout is narrow and elonpart of the white marble used in the construction gated from the prolongation of the maxillaries of the capitol at Washington. The custom house and intermaxillaries, which are not curved forin New York city is built of this stone from the ward above; the upper jaw is a little shorter Tuckahoe quarries on the Harlem railroad, and than the lower; the maxillaries extensively the new custom house at Charleston, S. C., is overlap the frontals; the tubercles which repbuilt of the same from the quarries at Hast- resent the nasal bones are above the intermarings on the Hudson. In England, dolomite has illaries, resting on the frontals; the parietals are proved so durable and excellent a stone, that a below the maxillaries, and quite on the side; variety of it found at Bolsover moor was select- the symphysis of the lower jaw is extensive, and ed by the commissioners appointed by the Brit- the bone is light and hollow. The cervical ver. ish parliament for investigating the qualities of tebræ, 7 in number, are very thin, and united the various building stones of the kingdom, and together in the different genera; the dorsals are choosing from them the best for the new houses 13, with as many pairs of ribs, their articular of parliament. The choir of Southwell church, processes becoming effaced by age, commencing which was built of this variety of stone in the posteriorly, and the transverse being abont as 12th century, was found by the commissioners long as the spinous processes; the lumbar verto be in so perfect a state that “the mouldings tebræ are 18, with very long transverse and spiand carved enrichments were as sharp as when nous processes; a sacral vertebra can hardly be first executed." After describing other exam. said to exist, as the pelvis consists of a rudiples illustrating the durability of this rock, the mentary boné on each side suspended in the commissioners say: “We may here remark, that muscles; the caudal vertebra are about 28, gradas far as our observations extend, in proportion ually decreasing in size, the transverse processes as the stone employed in magnesian limestone disappearing about the 16th, and the spinous buildings is crystalline, so does it appear to have about the 20th; exclusive of the cervicals, there resisted the decomposing effects of the atmo- are about 60 vertebræ in all; the V-shaped sphere; a conclusion in accordance with the bones on the under surface of the bodies begin opinion of Professor Daniell, who has stated about the 6th caudal. The breast bone is comthat, from the results of experiments, he is of posed of 3 bones, the 1st very wide, grooved opinion that the nearer the magnesian lime- in front, and usually pierced with a hole; the stones approach to equivalent proportions of shoulder blade is fan-shaped, slightly concave; carbonate of lime and carbonate of magnesia, the clavicle is absent; the pectoral fin is comthe more crystalline and better they are in posed of a very short humerus, with a large upper tuberosity, its lower extremity compress- carried on as in other mammals; oniy, in order ed antero-posteriorly, and uniting by a carti- to enable them better to remain under water, laginous articulation on an irregular line with there is a plexiform arrangement of the arteries the bones of the forearm ; the latter are almost within the chest and near the spine, which rectangular, short and flat, the radius in front serve as reservoirs of pure blood during immerand the widest; the bones of the wrist, 6 or sion; these do not communicate directly with 7 in number in 2 rows, form a flat pavement- veins, and their contents can be taken into the like surface united by cartilage to the radius circulation as circumstances require. The reand ulna ; there is a mere vestige of thumb, ac- productive organs are the same as in other cording to Cuvier, the index finger being the mammals, and their functions are similarly perlongest and having 9 articulations with its met- formed; the testes are within the abdomen; acarpal bone and phalanges, the 3d with 7, the the prostate gland is large, but the seminal ves4th with 4, and the 5th a mere tubercle. This icles are absent; the mammæ are 2, with the anatomical description will answer generally for nipples concealed in a fold of skin, except durdolphins and porpoises, and the allied genera. ing lactation, when they protrude on each side Dolphins are among the swiftest of cetaceans, of the genital opening. The kidneys are made and their speed is owing to the strokes of the up of many small glands united. The brain is powerful tail; the pectoral fins serve merely to very wide, the hemispheres however covering balance and guide the body, and to carry the only a portion of the cerebellum; the convoluyoung. The eye and ear are constructed on the tions are numerous and complicated, but narmammalian type; the nasal passages seem des- row; the olfactory lobes seem to be wanting ; tined only for the expulsion of water from the the cerebellum is well developed, with distinct month and for the introduction of air into the median and lateral lobes. This great cerebral lungs, and are generally considered as not en. development affords some ground for the andowed with an average sense of smell; the al- cient belief in the superior intelligence of the lied sense of taste must be very imperfect, and dolphin; the history of this animal, sacred to the sensibility of the naked skin low. The Apollo, though encumbered with fabulous and teeth are formed only for seizing and retaining superstitious accounts, doubtless contains much prey, which is swallowed whole. Authors dif- truth which whale-hunting moderns have not fer as to the stomach, some making it single, cared to examine.-As the dolphin family till but most dividing it into 3, 4, or 5 compartments recently included all ordinary cetaceans with more or less complicated; the intestine is sim- small heads, the divisions which have since been ple, 10 or 11 times as long as the body, and made are very numerous, and no system of gradually diminishing in size from the stomach classification as yet offered can be called natto the anus. As the dolphin, like the other ce- ural ; in this condition of cetology, it would be tacea, is not a fish but an air-breathing mam- out of place to attempt here to introduce order mal, warm-blooded, viviparous, and suckling its into this class of animals; such only, therefore, young, its respiration must be carried on by the as would not come more properly under whales, usual mechanism of lungs, diaphragm, ribs, and porpoises, and other popular titles, will be briefrespiratory muscles. Though shaped like fishes, ly alluded to; those who wish to pursue the inhabiting the water exclusively, and moving in subject into its details can consult the writings the same manner with them, it must come to the of Lacépède, the Cuviers, De Blainville, Lesson, surface by means of its horizontal tail, and take Eschricht, Gray, and others. At the head of in air through the single spiracle on the top of the list is the common dolphin (D. delphis, the head, which it can do when the mouth is Linn.); this, from the shape of the beak, is vulfull of water by means of the upward prolon- garly called the “goose of the sea ;" it was the gation of the larynx into the nasal passages
, and kieros ichthys (sacred fish) of the ancients, the fathe shutting off of its cavity by muscular action vorite of Apollo (whose most famous oracle bore from the mouth and esophagns; the external its name), and the supposed benefactor of man; opening of the spiracle is guarded by a valve, it is seen on very ancient coins and medals, and which prevents the entrance of water when the formed a conspicuous object on the coat of arms animal plunges beneath the surface. The water of the princes of France; from it was named which is taken into the mouth with the food the province of Dauphiné, which gave the title can be made to pass out in a jet from the spir- to the heir apparent to the French throne. It acle, by the closing of the pharynx, and the attains a length of from 6 to 10 feet, and its forcing of the liquid into the nose through the proportions are admirably adapted for the speed passage in which the larynx is elevated during which is its characteristic. The color is dark on respiration. Under the skin, in front of the the back, grayish on the sides, and satiny white nostrils, are 2 large cavities covered with mus- underneath. The geographical range of this cles; into these the water is sent, and remains species is extensive, embracing the seas of Euuntil the animal chooses to eject it; then, closing rope, the Mediterranean, and the northern and a valve at their entrance, the water is sent forth temperate Atlantic; other species are found by the contraction of the muscles. The dol- in the seas of America, Asia, and Africa. phin family make a feeble moaning or plaintive Vessels frequently meet them in large numnoise, which has often been noticed when they bers, shooting under the bows, springing out have been stranded alive. The circulation is of the water, and playfully racing with their fellows; their speed is such that the swiftest phinido which would not be better described sailing vessel seems stationary beside them. elsewhere, is the genus delphinapterus of LaceThe dorsal fin is about 9 inches high, a little pède, having no dorsal fin, and a slender transbehind the middle of the back; the pectorals, versely flattened beak, separated from the cra. about 2 feet from the snout, are somewhat nium by a deep furrow. Péron's dolphin (D. longer than the dorsal, narrow and rounded; Peronii, Cav.) is about 6 feet long, elegant in the tail is crescent-shaped, with a notch in form and proportions, of a deep bluish-black the middle, and about å foot wide; the jaws color above, with the snout, sides, pectorals, have from 32 to 47 teeth on each side, according abdomen, and part of the tail silvery white; the to age, simple, conical, largest in the middle of teeth are about 39 on each side of each jaw; the series. During rapid motion the tail is bent like the rest of the genus, it is found in high under the body, and then suddenly brought into southern latitudes. The allied genus beluga a straight line. The dolphin is voracious, living (Bon.) has an obtuse, conical, and rounded head, principally upon fish, which it boldly pursues, without prominent beak, and without dorsal fin. even into the midst of the fishermen's nets. F. The whitefish, or white whale (B. borealis, Cuvier is inclined, with the ancients, to con- Less.), is a very swift dolphin, of a beautiful sider it an intelligent and docile animal; seeing cream-white color and symmetrical shape, not in the fabulous stories of antiquity the symbols unlike in its general outline the now steamship of hidden truth, he thinks an examination of of the Messrs. Winans of Baltimore, that is, a the habits of the dolphin will disclose to natu- double cone, of which, however, one end is ralists a foundation in fact for the supposed in- shorter and less sharp than the other in the telligence of this species. In former times the cetacean; the length varies from 12 to 20 feet; flesh of the dolphin was as much esteemed for the teeth, according to Ouvier, are Bif; being food as it is now neglected ; in the 16th century well covered with fat, it is sometimes chased by its price was so high that it was only seen on coast whalers, especially about the mouths of the tables of the rich ; in the time of Dr. Caius, rivers, where it feeds upon the cod, haddock, the founder of the college of that name at flounder, and other fish; it is essentially an Cambridge, a dolphin was thought a worthy arctic species, though it descends to the tempresent for the duke of Norfolk, who in turn perate regions of both hemispheres; it has been distributed it to his friends, who roasted and seen in the river St. Lawrence as high up as ate it with porpoise sauce; in France, the dol- Quebec. The genus globicephalus (Less.) inphin could be eaten by Roman Catholics, espe- cludes the D. globiceps (Cuv.), commonly called cially during Lent, without sin; at that time all the deductor, social, bottle-head, or howling cetaceans were considered fish, though really whale; it resembles the beluga in the shape of their flesh was as much meat as that of the the head, but differs from it in having a dorsal ox or sheep; the meat is dark-colored, palata- fin; the length is from 16 to 24 feet, and the ble and nutritious, and is now often eaten general color of a shining jet black; the teeth by seafaring men on long voyages. The :D. are from 20 to 28 in each jaw; its favorite retursio (Fabr.), the nesarnak of the Green- sort is the northern temperate ocean, in both landers, has a thick body, a flattened, short beak, hemispheres; it is included by Dekay in the obtuse teeth, a dorsal fin, and a blackish color, fauna of New York; it is remarkable for its except a small part of the abdomen, which is sociable disposition, herding together in great whitish; it attains a size of 9 to 15 feet, has from numbers, apparently following a leader, and 88 to 100 teeth, and inhabits the Atlantic from easily driven upon beaches; the proper name is the shores of Europe to those of Greenland; it is globicephalus melas (Less.); some species of the less active than the common dolphin. Another genus have been found in the Mediterranean. name for it is the bottle-nosed dolphin or whale. The grampus and the porpoise will be described Other dolphins are the lead-colored dolphin (D. under their respective titles. The heterodons of plumbeus, Dussumier), about 8 feet long, of a De Blainville, in which the teeth are absent or leaden-gray color, rather sluggish in its move- very few, though belonging to the delphinida, ments, with about 136 teeth, found on the coast are generally called whales, and will be better of Malabar, near the shore, where it pursues the introduced with them; they include the genera pilchards; the bridled dolphin (D. frenatus, diodon (Linn.), or 2-toothed whales, hyperoodon Duss.), less than 6 feet long, having on the ash (Cuv.), with protuberances on the palate, aodon color of the cheeks a black band extending from Less.), the toothless whale (by Gray considerthe angle of the mouth below the eye, founded synonymous with the last), and monodon in the neighborhood of Cape Verd; the eye- (Linn.), or narwhal. The long-beaked dolphins browed dolphin (D. superciliosus, Lesson), about delphinorhynchus, Lacép.) are distinguished 4 feet long, of brilliant blackish-blue color above, by having a prolonged snout, thin and narrow, silvery below, with a white streak over the eye, not separated from the cranium by a furrow; found in the neighborbood of Cape Horn; the the straight jaws are furnished with numer: funenas of the Chilians (D. lunatus, Less.), ous sharp teeth, and the dorsal fin is single ; about 3 feet long, with a slender beak, fawn- some of the species attain the length of 36 feet. colored above, white below, with a dark brown The best known species (D. micropterus, Cuv., cross on the back, in front of the dorsal fin, and D. Sowerbyi, Desm.) is remarkable for the numerous in Conception bay. Among the del snout being 4 times the length of the craniam,
With a new color as it gasps away,
and for the carvature upward and forward of away from the cetacean and given to the scomthe posterior part of the intermaxillaries, car- beroid. This species grows to the length of rying with them the maxillaries, frontals, and about 5 feet; the colors are bluish green above, occipital; it is a northern species, and has been with azure and golden reflections, and citron found stranded on the English and French coasts. yellow below, with pale blue tints; the pectorals There are 2 remarkable genera of fresh-water are partly leaden and partly yellow, the ventrals dolphins, one of which, the dolphin of the yellow below and black above, the anal yellow, Ganges (platanista Gangetica, Gray.), will be and the iris golden. In the Atlantic is the C. described under Soosoo, the Bengalee name.equisetis (Linn.), with a shorter body and more The other is the Bolivian dolphin (inia Bolivi- elevated head. On the coast of South America ensis, D'Orb.), found in the tributaries of the is the C. dorade (Val.), from the name given to Amazon and the neighboring streams and lakes, the genus by the Portuguese. About a dozen even to the foot of the Andes; the beak is long other species are described in different parts of like that of the dolphin, but cylindrical, bristled the globe. They are exceedingly active, strong, round with strong hairs, and obtuse at the end; and voracious, pursuing the flying fish, forcing the teeth are about 134, resembling incisors them to leave the water, and seizing them as in front and molars behind; the body is short they descend into it again. Their beauty is not and slender, the pectorals large, the dorsal confined to the dying state; when following small and behind the middle of the back; the vessels, as they often do, nothing can be more skin is fine and smooth; the average length of beautiful in a calm sunny day, in the clear water the adult is about 7 feet; the color varies from of mid ocean, than to see these brilliant crea& pale blue to a blackish color above, and is tures darting around the vessel, displaying their rosy beneath. It comes frequently to the sur- ever-varying tints of golden, blue, and green, face, and is comparatively slow in its move- with every movement. They gather around ments; its food consists almost entirely of fish, any floating object, and are readily caught by a which are devoured with the snout above water; hook or barpoon; when brought upon deck the it is killed by the natives for its oil. This cu- beautiful play of rapidly changing colors comrious animal seems to form an intermediate type mences, which has caused the poet to say: between the carnivorous and the herbivorous or
Parting day sirenoid cetaceans. The delphinidæ are of little Dies like the dolphin, whom each pang imbues value to the whaler, as they are difficult to
The last still loveliest, till 'tis gone, and all is gray. catch from their speed and strength, and their covering of fat is much less than in the whales. These colors are produced, as in the chameleon Near the mouths of rivers and on the coasts and the cuttle-fish, by changes in the surface herds of them are occasionally hunted with by muscular action, as may be seen by the conprofit for their oil and their skins, and in high stant undulation of the long dorsal fin. (See northern regions even for food. Many genera CHAMELEON.) The flesh of this fish is considof delphinidæ inhabited the seas during the ter- ered good food; it is white, though rather dry. tiary epoch, some very like the present dolphins, Sailors have an idea, which is probably true, that others very different from them. Their fossil re- it is sometimes unwholesome and even poisonmains are found abundantly in the miocene, plio- ous, and they are in the habit of boiling a piece cene, and diluvial strata of America and Europe. of silver money with the fish to detect the fact ; -The name of dolphin was long ago given by if the piece be tarnished by the boiling, the fish Dutch navigators to a scomberoid fish of the genus is rejected; if it remain bright, it is considered coryphæna (Linn.), inhabiting the Mediterranean fit for the table. and the seas of warm and temperate regions. DOMAIN, or DEMESNE (mediæval Lat. doThe genus has no detached finlets, no isolated dor- manium, the dominion of the lord), in England, sal spines, and no armature on the tail; the body lands retained by the great landed proprietors for is moderately long, more or less compressed, and their own use; the terræ dominicales or demesne covered with small scales; there is a single dorsal lands being occupied by the lord or dominus fin, with flexible rays, extending from the head manorii; the other or tenemental lands being to near the caudal; the ventrals are thoracic. distributed among the tenants. The demesne The generic name is derived from copuøn,-sum- lands of the king, terræ dominicales regis, which mit, in reference to the elevated shape given to were at an early period very large, and to which the forehead by a bony crest of the interparietal additions were made by forfeitures and otherand frontal which rises between the intermax- wise, had been, at the time when Blackstone illaries and extends to the occiput; this gives a wrote, almost entirely alienated; but as a portion trenchant aspect to the head, with a very convex, of them were not conveyed absolutely in fee, facial profile; the eyes consequently seem low.' but upon long leases, they will revert to the The mouth is large, having card-like teeth on crown upon the expiration of those leases. The the jaws and palatal bones. The dolphin of the principal importance of the royal demesne lands Mediterranean, so famous for the beauty of its grows out of certain incidents that at an early colors when dying, is the C. hippurus (Linn.). period attached to the estate of the tenants of Most writers, and especially the poets, have fol- those lands. The tenure by which such estates lowed the Dutch error as to the name of this were held is designated by old writers as ancient fish, and the term dolphin by sailors is taken demesne; and to some extent it still continues to