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sity, founded in 1632, when the town belonged mass conventions in 1841, called a delegate state to Śweden, by Gustavus Adolphus, suppressed convention to frame a new constitution, which by the Russians in 1656, and reëstablished in was submitted for ratification to the popular 1802–'3 by the emperor Alexander. Connected vote. It received 14,000 votes, a clear mawith it are a normal school called the Profes- jority of the citizens of the state. The charter soren-Institut, founded in 1828, and an observa, party, however, contended that the whole protory which Tycho Brahe rendered famous, and ceeding was seditious, and that a large proporwhich in modern times has derived additional tion of these votes were fraudulent. Mr. Dorr celebrity from the labors of Struve and other and his party assumed that the new constitution astronomers. The university has a library of was the fundamental law of the state, and proabout 60,000 volumes, a museum, and a botan- ceeded in accordance with it to bold an election ical garden. It is held in high repute, and for state officers. Mr. Dorr was chosen gorstudents (numbering from 600 to 700) resort to ernor, and a legislature composed exclusively it from every part of the empiro. The rector of his supporters was elected, to meet at Proviof the university is now appointed by the em- dence on the first Monday of May, 1842. The peror; previous to 1851 be was selected by the charter party also held a legal election for professors from their own body. Dorpat also state officers, polling 5,700 votes, while the contains a college founded in 1589, a number suffrage party claimed to have polled 7,300. of other schools and academies, handsome law On May 3, Mr. Dorr's government attempted to courts, and an ancient cathedral, now partly in organize at Providence and to seize the reins of ruins. In former times the town was fortified, power. They were resisted by the legal state but the defences have been dismantled and con- government, which organized at Newport on verted into pleasure gardens. It was founded the same day, at the head of which was Gov. in 1030, and anciently possessed great com- Samuel W. King. Both sides appealed to arms. mercial importance, ranking as one of the Gov. King proclaimed the state under martial Hanse towns. The Teutonic knights took it law, called out the militia, and asked and obfrom the Russians in 1223, and erected it into tained the aid of the United States to suppress a bishopric the following year. This rendered the insurrection. A precept was issued for the it a place of considerable note, and for upward arrest of Mr. Dorr, charged with treason. On of 3 centuries the bishop exercised almost sov- May 18 a portion of the suffrage party assembled ereign power within his diocese. The see was at Providence under arms, and attempted to abolished in 1558, when the town passed again seize the arsenal, but dispersed on the approach into the hands of the Russians. The Poles of Gov. King with a military force. They asseized it in 1582, and the Swedes took it from sembled again to the number of several hun. them in 1625. Peter the Great recaptured it dred, May 25, at Chepachet, 10 m. from Proviin 1704, and it has remained ever since in the dence, but being attacked by the state forces they possession of Russia. The vernacular language dispersed without resistance, and the affair

was is Esthonian, but the best educated classes speak over on the 28th. Mr. Dorr took refuge in Con. German.

necticut, and afterward in New Hampshire. A DORR, THOMAS Wilson, an American poli- reward of $4,000 was offered for his apprehentician, born in Providence, R. I., in 1805, died sion by the authorities of Rhode Island. He there, Dec. 27, 1854. He was the son of Sulli- soon returned to the state, was arrested, tried, van Dorr, a successful manufacturer, was edu- and convicted of high treason, and sentenced cated at Phillips academy, Exeter, N. H., and to imprisonment for life. He was pardoned in was graduated at Harvard college in 1823. He 1847, and in 1853 the legislature restored to studied law in New York in the office of him his civil rights, and ordered the record of Chancellor Kent, was admitted to the bar in his sentence to be expunged. He lived to see 1827, and commenced practice in Providence. his state under a liberal constitution, and his Originally a federalist in politics, he became a party in legal possession of the government. democrat in 1837. The government of Rhode DORSETSHIRE, a maritime co. of England, Island at that time was based upon a charter on the British channel; greatest length from granted by Charles II. in 1663, and the appor. E. to W. 57 m; greatest breadth, 40 m.; area tionment of representation in the legislature was 987 sq. m.; pop. in 1851, 184,207. The seagreatly at variance with the distribution of pop- coast is very irregular, running out in several ulation. The elective franchise was limited to promontories, and broken by Poole harbor and the holders of a certain amount of real estate Weymouth or Melcombe Regis bay. The chief and to their eldest sons. About one third only rivers are the Stour, Frome, and Piddle. The of the citizens were voters. Mr. Dorr was elect- face of the country is undulating, there being ed a member of the assembly in 1833–4–5–6– no mountains, and the highest point, Pillerden '7, and exerted himself to procure the substitu- Pen, being only 934 feet above the sea. A range tion of a liberal constitution in place of the old of chalk downs, entering the county from Wiltcharter, but his movement for reform obtained shire on the N., passes S. W. and W. to the in the legislature only 7 out of 70 votes. He border of Somersetshire on the W., and is called resorted to popular agitation, and organized a the North downs; while a siunilar range, under suffrage party in opposition to the charter party. the name of South downs, runs S. and S. E. The suffrage party, after holding several large from the W. terminus of the other, nearly parallel with the coast, to Poole harbor. The soil tion with an extensive inland district, have renconsists mainly of loose sand or gravel, inter- dered it one of the first commercial towns of spersed with clay and chalk, and in some places Holland. From Liége it receives coal, lime, and mixed with these last, the conglomerate thus millstones. The vineyards on the Rhine supproduced being the most fertile in the county. ply it with wine, and from Switzerland and upBeside the chalk formation, Dorsetshire contains per Germany it obtains timber, which drifts pipe, plastic, and potters' clays, and has famous down the river in large rafts like floating islands, quarries of Portland stone, so called from the and is here collected, serving for ship-building locality in which it is found, and which is ex- and other purposes. The surrounding waters ported to various parts of England, Ireland, and afford plenty of good fish and wild fowl. A France. There are no ores nor coal. The downs flourishing trade is carried on in oil, seeds, grain, are employed chiefly as sheep pastures, and it flax, and stock fish. There are oil mills, saw is estimated that the sheep stock amounts to mills, salt and sugar refineries, bleaching grounds, 632,000, and the annual yield of wool to 10,000 and 'factories of white lead, tobacco, steel packs. The Dorset sheep are noted as a profit- pens, and window glass. The port is excellent. able breed, and "Southdown mutton" has & There are canals leading to the interior of the high reputation. There is another and very town, and a number of quays. The houses small breed in the island of Purbeck, much have an exceedingly antiquated appearance; the prized by epicures. A large proportion of land windows are grotesquely ornamented, and the is devoted to the use of the dairy. Excellent gable ends generally face the street. The pabbutter is made, but the cheese is of poor quality. lic buildings are numerous, and some of them The principal grain crops are wheat and barley. possess considerable historical interest. Three Potatoes, fax, and hemp are also raised, but old houses formerly used as doelens, or places of husbandry is in a backward state. The manu- rendezvous for armed burghers, are still standing. factures comprise silk, woollens, cottons, blan- In one of these, now used as a public house, was kets, canvas, ducks, fabrics of flax, gloves, held the famous Protestant synod of Dort, in parchment, buttons, strong beer, ale, and cider. 1618-'19, which condemned the doctrines of ArHerrings, salmon, oysters, and large quantities minius. The provincial synods of South Holland of mackerel are taken off the coast. The chief were held regularly in the same place until 1731, towns are Dorchester, the county seat, Brid- after which they convened in the great church. port, Lyme Regis, Weymouth, Poole, Shaftes- Another of the doelens has been converted into bury, Wareham, and Sherbourne. Dorset re- a court house, and a public school is taught in turns 13 members to parliament, 3 of whom are the third. Among the churches, the chief is St. for the county proper.

Mary's, an immense building of great antiquity, DORSEY, JOHN SYNG, an American physi- originally used by the Roman Catholics, and cian, born in Philadelphia, Dec. 23, 1783, died then containing no less than 20 chapels and 40 Nov. 12, 1818. He was educated in his native altars. It has a square tower of considerable city at á school belonging to the society of height, and a vaulted stone roof. The pulpit is Friends, studied medicine with his relative Dr. a fine piece of workmanship, of white marble Physick, and received the degree of M.D. in elaborately sculptured. The church is now held 1802. He visited France and England, and re- by the Protestants, who have beside 2 other turning home in Dec. 1804, began the practice places of worship. There are also a new Roof his profession, in which his success was rapid. man Catholic church, a congregation of JanIn 1807 he was elected adjunct professor of sur- senists, numbering about 100, and a Jewish syngery in the Philadelphia medical school, was agogue. The town hall is a very old building, afterward transferred to the chair of materia but still in good preservation. Dort also has a medica, and having given 2 courses of lectures corn exchange, a bank, an artillery arsenal, clason that subject, was chosen to succeed Dr. sical, agricultural, and other schools, an orphan Wistar in the professorship of anatomy. On asylum, alms houses, an infirmary, and a lunatic the evening after delivering his introductory asylum. In 1421 it was involved in a terrible lecture he was attacked by a fever, and died at inundation, which is said to have swallowed up the end of a week, having gained at the age of 70 villages, and to which the island of Dort owes 35 the reputation of one of the first surgeons its formation, the city having previously stood of America. He contributed valuable papers to on the mainland. A conflagration in 1457 conseveral periodicals, and published " Elements sumed upward of 2,000 houses, including many of Surgery" (2 vols. 8vo., 1813), which was of the public edifices. At the time of the readopted as a text book in the university of formation the new doctrines, which were so well Edinburgh.

received in many towns of Holland, found few DORT, or DORDRECHT (Lat. Dordracum), an supporters here at first, though they were afterancient town of the Netherlands, in the prov- ward received with avidity. The spot where the ince of South Holland, situated on an island in reformers first preached in Dort in 1572, beneath the Merwede, a river formed by the junction of a linden tree which stood in front of one of the Meuse and the Waal; pop. in 1856, 22,000. the old doelens, is still pointed out to strangers. The advantages of its position, 10 miles from Rot- The first meeting of the states-general, at which terdam, near the sea, accessible from the Rhine the independence of the United Provinces was Brough the Waal, and having easy communica- declared, was held here during the same year.




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While the disputes about the stadtholdership a length of over 2 feet, of a grotesque form, were raging in 1672, the inhabitants of this town and a yellowish tint; the body is oval, much sided with the house of Orange; in 1786, when compressed, with a smooth surface; the mouth similar difficulties arose, and Prussia intervened, is capable of such protrusion that the length Dort took a decided stand against that kingdom, from the point of the lower jaw to the posterior and succeeded in obtaining advantageous terms. angle of the operculum may be made as great During the wars of Napoleon the burghers dis- as from this angle to the base of the tail; the played an undaunted spirit in maintaining their mouth is large, and the teeth are in a single national independence.

row; the eyes are large, lateral, high up on the DORT, SYNOD OF. See REFORMED DUTCH head, and with yellow irides; behind and over CHURCH,

each eye is a spine. The general color is olive DORTMUND, a town of Prussia, province of brown tinged with yellow, with blue, white, Westphalia, and capital of a circle of the same and golden reflections rapidly varying ; on each name; pop. in 1855, 20,000. It is enclosed by side, very near the middle of the oval, is a round walls, has 5 gates, several churches, 2 hospitals, black spot surrounded by a narrow light ring. and some other public buildings, manufactories This fish was well known to the ancients, who of woollen, linen, cotton, &c., 4 annual fairs, expressed their regard for it by giving it the and a considerable trade. It was important at name of Jupiter. It has received a number of an early day, and was a member of the Hanse- popular names, among others that of “ St. atic league, but its prosperity afterward de- Peter's fish;" with the haddock it disputes the clined. Formerly a free imperial city, it passed honor of having been the species out of whose into the possession of the family of Nassau-Diez mouth this apostle took the tribute money, bearin 1802, and into the hands of Prussia in 1815. ing on its sides, according to one popular tradition,

DORUS-GRAS, EMILIE, a French singer, born the black spots indicating the marks of his finger in Valenciennes in 1818. Her father, an officer and thumb; another tradition assigns the origin under the first empire, was her earliest instruct- of these spots to the similar touch of St. Christoor in music, and at the age of 8 she was sent to pher as he bore the Saviour, wading through an the conservatoire of Paris. Having completed arm of the sea. The name of dory has been deher education there, she made her début at Brus- rived from the French adorée (worshipped), and sels in 1830; but returning to France in conse- dorée (golden); the prefix of John has been quence of the revolution in Belgium, she ac- derived from the French jaune (yellow); others cepted an engagement at the grand opera in consider John dory a corruption of il janitore Paris, where she remained upward of 20 years, (the gate-keeper), a name given to this species most of the time in the capacity of leading pri- by the Adriatic fishermen, in allusion to St. ma donna. Her chief parts were in Guillaume Peter, who is often pictured as bearing the keys Tell, La muette de Portici, Fernand Cortez, of the gates of heaven. From the resemblance Robert le diable, Les Huguenots, and La Juive. of the first dorsal fin to a cock's comb, it has been Her voice has great compass and flexibility, and called sea-chicken, gal, gallo, and in Gascony she is distinguished by brilliancy of execution jau (cock), to which also some have traced the and dramatic delivery. In 1833 she was married epithet of John, the whole name meaning the to M. Gras, an eminent violinist, with whom sev- "gilt cock of the sea.” This species is found in eral years ago she retired from professional life. the Mediterranean, along the western coast of

DORY, the name of a family of scomberoid Europe, at the Canary islands, and on the Eng. fishes, distinguished from the others of the lish and Irish coasts; in England it is most group by having protractile mouths. This fa- common on the coasts of Devonshire and Coramily of zeidos contains the 6 genera of zeus wall. Its forbidding appearance has prevented (Linn.), capro8 (Lacép.), caprophonus (Müll. and it from being so much prized as an article Trosch.), lampris (Risso), equula (Cuv.), and of food as it deserves; it was highly esteemed, mene (Lacép.) The name of dory is generally however, by the ancient Romans, and is now restricted to the genus zeus (Linn.), character- a favorite fish in many parts of England ; it ized by one dorsal fin deeply notched, or 2 con- appears that Mr. Quin, equally famous as a tiguous dorsals of which the anterior is spinous, comedian and an epicure, in the middle of the with delicate filaments projecting far beyond the 18th century, first in England discovered the spines; the ventrals, also spiny, are a little in excellence of the dory for the table, and it is advance of the pectorals; there are 2 anals, or said that the English name of John dory was 2 divisions of a single anal, the anterior portion first given to the fish by him. It is a deepbeing spinous and the posterior soft, like the water fish, and feeds on the fry of other spedorsals; the caudal is distinct and rounded at cies, shrimps, and mollusks; the average weight the end; there are several bony dermal bifur- in the London market is 3 or 4 lbs., but some cated plates or shields along the basis of the from the bay of Biscay have been seen weighdorsal and anal fins; the branchiostegal rays ing 12 to 16 lbs.; it often follows the pilchards, are 7; the teeth numerous, small and feeble; and is caught in the same nets with them; it the stomach large and cæcal, with very numer- readily takes the hook when baited with a liv. ous pyloric cæca; air bladder large, simple, and ing fish; very voracious, it seizes its prey by oval. The best known species is the common means of its protractile jaws, lying concealed or John dory (2. faber, Linn.), a fish attaining among weeds and grasses. The elongation of

the mouth is due principally to the mobility of DOUAY, or Doual, a town of France, capital the intermaxillary and lower jaw bones, espe- of an arrondissement of the same name, in the cially to the length of the ascending portion of department of Nord, 18 m. S. of Lille ; pop. in the former. A second species (Z. pungio, Val.) is 1856, 18,777. It is situated on the river Scarpe, found in the Mediterranean; in this the spines and on the northern railway, thus having conof the 1st dorsal are much larger, the bifurcated nection with the principal towns of France and spines along the 2d are 5 or 6 instead of 9 or 10, Belgium. It is surrounded by walls, is strongly the osseous plates which bear them are stronger fortified, and contains several literary and sciand more oval, and the scapular bone terminates entific institutions, a public library, school of in a large, round, pointed spine; the length is artillery, an arsenal and cannon foundery belongabout 17 inches, and the color blackish brown. ing to the government, and has manufactories A species 2 feet long (Z. capensis, Val.) occurs at of lace, embroidery, cotton, linen, leather, delft the cape of Good Hope ; another (2. Japonicus, ware, glass, paper, refined sugar, salt, &c., several Val.), of a grayish yellow color, with a deep breweries, distilleries, and oil mills, and an exblue spot, is found in Japan; and still another tensive trade. Douay is a very ancient town, species in the Australian seas. In June, 1858, and, according to some, existed in the time of Dr. D. H. Storer described the first species of the Romans. It was a town of considerable this genus found in American waters, in the importance when in possession of the counts of “Proceedings of the Boston Society of Nat- Flanders, from whom it came into the power ural History" (vol. vi., p. 385); this is the spot- of the king of Spain, and in 1667 passed into ted dory (2. ocellatus, Storer), captured at Prov- the hands of Louis XIV. Though taken by the incetown, Mass. The color is cupreous, marked duke of Marlborough in 1710, it was soon rewith numerous more or less circular dark spots; taken by the French, and its possession was finalthe base of the 2d dorsal is longer than that of ly confirmed to them by the treaty of Utrecht the 1st; along the dorsal fin are 7 bony spinous in 1713. During the religious troubles in Eng. plates, along the anal 5, along the abdomen land in the 16th and 17th centuries, it acquired 8, and along the throat 4; the length was 6 considerable celebrity as the seat of a Roman inches.—The name of dory has been applied Catholic college and ecclesiastical seminary, in this country to other scomberoid fishes of the founded by Dr. William (afterward Cardinal) Algenera blepharis (Cuv.), argyreiosus (Lacép.), len, for the education of English youths. Studand vomer (Cuv.), which were included by Lin- ies were commenced at this institution in 1568, næus and Bloch in the genus zeus, from which and for about 10 years its prosperity was unin. they were separated by Cuvier. These American terrupted. But in the course of time the townsdories have a very compressed body, and very people of Douay, then subjects of the king of singular forms. In the genus blepharis the Spain, grew jealous of their English neighbors, body is sharp on the edges, with a brilliant and in spite of the efforts of the magistrates to smooth skin; the dorsal and anal fins have long preserve peace, disturbances were of frequent filamentous rays from 4 to 12 inches in length, occurrence. To prevent further mischief the colwhich from their resemblance to wax-ends have lege was removed to Rheims in 1578, where it obtained for them in the West Indies the name was protected by the Guise family. În 1593 it of cordonniers (shoemakers). In the genus ar- was again established at Douay, and remained gyreiosus the 2) and 3d rays, or only the 1st, of there until finally broken up by the French revone or both dorsals are filamentous; the great olution in 1793. A translation of the Bible into perpendicularity of the facial line gives a ridic- English was made at this college by Dr. Gregulously solemn expression to this genus; these ory Martin, assisted by Dr. Allen, Dr. Richard fishes are occasionally taken in the waters of Bristow, and Dr. John Reynolds. The New New York, and are considered excellent arti- Testament was published at Rheims in 1582, and cles of food. The genus comer has a similar the Old Testament at Douay in 1609 and 1610. vertical profile and silvery lustre, but no fila- This is the translation received in the English ments or prolongations of the fins; it is esteem- Roman Catholic church, and known as the ed for food; the V. Brounii (Val.) of the New Rhemish or Douay version. York coast is from 8 to 12 inches long.

DOUBLEDAY, EDWARD, an English natuDOSITHEANS, an ancient sect of the Samari- ralist, born in 1810, died in London in 1849. tans, so called from their founder Dositheus, At an early age he made a tour of the United who was a contemporary and companion of States, and op his return published a paper on Simon Magus, and flourished in the 1st century the “Natural History of North America," and A. D. According to one account Dositheus was was appointed one of the curators of the British a disciple of John the Baptist, and, after the museum. The most valuable of his contributions death of the latter, endeavored to place himself to science are the results of his researches conat the head of the followers of that prophet. cerning butterflies, published in a work“On the Another account tells us that he tried to per- Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera,” which, howsuade the Samaritans to receive him as the Ñes- ever, he left unfinished at his death. He was siah. There were still in the 4th century a few also the author of a variety of papers on orniDositheans who adhered to their master as the thology, entomology, and zoology, published in true Messiah, but the sect was never of much the “ Entomological Magazine" and elsewhere. importance.

DOUBLOON (Sp. doblon), a well known

gold coin of Spain and Spanish America, origi- DOUGLAS. I. AS. W.co. of Oregon, boundnally coined of the same weight and fineness as ed E. by the Cascade range, and drained by Umpthe Spanish dollar, and valued at $16. Its sub- qua river and its branches; pop. in 1858, 2,105. divisions in gold were the half doubloon, the Organized in 1855. Capital, Winchester. II. An quarter or pistole, the eighth or escudo, and in E. co. of Nebraska, bounded E. by the Missouri, Spain the sixteenth or veintein. It is still coined which separates it from lowa, and W. by the in Mexico, Central America, and most of the Platte river. It is drained by Elkhorn, Big South American states, but owing to a reduc- Papillon, and Little Papillon rivers. Capital, tion of fineness is worth only from $15 50 to Omaba City. III. An E.co. of Kansas, bounded $15 60 of our money. (See Coins.)

N. by Kansas river, and drained by the WaukaDOUBS, a department on the E. frontier of rusa; area, 500 sq. m.; pop. in 1859, about 12,France, named from the river Doubs, which rises 000. It consists chiefly of rolling uplands, with in the Jura, and empties into the Saône; area, a black loamy soil, well timbered, and producing 2,020 sq. m.; pop. in 1856, 286,888. Its sur- Indian corn, wheat, oats, potatoes, sorghum, and fáce is for the most part mountainous, gradually hemp. The minerals are coal and carboniferous rising from the more level country in the N. W. limestone. The county was settled in 1854, of the department to the rugged and sterile and its name was changed to Lincoln in 1859. mountain peaks on the frontier of Switzerland. Chief towns, Lawrence and Lecompton; the The principal rivers are the Doubs and the latter is the capital of the territory. Oignon, though there is a large number of DOUGLAS. I. A seaport town on the E. coast smaller streams. Agriculture is carried on to of the isle of Man; pop. in 1851, 9,880. It is the some extent, but tho grain raised is insufficient capital of the island, and a watering place of much for the wants of the inhabitants. Much atten- resort. It bas a harbor capable of admitting tion is paid to the raising of horses and cattle, vessels of 10 or 12 feet draught at high water, and a considerable portion of the department and a pier 520 feet in length. Steamers from is devoted to pasturage. There are some iron Liverpool, Glasgow, and various ports of Iremines, which are worked, and coal, gypsum, land, often touch here. Ship-building is carried building stone, and salt, are also produced. The on to some extent, and many of the inhabitants manufactures comprise clocks, paper, leather, are employed in the coasting trade and the fishwoollen and cotton cloth, iron and steel ware, eries. II. A village and parish of Lanarkshire, butter, cheese, &c. The climate is somewhat Scotland, on a river of the same name; pop. in variable, but is on the whole cold, and in the 1851, 2,611. The parish is owned almost entirelower parts of the department much rain falls. ly by the heir-at-law of the Douglas family, who The country is nevertheless healthy, and the takes from this place his title of baron. The duke inhabitants vigorous and sturdy. It is divided of Hamilton is marquis of Douglas. Near the into 4 arrondissements. Capital, Besançon. village are the ruins of the ancient church of St.

DOUCE, Francis, an English antiquary, born Bride, noted for its numerous family tombs, in 1762, died in London, March 30, 1834. He among which is a monument to "the good Lord collected a great number of rare books, prints, James,” the friend of Robert Bruce and the hero medals, coins, &c., the most important of which of Sir Walter Scott's tale, “Castle Dangerous.” he bequeathed at his death to the Bodleian li- DOUGLAS, a Scottish family, once so powerbrary. His papers he gave to the British mu- ful that it passed into a proverb: “No man may seum, on condition that the box which contained touch a Douglas, nor a Douglas's man, for if be them should not be opened until the year 1900. do, he is sure to come by the waur (worse).” The Mr. Douce contributed some papers to the “Ar- family has been connected with the most dischæologia,” and to the “Gentleman's Magazine,” tinguished nobles of England, Scotland, France, and was the author of “Illustrations of Shake- and Sweden, and has intermarried il times speare and Ancient Manners” (2 vols. 8vo., Lon- with the royal houses of Scotland, once with don, 1807), and a “Dissertation on the Dance that of England, and in 1841 with a princess of Death" (London, 1833).

of Baden. It held for a time the earldoin of DOUGHTY, THOMAS, an American landscape Athol, and one of its members acquired in the painter, born in Philadelphia, July 19, 1793, 14th century the title of earl of Douglas and died in New York, July 24, 1856. He was ap- Mar. The earls of Angus afterward became prenticed in his youth to a leather manufac- the heads of the family, and the 11th of that turer, and afterward carried on the business title was created marquis of Douglas in 1633, on his own account. A growing taste for art, while another branch acquired the earldom of however, induced him in his 28th year, con- Queensberry. The 3d marquis was made a duke, trary to the advice of his friends, to become a but dying without issue the title of marquis of painter. He had previously attempted a few Douglas fell to the duke of Hamilton, and the paintings in oil, which he himself has character- chief dignities of the family are now held by the ized as “mere daubs,” and had received a quar- houses of Buccleugh and Queensberry. Baron ter's tuition in India ink drawing. He practised James Douglas of Douglas was a son of Archibald his profession for many years in the United Stowart, nephew of Archibald, duke of Douglas, States, and also in London and Paris. For some whose legitimacy was contested by the duke of years previous to his death his pencil was less Hamilton; it being alleged on Stewart's behalf active.

that he was one of a pair of twins born in Paris,


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