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July 10, 1748, when his mother was in her 51st year; the other twin was said to have died in infancy. The Scotch courts determined in favor of Hamilton, but the house of lords reversed the judgment. This suit, known as the Douglas case, was one of the most extraordinary ever litigated in Great Britain. Mr. Stewart was elevated to the peerage as Baron Douglas in 1790. Baron James, the late peer, died April 6, 1857, when this title became extinct, and the estates devolved on his half sister, Lady Montagu. Among the present representatives of the great Douglas family is Sir Robert Douglas, an officer in the army, born July 19, 1837.

DOUGLAS, DAVID, a British botanist, born in Scone, Scotland, in 1798, killed in the Sandwich islands, July 12,1834. Having been employed as a laborer in the Glasgow botanic garden, his intelligence attracted the notice of Dr. (afterward Sir William) Hooker, who procured for him an appointment as botanical collector to the horticultural society of London. In this capacity he travelled extensively in America; in 1824 explored the Columbia river and California, and in 1827 traversed the continent from Fort Vancouver to Hudson's bay, where he met Sir John Franklin, and returned with him to England. He made a second visit to the Columbia in 1829, and afterward went to the Sandwich islands. His death was caused by falling into a pit made to entrap wild cattle, where he was killed and mutilated by an animal previously entrapped. Through his agency 217 new species of plants were introduced into England. He collected 800 specimens of the California flora. A gigantic species of pine which he discovered in California is named after him pinus Douglasii.

DOUGLAS, GAWIN, or GAVIN, a Scottish poet, bishop of Dunkeld, youngest son of Archibald, 5th earl of Angus, born in Brechin about 1474, died of the plague in London in 1521 or 1522. He was educated for the church, partly in Scotland and partly at Paris, and when 22 years of age was appointed rector of Hawick. While in this office he translated into verse Ovid's "Remedy of Love." In 1501 he addressed to King James IV. the "Palace of Honor," an allegory which resembles so much in structure the "Pilgrim's Progress," that Bunyan has been thought to have borrowed the idea of his work from that of the Scotch bishop. In 1509 he was appointed provost of St. Giles's, Edinburgh. At the solicitation of Lord Sinclair, who afterward fell at Flodden, he translated the Eneid into Scottish verse. The original issue bears the title page: "The xiii. bukes of Eneados of the famose poet Virgill, translatet out of Latyne verses into Scottish metir, bi the Reuerend Father in God, Mayster Gawin Douglas, Bishop of Dunkel, & vnkil to the Erle of Angus: euery buke hauing hys perticular prologe (4to., London, 1553). This work was written in 16 months and finished in 1513, though first printed 40 years later. It is praised for its spirit and fidelity. The 13th book was the production of Mapheus Vegius. In Sept. 1513,


"the provost of St. Giles," as he was now called, accompanied the king to Flodden field, where his 2 elder brothers, the master of Angus and Sir William Douglas, with 200 gentlemen of their name, were slain. Soon afterward the earl his father died of grief. The chief of Douglas was now the young earl of Angus, nephew of Gawin. This youth married the queen regent, and was the means of Gawin's obtaining the abbacy of Aberbrothwick, and a nomination to the archbishopric of St. Andrew's, which would have made him head of the church in Scotland. The pope would not assent to this appointment, and as the partisans of the various candidates appealed to arms, it ended in Gawin's abbacy being taken from him. Thereupon the queen made him bishop of Dunkeld, in 1515. On taking possession of his see he found it in armed possession of the earl of Athol's brother, Andrew Stewart. Douglas's friends rallied in force and took the cathedral, after which the contention went on for years between the rival families of Angus and Hamilton, and in April, 1520, both families met in Edinburgh to fight it out. Bishop Gawin, foreseeing bloodshed, besought Beaton, archbishop of Glasgow, a partisan of the Hamiltons, to prevent the fray. The archbishop, who was in canonical habit, struck his hand on his breast and declared on his conscience that he knew nothing of any attempted violence. Unfortunately the archbishop had armor under his gown, intending himself to take part in the fight; his gesture of asseveration caused the steel to clash. "Methinks," said Douglas drily, "your conscience clatters." Douglas's intercessions were of no avail; the forces of the rival lords met. Hamilton was

defeated, and the bishop had the revenge, later in the day, of saving the life of Beaton, whom the victors were about to slay on the altar of Blackfriars' church. Next year the regent Albany called the Angus party to account, and the earl, with Gawin and the chief men of his name, were forced to fly to England, where Henry VIII. received them well, and allowed Gawin a pension. An allegorical poem of his, entitled "King Hart," was left in manuscript, and published by Pinkerton in his "Ancient Scottish Poems," 1788. According to Hallam, "the character of Douglas's original poetry seems to be that of the middle ages in generalprolix, though sometimes animated, description of sensible objects." Warton thinks, on the contrary, that his metrical prologues are "often highly poetical, and show that Douglas's proper walk was original poetry."

DOUGLAS, SIR HOWARD, an English general, born in Gosport, Hampshire, July 1, 1776. He entered the army at an early age, served in Walcheren, and in the Spanish and Portuguese campaigns in 1808-'9-'11-'12. He succeeded his brother as 3d baronet, May 24, 1809. In 1823 he was appointed governor of New Brunswick, and held that office until 1829, in which year he received the degree of D.C.L. from the university of Oxford. He was lord high commissioner

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of the Ionian islands from 1835 to 1840, and to Mr. Granger, of Ontario co., N. Y., to whose member of parliament for Liverpool from 1842 son her daughter had been previously married. to 1847. He was raised to the rank of general Young Douglas removed with his mother to Canin 1851. Sir Howard is the author of several andaigua, and entered as a student the academy valuable works on military science, among which of that place, in which he continued till 1833. are an essay “On the Construction of Military He studied law in the office of the Messrs. Habe Bridges," &c. (1817), and “ A Treatise on Naval bell, at the same time that he pursued his acaGunnery" (1819). In a 4th edition of the lat- demical course, having finally adopted that as his ter work, published in 1855, he reviewed very profession. In the spring of 1833 he went to the severely the military operations in the Crimea. West in search of an eligible place

in which to DOŬGLAS, JOHN, D.D., an English pre- establish himself as a lawyer. At Cleveland he late, born in Pittenweem, Fifeshire, Scotland, was detained the whole summer by severe illness, in 1721, died in Salisbury, May 18, 1807. He after his recovery from which he went to Cincinwas chaplain to a regiment of foot guards nati, Louisville, St. Louis, and Jacksonville, IIL. serving in Flanders, was present at the battle At Jacksonville he found his funds reduced to of Fontenoy (1745), and was employed by Gen. 375 cents, and accordingly walked to WinchesCampbell in carrying orders. After having held ter, a little town 16 miles distant, where he hoped various ecclesiastical benefices, chiefly through to get employment as a school teacher. He found the patronage of the earl of Bath, in 1781 he there a large crowd assembled to attend the ancwas chosen president of Sion college; in 1787 tion sale of the stock of a deceased trader. The was made bishop of Carlisle ; in the succeeding auctioneer was without a clerk to keep the acyear became dean of Windsor; and in 1792 was count of the sale, and perceiving that Mr. Dougtranslated to the see of Salisbury. He was a las, who stood among the spectators, looked like member of the royal society, and vice-presi- a man who could write and keep accounts, redent of the antiquarian society. Beside an quested him to serve in that capacity. Mr. early literary effort entitled “A Vindication of Douglas consented, and acted as clerk during Milton from the charge of Plagiarism,” Dr. the three days of the sale, receiving for his serDouglas wrote many religious and political pam- vices $6. With this capital in hand he promptphlets. He also superintended in 1762 the pub- ly opened a school, and obtained 40 pupils, lication the 2d Lord Clarendon's “Diary and whom he taught for nonths at $3 a quarter, Letters ;" in 1777, Lord Hardwick's "Miscella- devoting his evenings to the study of some law neous Papers," and Capt. Cook's second voyage; books which he bad borrowed in Jacksonville, and in 1781, Capt. Cook's last voyage. His reli- and on Saturday afternoons practising in petty gious writings were several anniversary ser- cases before the justice of peace of the town. In mons; the “Criterion, or Miracles Examined,” March, 1834, he opened an office and began intended as a vindication of the Christian mir- practice in the higher courts, for which, after acles from the attacks of Hume; with sundry examination, he had obtained license from the controversial discourses against the Hutchin- judges of the supreme court. He was remarksonians, Methodists, and other sects. He was a ably successful at the bar, as may be inferred member of the club instituted by Dr. Johnson, from the fact that within a year from his admisand is accordingly mentioned by Boswell and sion, while not yet 22 years of age, he was Goldsmith.

elected by the legislature attorney-general of DOUGLAS, STEPHEN ARNOLD, an American the state. This office he resigned in Dec. 1835, statesman, born at Brandon, Rutland co., Vt., in consequence of having been elected to the April 23, 1813. His father was a native of the legislature by the democrats of Morgan co. He state of New York, and a physician of consider- took his seat in the house of representatives, the able reputation. He died suddenly of apoplexy youngest member of that body. In 1837 he was when his son Stephen Arnold was but little more appointed by President Van Buren register of than 2 months old. The widow, with her infant the land office at Springfield, Ii., a post which and a daughter only 18 months older, retired to he resigned in 1839. In Nov. 1837, Mr. Donga farm which she had inherited conjointly with las received the democratic nomination for conan unmarried brother. At the age of 15 her son, gress, although he was under 25 years of age, who had received a good common school educa- and consequently ineligible. Ho however attion, desired to prepare for college; but his family tained the requisite age before the day of elecproving unable to bear the requisite expense, ho tion, which was the 1st Monday in Aug. 1838. left the farm, determined to earn his own living, His congressional district was then the most and engaged himself as an apprentice to the trade populous one in the United States, and the canof cabinet making, at which he worked a year vass was conducted with extraordinary zeal and and a half, partly at Middlebury and partly at energy. Upward of 36,000 votes were cast, Brandon, when his health became so impaired and the whig candidate was declared to be by the severity of the labor that he abandoned elected by a majority of 5 only. A number of the occupation altogether. He has often since ballots sufficient to have changed the result said that the happiest days of his life were passed were rejected by the canvassers because the in the workshop. He now entered the academy name of Mr. Douglas was incorrectly spelled. at Brandon as a student, and remained there a After this defeat, which under the circumyear. His mother about this time was married stances was claimed by his friends as a victory,

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Mr. Douglas devoted himself exclusively to his act. As chairman of the territorial committee, profession until 1840, when he entered into the first in the house of representatives, and after: famous presidential campaign of that year with ward in the senate, he reported and successfully so much ardor that he traversed the state in all carried through the bills to organize the territodirections for 7 months, and addressed more than ries of Minnesota, Oregon, New Mexico, Utah, 200 political gatherings. To his exertions was Washington, Kansas, and Nebraska, and also ascribed the adherence of Illinois at that election the bills for the admission into the Union of the to the democratic party. In Dec. 1840, Mr. Doug- states of Iowa, Wisconsin, California, Minnesota, las was appointed secretary of state of Illinois. and Oregon. So far as the question of slavery In Feb. 1841, he was elected by the legislature was involved in the organization of territories a judge of the supreme court, which office he and the admission of new states, he early took the resigned in 1843 to accept the democratic nom- position that congress should not interfere on the ination for congress, which was urged upon him one side or the other, but that the people of each against his known wishes, on the ground that territory and state should be allowed to form he was the only democrat who could be elected. and regulate their domestic institutions to suit After a spirited canvass Mr. Douglas was chosen themselves. In accordance with this principle by upward of 400 majority. He was reēlected he opposed the “Wilmot proviso " when first in 1844 by a majority of 1,900, and again in passed in the house of representatives in 1847, 1846 by nearly 3,000 majority. He did not as an amendment to the bill appropriating however, take his seat under the last election, $3,000,000 to enable President Polk to make a having in the mean time been chosen to the treaty of peace with Mexico, and afterward in senate of the United States for 6 years from the senate when offered as an amendment to March 4, 1847. In the house of representatives the bill for the organization of the territory of Mr. Douglas was prominent among those who, Oregon. In August, 1848, however, he offered in the Oregon controversy with Great Britain, an amendment to the Oregon bill, extending maintained that our title to the whole of Oregon the Missouri compromise line indefinitely westup to lat. 54° 40' was “clear and unquestiona- ward to the Pacific ocean, in the same sense and ble.” He declared that “he never would, now with the same understanding with which it was or hereafter, yield up one inch of Oregon, either originally adopted in 1820, and extended through to Great Britain or any other government.” He Texas in 1845, prohibiting slavery in all the teradvocated the policy of giving notice to termi- ritory north of the parallel of 36° 30', and by nate the joint occupation; of establishing a ter- implication recognizing its existence south of ritorial government over Oregon, protected by that line. This amendment was adopted in the a sufficient military force; and of putting the senate by a decided majority, receiving the supcountry at once in a state of preparation, so port of every southern, together with several that if war should result from the assertion of northern senators, but was defeated in the our just rights, we might drive “Great Britain house of representatives by nearly a sectional and the last vestiges of royal authority from the vote. The refusal of the senate to adopt the continent of North America, and make the policy of congressional prohibition of slavery United States an ocean-bound republic.” He in all the territories, and the rejection in the denied the right of the federal government to house of representatives of the proposition to prosecutowa system of internal improvements in extend the Missouri compromise to the Pacific the states, though he maintained the constitu- ocean, gave rise to the sectional agitation of tionality and expediency of improving rivers, 1849–50, which was temporarily quieted by harbors, and navigable waters, and advocated á the legislation known as the compromise meas. scheme of tonnage duties for that purpose, to be ures of 1850. Mr. Douglas supported these levied and expended by the local authorities. measures with zeal and vigor; and on his return He was mainly instrumental in securing the to his home in Chicago, finding them assailed passage of the law extending the maritime and with great violence, he defended the whole admiralty jurisdiction of the federal courts over series in a speech to the people (Oct. 24, 1850) the great chain of northern lakes, having re- which is regarded by his friends as one of the ported the bill as a member of the judiciary ablest he has ever made. In this speech he decommittee, and put it upon its passage, when a fined the principles on which the compromise member of the house of representatives. He acts of 1850 were founded, and upon which was among the earliest advocates of the annex- he subsequently defended the Kansas-Nebrasation of Texas, and after the treaty for that ob- ka bill

, in these words: “These measures are ject had failed in the senate, he was one of those predicated on the great fundamental principle who introduced propositions, in the form of joint that every people ought to possess the right resolutions, as a substitute for that treaty. As of framing and regulating their own internal chairman of the committee on territories in concerns and domestic institutions in their own 1846 he reported the joint resolution declaring way. . . . . These things are all confided by the Texas to be one of the United States of America, constitution to each state to decide for itself, and he vigorously sustained the administration and I know of no reason why the same principle of President Polk in the measures which it ad- should not be extended to the territories.” Mr. opted for the prosecution of the war with Mex- Douglas was an unsuccessful candidate before ico, which was the ultimate consequence of that the democratic national convention at Baltimore in 1852, for the nomination for the presidency. office, 122,413; and the Buchanan or adminis On the 30th ballot he received 92 votes, the tration candidate, 5,173. During the whole of highest number given to any candidate on that that contest he maintained and defended the ballot, out of a total of 288 votes. At the doctrine of non-intervention and popular sov. congressional session of 1853–4, he reported ereignty, in the same sense in which he had from the committee on territories the cele- previously proclaimed it in congress. Subsebrated bill to organize the territories of Kansas quently, in a debate in the senate (Feb. 23, 1859), and Nebraska, which effectually revolutionized he avowed and defended the same doctrine political parties in the United States, and form- when assailed by several of the ablest senators ed the issues upon which the democratio and of the democratic party.--Mr. Douglas has been republican parties became arrayed against each remarkably successful in promoting the local other. The passage of this bill caused great interests of his own state during his congresexcitement in the free states of the Union, and sional career. To him, more than to any other Mr. Douglas as its author was widely and vehe- individual, is Ilinois indebted for the magnifihemently denounced, and in many places was cent grant of lands which secured the construchanged and burned in effigy. The whole contro- tion of the Illinois central railroad, and conversy turned on the provision repealing the Mis- tributed so much to restore the credit and de. souri compromise, which Mr. Douglas maintain- velop the resources of the state. He has always ed to be inconsistent with the principle of non- been a warm supporter and advocate of a railintervention by congress with slavery in states road from the Mississippi river to the Pacific and territories. After repealing the Missouri re- ocean, having been a member of the various striction, the bill declared it to be the “true intent select committees of congress on that subject, and meaning of the act, not to legislate slavery and being the author of several bills reported into any state or territory, nor to exclude it by those committees. Mr. Douglas's views in therefrom, but to leave the people thereof regard to our foreign relations have seldom been perfectly free to form and regulate their do- in accordance with the policy of the adminismestic institutions in their own way, subject tration. He opposed the treaty with England only to the constitution of the United States.” limiting the Oregon territory to the 49th parWhatever diversity of opinion may exist in allel, contending that England had no rights on regard to the correctness of this principle and that coast, and that the United States should the propriety of its application to the terri- never recognize her claim. He opposed the tories, it must be admitted that Mr. Douglas treaty of peace with Mexico on the ground that has proved faithful to it under all circum- the boundaries were unnatural and inconvenient, stances, and defended it whenever assailed or and that the provisions in regard to the Indians violated. In 1856 Mr. Douglas was again & could never be executed. The United States candidate for the presidential nomination be have since paid Mexico $10,000,000 to change fore the democratic national convention at Cin- the boundaries and relinquish the stipulations cinnati. The highest vote he received was on in regard to the Indians. He opposed the ratithe 16th ballot, which stood, for Mr. Buchanan fication of the Clayton and Bulwer treaty, and 168, for Mr. Douglas 121, for Mr. Cass 6. In endeavored to procure its rejection, upon the the congressional session of 1857–8, he de- ground, among other things, that it pledged the nounced and opposed with energy and ability faith of the United States in all time to come the Lecompton constitution, upon the distinct never to annex, colonize, or exercise dominion ground that it was not the act and deed of the over any portion of Central America. He depeople of Kansas, and did not embody their clared that he did not desire to annex that counwill

. Before the adjournment of that session try at that time, but maintained that the istbof congress he returned home to vindicate his mus routes must be kept open as highways action before the people of Illinois in one of the to the American possessions on the Pacific, most exciting and well-contested political can- that the time would come when the United vasses ever known in the United States. Ho States would be compelled to occupy Central had to encounter the determined hostility of America, and that he would never pledge the the federal administration and all its patronage, faith of the republic not to do in the future in and the powerful opposition of the republican respect to this continent what its interests and party. But he succeeded in carrying the elec- sạfety might require. He has also declared himtion of a sufficient number of state senators and self in favor of the acquisition of Cuba whenever representatives to secure his return to the U.S. the island can be obtained consistently with the senate for 6 years from March 4, 1859, by 54 laws of nations and the honor of the United votes for him to 46 for Abraham Lincoln, his States.--Mr. Douglas was married, April 7, able and distinguished opponent. It was mani- 1847, to Miss Martha D. Martin, daughter of fest, however, by the popular vote for certain Col. Robert Martin of Rockingham co., N. C., state officers who were chosen simultaneously by whom he had 3 children, 2 of whom are livwith the members of the legislature, that å ing. She died Jan. 19, 1853. He was again majority of the people were opposed to Mr. married, Nov. 20, 1856, to Miss Adèle Cutts, Douglas. The republican candidate for super- daughter of James Madison Cutts of Washing. intendent of common schools received 124,566 ton, D. O., second controller of the treasury. votes; the Douglas candidate for the same DOUGLASS, David Bates, LL.D., an Amer


ican engineer, born in Pompton, N. J., March 21, 1790, died in Geneva, N. Y., Oct. 19, 1849. He was graduated at Yale college in 1813, entered the army as 2d lieutenant of engineers, and was stationed at West Point. In the summer of 1813 he was ordered to the Niagara frontier, and arrived just in time to take part as a volunteer in the battle of Niagara. In the subsequent defence of Fort Erie, in August and September, he distinguished himself, and was at once promoted to a first lieutenancy, with the brevet rank of captain. He was ordered to West Point, Jan. 1, 1815, and made assistant professor of natural and experimental philosophy. In 1819 he acted during the summer recess as astronomical surveyor of the boundary commission from Niagara to Detroit, and in the summer of 1820 accompanied Gov. Cass in a similar capacity to the northwest. In August of the same year, while on this duty, he was promoted to the professorship of mathematics in the military academy at West Point, vacant by the death of his father-in-law, Prof. Andrew Ellicott, with the rank of major in the army. In 1823 he was transferred at his own desire to the professorship of civil and military engineering. The science of engineering was then new in this country, and few great works had been executed. He devoted himself to it with unsparing energy, and soon acquired a wide reputation. Many advantageous offers were made him, but he chose to remain at West Point. He was however employed by the state of Pennsylvania during the summer recesses from 1826 to 1830 as a consulting engineer, and charged with the surveys of several of the more difficult parts in its system of public works. In 1831 he resigned his professorship, and became chief engineer of the Morris canal, residing in Brooklyn. In 1832 he was appointed professor of civil architecture in the new university of the city of New York, and prepared the designs for its building. In June, 1833, he commenced his surveys for the great work of supplying New York with water, and in November submitted his first report, demonstrating the feasibility of such a supply, and showing how to obtain it from the Croton river. He reviewed his surveys in 1834, and prepared plans and estimates for the city authorities, and the next spring it was determined by a vote of the citizens that the aqueduct should be built. Water commissioners were appointed, and Major Douglass was at once elected chief engineer, and proceeded to lay out minutely the line of the aqueduct and complete his plans. He had accomplished his preliminary work when he was superseded. In 1839 he planned and laid out Greenwood cemetery. In 1840 he was elected president of Kenyon college, Ohio, and removed to Gambier in the spring of 1841. He withdrew from this office in 1844, and returned to the vicinity of New York. In 1845 he delivered a course of lectures at New Haven on the Niagara campaign. They had been originally delivered in New York in 1839, and soon afterward repeated


at Albany during the session of the legislature, in the hall of assembly, and at Buffalo. In 1845-'6 he laid out the cemetery at Albany, and in 1847 was employed in developing the landscape features of Staten island. In 1848 he laid out the Protestant cemetery at Quebec, and in the same year he was elected professor of mathematics and natural philosophy in Geneva college. He accepted the office, and entered upon its duties in October, but died the next year. His published writings consist chiefly of reports on the numerous works on which he was employed, and which he projected.

DOUGLASS, FREDERICK, an American abolitionist, born at Tuckahoe, near Easton, Talbot co., Md., about 1817. His mother was a negro slave and his father a white man. He was reared as a slave on the plantation of Col. Edward Lloyd, until at the age of 10 he was sent to Baltimore to live with a relative of his master. He secretly taught himself to read and write, was employed in a ship yard, and, in accordance with a resolution long entertained to achieve his freedom, at the age of 21 fled from Baltimore and from slavery, Sept. 3, 1838. He made his way to New York and thence to New Bedford, where he married and lived for 2 or 3 years, supporting himself by day labor on the wharves and in various workshops. In the summer of 1841 he attended an anti-slavery convention at Nantucket, and made a speech which was so well received that at the close of the meeting he was offered and accepted the position of agent of the Massachusetts antislavery society, to deliver public addresses on slavery. In this capacity he travelled and lectured through Massachusetts and other New England states for 4 years. In 1845 he published an autobiography, entitled the "Life of Frederick Douglass," and soon after its appearance he went to Europe and lectured on slavery to crowded audiences in nearly all the large towns of England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. In 1846 his friends in England contributed £150 to buy him from his claimant in Maryland, and have him regularly manumitted in due form of law. He remained 2 years in Great Britain, and on his return to the United States in 1847 he began at Rochester, N. Y., the publication of "Frederick Douglass's Paper," a weekly journal which he still continues to edit. Mr. Douglass, at the beginning of his public career as a lecturer and editor, was a Garrisonian disunionist. Several years ago, however, he renounced disunionism, and now maintains in his paper and in his public addresses that slavery is illegal and unconstitutional. In 1855 he rewrote and enlarged his autobiography, under the title of "My Bondage and my Freedom," of which the 18th thousand was published at New York and Auburn in 1857.

DOURO, or DUERO, one of the largest rivers of the Spanish peninsula, rises on the frontiers of the provinces of Soria and Burgos, and flows into the Atlantic at Oporto. Its current is rapid, and its course, for the most part, through nar


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