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row valleys. For a considerable distance it with portrait painting, but was so extremely forms the boundary between Spain and Portu- slow in finishing that no one would submit to gal. It is navigable for small vessels as far as the tediousness of sitting to him. He then dethe Spanish frontier, and receives the waters of voted himself to painting domestic scenes. He the Pisuerga, Seco, Esla, Sabor, Tua, Tamega, was so exact in the imitation of objects, that a Adaja, Tormes

, Turon, Coa, and Tavora, beside glass is needed to appreciate the skill and delicate many smaller streams. Navigation is often in- finish of his work. His drawing was neither bold terrupted by freshets, and the river is but little nor correct, but his figures are not wanting in used for commercial purposes. On its banks life and expression, and his coloring is strong, are the vineyards which produce the celebrated fresh, and harmonious. He shared none of the wines of Oporto. Its length, including wind- poetical taste of his master, for his pictures ings, is estimated at from 400 to 500 miles. generally consist of 2 or 3 figures engaged in

DOUVILLE, JEAN BAPTISTE, a French trav- the most trivial and often disagreeable occupaeller and naturalist, born in Hambie, Feb. 15, tions, as many of their titles indicate. Among 1794. The death of a rich relative gave him the the most celebrated are the “Dropsical Woman," means of gratifying a taste for adventure, and the Village Grocer's Wife," the “ Dentist," he travelled in Europe, South America, and Asia, and the “ Violin Player." His works are to be landing at Genoa on his return in 1824. In 1826 found in all the public galleries of Europe, but he went to Paris, where he was made member of private fortunes were hardly sufficient to comthe geographical society. He sailed from Havre, mand them, for it was the rule of Douw to be Aug. 6 of the same year, for Buenos Ayres, where paid for his pictures according to the time they he arrived Oct. 29. The La Plata was at that cost him, tine under blockade by the Brazilians, and the DOVE, a river of England, noted for its pioFrench vessel was captured while endeavoring turesque scenery. It rises near Buxton, among to violate it; but Douville was befriended by the hills of the Peak of Derbyshire, and falls into the Brazilian admiral, and after a short sojourn the Trent, after a southerly course of 39 miles at Montevideo, was sent to Buenos Ayres, where, Near the town of Ashbourne it flows through a finding his resources nearly exhausted, he at- remarkable winding chasm 2 miles in length, tempted to replenish them by mercantile opera- called Dovedale. tions. Having been accused of some fraudulent DOVE, HEINRICH WILHELM, a German metransaction in business, of which he was after- teorologist, born in Liegnitz, Prussian Silesia, ward acquitted, he left Buenos Ayres in dis- Oct. 6, 1803. He was educated at Breslau and gust, and went to Rio Janeiro, Aug. 1827. On Berlin, in 1826 became a teacher and subseOct. 15 he embarked for Congo, whence he re- quently a professor extraordinary in the univer. turned to France in 1831. The stories of his sity of Königsberg, and in 1829 was invited to discoveries in several kingdoms hitherto almost Berlin, where he has since filled the professorunknown to Europeans, and of his exploration ship of physics. For a series of years he has deof the Congo or Zaire and other rivers, aroused voted much attention to the investigation of the great enthusiasm among the Parisians. He re- laws which regulate atmospheric phenomena, ceived a medal from the geographical society; and which he has evolved with clearness and his researches were published under the title of precision. His reports and isothermal maps, Voyage au Congo et dans l'Afrique équinoxiale prepared from an immense number of isolated (4 vols., with a map, Paris, 1832), and his book observations, afforded the first representation and chart were used as the basis of subsequent of the isothermal lines of the whole globe for maps of Africa. But the evident exaggeration every month of the year, beside much kindred of some of his statements soon awakened suspi- information, the importance of which to meteorcion. The English “Foreign Quarterly Re- ologists can scarcely be overestimated. His view” assailed him as an impostor, and a few investigations on the thermal influence of the weeks later his deceptions were more fully ex- gulf stream and on kindred subjects have also posed in the Revue des deux mondes. To cover attracted the favorable notice of scientific men. his shame by real discoveries, he sailed for Bra- As an experimenter in electricity he was the zil in 1833, and penetrated to the interior of first to announce the presence of a secondary South America, by the Amazon. Nothing has current in a metallic wire, at the moment that since been heard of him. Recent discoveries in the circuit of the principal current is completed. Africa prove the truth of the accusations against Of his

works, many of which have appeared in him, although it is supposed that he reached the the “Transactions” of the Berlin academy of interior of that country, or that at least he ob- sciences, and in Poggendorf's Annalen, the tained his information from Portuguese docu- principal are: Ueber Mass und Messen; Metements before unpublished; and some geogra- orologische Untersuchungen; Ueber die nicht phers of repute still credit a portion of his periodischen Aenderungen der Temperaturter. narrative.

Theilung auf der Oberfläche der Erde ; UnterDOUW, or Dow, GERARD, a Dutch painter, suchungen im Gebiete der Inductionselektricitat; born in Leyden in 1613, died there in 1680. Temperaturtafeln ; Monatsisothermen, &c. In He had been engaged for some time in painting a more popular style he has written several treaon glass, when he became a pupil of Rembrandt, tises on meteorological and electrical phenomunder whom he studied for 3 years. He began ena, which have found many readers. In the

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capacity of director of the Prussian observato- are published here. II. A post town, capital of ries he publishes each year the results of their the state of Delaware and of Kent co., on Jones's labors. Among his most recent writings are creek, 5 m. above Delaware river; pop. in 1850, Klimatologische Beiträge (Berlin, 1857). 4,207. It is regularly built, mostly of brick, on

DOVER. I. A city and capital of Strafford high ground, 50 m. 8. from Wilmington, and '114 co., N. H., situated 12 m. from the ocean, on both N. E. from Washington. The streets are wide, sides of the Cocheco river, 68 m. N. of Boston, straight, and cross each other at right angles. and 12 m. N. W. of Portsmouth ; pop. in 1776, The principal public buildings face an open 1,666 ; 1820, 2,871; 1830, 5,449; 1840, 6,458 ; square, the E. side of which is occupied by a 1850, 8,166 ; 1859, about 9,200. The Cocheco handsome state house. In 1850 there were 4 river runs through the township, and furnishes churches, 2 large hotels, a newspaper office, an great motive power, the principal fall being 32} academy, 9 schools, 3 grist inills, and 2 saw feet. The supply of water is maintained through mills. The town contains a monument to the the dry season by draining Bow pond in the town memory of Col. John Haslett, who fell in the of Strafford, which has been converted into an battle of Princeton, a' telegraph office, and one immense reservoir. The falls are situated at the bank. The line of the Delaware, New Castle head of tide water, to which point the river is and Wilmington, and Wilmington and Frenchnavigable for sloops and schooners. The Co- town railroads, from Philadelphia to Seaford, checo company is one of the oldest incorporated passes through it. The trade is chiefly in flour manufacturing companies in the United States, with Philadelphia. III. A village and township and its operations have been among the most of Tuscarawas co., Ohio, on the right bank of successful. It has 4 large mills for the manu. Tuscarawas river, near the mouth of Sugar facture of print cloths, also a large printery and creek, 98 m. S. from Cleveland; pop. of the machine shop, turning out about 9,000,000 yards township in 1850, 3,248; of the village in 1853, per annum, and employing about 2,000 persons, 1,500. It is regularly laid out, on the W. side the majority of whom are females. The mills are of the Ohio canal, across which and the river in the form of a quadrangle, and make an im. there is a bridge 346 feet long. It is the shipposing appearance. There is also a mill for the ping point for large quantities of wheat and manufacture of woollens, also an iron foundery, four; in 1851 the amount was stated at 534,415 several tanneries, and other manufactures. The bushels of wheat, and 40,495 barrels of flour. total capital employed is about $2,500,000. The town has great facilities for manufacturing, Black river, in the south part of the town, a and in 1854 contained a woollen factory, 2 fursmaller stream, furnishes water power which is naces, 3 tanneries, a saw mill, 2 grist mills, and used by establishments for the manufacture of churches of 6 denominations. The name of its flannels, carriages, and for various other mechan- post office is Canal Dover. ical employments. The town was settled in 1623 DOVER (Fr. Douores; anc. Dubris), a parliaby the Laconia company of fishmongers of Lon- mentary and municipal borough, cinque port, don, and is the oldest in the state. The first set- and fashionable watering place of Kent, England, tlement was made on the tongue of land formed situated on the N. W. shore of the strait of Doby the union of Cocheco and Piscataqua rivers. ver; pop. in 1851, 22,244. It is built mainly in a The settlement at "Strawberry Bank," or Ports- valley, partly encompassed by an amphitheatre mouth, was made about the same time, on the of chalk bills, cliffs, and downs, on which stand a bank of the Piscataqua, a short distance down the castle, a citadel, and several fortresses. The casriver. It is one of the most fertile townships tle, an immense structure, whose walls enclose 35 in the state, and the farms are in a high state acres of ground, is supposed to have been foundof cultivation. The city is regularly laid out, ed by the Romans. Other portions, however, and contains many elegant private residences. are of Norman and Saxon construction, while It is connected with Boston and Portland by others again belong to still later epochs. It the Boston and Maine railroad, and also with contains a spacious keep, used as a magazine Winnepiseogee lake by the Cocheco road; the and considered bomb-proof, and barracks for last named is a favorite route to the White 2,000 men, beside which extensive barracks mountains. The 3d Congregational church in for the officers, outside of the castle, were erectthe state was organized in this town about 1638. ed in 1857. Within the precincts of the casThe first church edifice in the state stood on tle stands an octagonal watch tower, interesting the ridge of land which rises gradually from not only as the earliest specimen of Roman the Piscataqua river, and was surrounded by architecture, but also as one of the

most ancient palisades as a protection from the Indians. pieces of regular mason-work in Great Britain. Jeremy Belknap, the first historian of the state, In the time of Edward the Confessor Dover and the author and editor of several important castle was considered the key to the whole works, was pastor of the church for 20 years from kingdom. In 1296 the French made a descent 1767 to 1787. There are 10 churches in the town, upon this place, and committed great depredaand about 70 stores. The city hall is a commo- tions in the neighbouring country. It witnessed dious and substantial brick edifice. The schools the landing of Charles II, on his restoration to are excellent, and the high school building re- the British throne, May 27, 1660, and the embarkcently erected is one of the finest in the state. ation of Louis XVIII., April 24, 1814, on the resA monthly magazine and 3 weekly newspapers toration of the Bourbons in France. "Dover now

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consists of an old and a new town; the former is into a very fine powder. Though called by the the seat of most of the trade, and has narrow and name of Dr. Dover, it differs from that origiirregular streets. The new portion is built with nally recommended by him, which contained more taste, and contains a number of good nitrate of potash and licorice in addition to houses, chiefly occupied by summer visitors. , the ingredients named. It is a medicine admiThe importance of the town is principally ow- rably adapted for promoting perspiration, and ing to its position as a channel of communica- possesses at the same time the properties of an tion between England and the continent. It anodyne. It is given, after depletion, in cases was formerly the chief port of embarkation, requiring profuse diaphoresis, and is particularbut has been partially superseded in that respect ly used in dysentery, diarrhea, and affections by Folkestone. The Southeastern and Dover of the liver and of the bowels, sometimes comrailway, which enters the town through a tun. bined with small quantities of calomel. nel cut in the cliffs, connects it with the cities DOVREFIELD, DOVREFJELD, or DOFRINES of Great Britain, and it has continual steam- (Norw. Daavrefjeld), a name sometimes given boat intercourse with Calais and Boulogne. to the whole system of the Scandinavian Alps, Large sums of money have been spent at various which extend from Cape Lindesnaes on the Cattimes upon its harbor, which consists of 3 basins, tegat, along the dividing line between Sweden the outer one enclosed between 2 piers 150 feet and Norway, to Cape Sviatoi, at the W. entrance apart, but the entrance is unfortunately ob- to the White sea. The Dovrefield mountains, structed by a movable shingle bar. It has been however, properly consist only of the central determined to construct here a harbor of refuge, part of this range, extending in an E. N. E. direcand the sum of £2,500,000 has been appropri- tion from the valley of Lessõe, where the Lang. ated for the erection of immense jetties to reach field range or S. portion terminates, to the far out into the sea. The submarine telegraph Syltfjället, where the chain of Kiölen or Kiõel between England and the continent extends begins. They are composed mostly of gneiss across the channel from Dover to Calais; it and micaceous schist. The principal peak is was completed in Oct. 1851. In the vicinity the Skagstols-tind, a snow-capped mountain of the town, abutting on the sea, stands the re- having an altitude of 8,390 feet. It is the markable chalk cliff called Shakespeare's or highest summit in the Scandinavian peninsula. Hay cliff, described in “King Lear;" it is 350 There are 4 passes across this range, along feet high and almost perpendicular. In May, which at intervals of 10 m. there are houses for 1847, a huge mass of this cliff, 254 feet in height, the reception of travellers. The most frequent15 feet thick, and estimated to contain 48,000 ed of these roads leads from Christiania to tons of chalk, scaled off and fell to the base. Trondhjem, and passes along the E. declivity Another mass of 10,000 cubic yards fell soon of the peak of Sneehaettan. It reaches in some after. There are a number of ship yards on the places an altitude of 4,200 feet. The Dovrecoast, and many of the inhabitants are employed field mountains derive their name from Daarre, in sail and rope making. The registered ship- a small village of Norway, and field or fjeld, ping of the port in.1856 was 55 vessels of 3,553 & mountain ridge. tons; the entrances were 473 sailing vessels, DOW, LORENZO, an American preacher, born tonnage 43,487, and 21 steam vessels, tonnage in Coventry, Conn., Oct. 16, 1777, died in 2,679; clearances, 121 sailing vessels, tonnage Georgetown, D.O., Feb. 2, 1834. When about 14 5,112, and 5 steam vessels, tonnage 663. The years of age he began to be agitated by religious coasting trade of Dover is flourishing, and its speculations, had frequent dreams and visions, fisheries are extensive and profitable. It imports and was so troubled by his meditations upon from France large quantities of eggs, fruit, and the “doctrine of unconditional reprobation and other rural produce. There are several large particular election,” that on one occasion he was paper mills in the neighborhood. The principal on the point of putting an end to his life. Fie buildings in the town are 2 hospitals, 2 parish nally he adopted the doctrines of the Methodists, churches, a number of chapels, a synagogue, the and in the spring of 1796, after many mental custom house, town hall and gaol, workhouse, struggles and against the wishes of his family, assembly rooms, theatre, museum, baths, news became an itinerant preacher of that persuarooms, bonding warehouses, and many good sion. His youth and eccentricity of character hotels. Dover is the seat of government and for a long time prevented his recognition by the principal station of the cinque ports, and re- conferences of the Methodist church, and he turns 2 members to the house of commons. was at one period even prompted to renounce

DOVER, STRAIT OF (Fr. Pas de Calais ; anc. the name of Methodist. He finally received a Fretum Gallicum), a strait connecting the Eng- regular license to preach, and, in spite of conlish channel with the German ocean, and sep- tumely and rebuffs, frequently from members arating England from France. It extends from of his own sect, and ceaseless hardships and Dungeness and Capo Gris Nez N. E. to the S. dangers of all kinds, persevered for nearly 40 Foreland and Calais; length, 22 in.; breadth at years, with an enthusiasm which never relaxed, Dover, where it is narrowest, 21 m.

and often with astonishing effect. In the course DOVER'S POWDERS, á preparation of of his ministry he travelled over many parts of ipecacuanha and opium, each a drachm, and of the United States and Canada, and in 1799 and sulphate of potassa an ounce, rubbed together again in 1805 visited England and Ireland,

where his peculiar eloquence attracted much specify the particular ands, it was prescribed attention and on several occasions subjected him that the wife should be entitled to one-third of to persecution. His wife, Peggy Dow, to whom the lands of the husband for life if she survived he was married in 1804, was a woman of char- him, which was called dos rationabilis. It was at acter and qualities very similar to his own, and first limited to the lands which the husband had accompanied him fearlessly in all his peregrina- at the time of the dotation, unless he specially tions. Dow's eccentricity of manner and dress charged his future acquisitions ; and in case he for a long time excited a prejudice against him, had no lands, or not sufficient, he was permitted and in many parts of the country he was famil- to endow his wife of personal property, which iarly known as "crazy Dow.” In person he was held to be a bar against any claim to dower was awkward and ungainly, his voice was harsh, of lands thereafter acquired. But in Magna and his delivery not such as would impress a Charta it was provided that the wife should have cultivated mind. But to the class whom he for dower the third part of all the lands which most frequently addressed, his simple fervor, the husband had held during his lifetime, unless though coupled with illiterate phraseology, sup- she had been endowed with less ad ostium ecplied the place of eloquence, and he seldom clesiæ. In the reign of Henry IV. it was defailed of having attentive and even enthusiastic nied that the wife could be endowed of her hearers. Many anecdotes are related of his husband's goods and chattels; and Littleton, courageous bearing, when threatened with vio- who wrote in the reign of Edward IV., asserted lence by lawless men. His journal, containing that she could be endowed ad ostium ecclesia the history of his life to his 40th year, together of more than a third part of the lands, and that with some of his miscellaneous writings, and a she had the election after the husband's death to short autobiography of Peggy Dow, was pub- accept it or to take her dower at common law, lished in New York in 1856.

In consequence of this uncertainty, that mode of DOWER (law Lat. doarium, or douarium; endowment fell into disuse, but was never abolFr. douaire), the estate which the wife has by ished by law until recently by act 3 and 4 Wiloperation of law in the property of her de liam IV., c. 105 (1838). Dower at common law ceased husband. Strictly it applies only to what is different from the dotation of other countries, the law gives her independent of any act of the in being limited wholly to lands, and to such husband, and which, in fact, it is not in his power only as the husband holds in fee. By the civil to bar. A marriage portion, therefore, whether law the donatio ante nuptias (or, as Justinian given with the wife or secured to her use, and called it, propter nuptias) was all the provision whether so given or secured by the father or made for the wife. "It might consist of either other relative, or by the husband himself, is not lands or personal property, but though it went dower; and yet the term by which such mar- into the possession of the husband, it could not, riage portion was designated in the Roman law if it consisted of lands, be alienated by him even (dos) was used by Bracton and other English with the consent of the wife, for which the reawriters for the right of the widow in the lands son given is the fragility of the female sex (ne of her deceased husband given to her by the sexus muliebris fragilitas in perniciem substancommon law, as well as the endowment in con- tio earum convertatur). Upon the death of the templation of marriage, which last was also husband, or dissolution of the marriage otherwise, called donatio ante nuptias. The English word the wife only took what had been given with her dower expressed the former, and also the dona- on the marriage, or of which a donation had been tion before marriage, which was in two modes, made during the marriage. Of the other properviz. : ad ostium ecclesiæ, and ex assensu patris. ty of the husband she could take nothing either Both of these were made at the porch of the as widow or heir.-In France, the two modes church, after affiance and before marriage; in of providing for the wife are designated by the the one, the husband endowed the wife of lands discriminative terms dot and douaire; the forof which he was himself seized; in the other, mer of which is defined to be that which the with consent of his father, he endowed her of wife brings in marriage (ce que la femme aplands belonging to his father; and it was usual porte en mariage); the latter is the right which to specify the particular lands intended. En- the wife has, by custom or matrimonial condowment at the church door was the common tract, to a certain portion of the estate of the mode of providing for the wife in the time of husband upon his death (la jouissance que la Bracton, and no other mode could be substi- coutume ou les conventions matrimoniales actated, as by will or any other conveyance; the cordent d'une certaine portion des immeubles du object of which was to prevent fraud: Non enim mari à la femme qui lui survit). The origin of valent facta in lecto' mortali, nec in camera, aut douaire was that in some provinces of France, alibi ubi clandestina fuerunt conjugia. The feu- called France coutumière, women were not endal restriction against alienation of lands was, dowed on marriage (n'avoient pas de dot de leur however, extended to dower, and the husband parens); and hence grew up the custom that the was not allowed to endow the wife ad ostium husband at his death should leave something for ecclesiæ of more than a third part of his lands. the support of the wife. What was so left was This gave rise to the common law rule which called either dot or douaire, the wife being said has ever since prevailed. In the absence of to be douée or dotée. But as was intended for such dotation, or in case of the omission to her support merely, it was provided that after her death it should go to the children of the Tennessee, North Carolina, and Georgia, it is husband if he left any. Philip Augustus fixed limited to the lands of which the husband was the dower of the wife at one-half of the goods seized at the time of his death ; but the huswhich the husband had at the marriage. Henry band is not allowed to bar dower by will, nor II. of England established in his French prov- by a voluntary conveyance, in which any beneinces a rule that dower should be one-third, fit is reserved to himself. Again, in Penn. and this difference continued to exist on the op- sylvania, Tennessee, and Missouri, dower does posite sides of the Loire, until the customary not attach to lands sold under judicial process, law was swept away by the legislation which nor to lands sold under a mortgage executed succeeded the revolution of 1789. By the pres- by the husband alone. The rule is general, ent law of France married persons may, by perhaps universal, that the wife takes one-third stipulation made before marriage, become sub- of the personal estate upon the death of the ject to the law of community, or to the law of husband, in accordance with the English statute dowry. If the former, it brings into common of distribution. stock all the movables of which the parties DOWLER, BENNET, an American physician are possessed at the time of marriage, and of and physiologist, born in Ohio co., Va., April immovables which shall be acquired during 16, 1797. He was educated at the university marriage. Dower (la dot) is what the wife brings of Maryland, where in 1827 he received the de to the husband in marriage, and it may be gree of doctor of medicine. During the last 23 either by donation from another or by a settle- years he has practised his profession in New ment of the wife upon herself (tout ce que la Orleans, and since March, 1854, has been the femme se constitue ou qui lui est donné en con- editor of the “New Orleans Medical and Surtrat de mariage est dotal), and it may extend gical Journal.” From an early period in his to all the present or future property of the wife, career experiments upon the human body, imbut cannot be constituted or augmented dur- mediately or very soon after death, occupied a ing marriage. The parties may stipulate for a large share of his attention, and the results of community of future acquisitions only. The his investigations, comprising some important husband has the management of dotal property, discoveries with regard to contractility, caloribut is accountable as a usufructuary, and in fication, capillary circulation, &c., were given case it be put in peril, the wife may obtain a to the world in a series of essays in 1843–'4. separation of goods. The English law of dower Since that time these and other original experihas recently undergone very great changes. By ments have been extended, generalized, and stat. 3 and 4 William IV., c. 105, the widow is analyzed by him. With one exception he has not entitled to dower of lands which the hus- found in the course of his experiments no fact band has disposed of in his lifetime, or by will. invalidating the fundamental laws which he All charges by will, and all debts and encum- announced in his first publications relative to brances to which the estate of the husband is post mortem contractility of tho muscular sys. subject, take priority of dower; and dower is tem. He had prematurely assuined, early in his made subject to any restrictions which the researches, in accordance with the prevailing husband may impose by will. But on the other theory, that the death rigidity, or rigor mortie, hand, the wife is entitled to equitable dower is antagonistic to, or incompatible with, the coof any beneficial interest of the husband which existence of muscular contraction; but he soon shall amount to an estate of inheritance in pos- found instances which led him to maintain that session, except joint tenancy ; and no gift of the contractile function exists in all bodies impersonal property by the husband can invali- mediately after death, although in some it is date the right to dower, unless expressly so scarcely appreciable, while in others it is absent declared by will. This modification of the law or feeble at first, but gradually increases. In of dower has probably grown out of the gen- all it is intermittent, and may be economized eral custom prevailing in England among land by proper management, or overtasked and erproprietors of making marriage settlements. In hausted, or even destroyed by a severe blow. cases where this is omitted, the wife still has He was consequently led to the conclusion that somne provision under the statute of distribu- this force is inherent in the muscular tissue, tion (29 Charles II.), wbich gives her one-third and in every portion of it, being wholly indeof the personal estate of the husband when he pendent of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. dies intestate, not for life merely, but abso- During the last 18 years Dr. Dowler has shown lutely:- In the United States, the general rule by experiments on hundreds of human bodies prevails of allowing to the widow an estate for that the capillary circulation is often active for life in one-third of all the lands of which the some minutes, and even for hours, after the reshusband was seized in fee. The rule, however, piration and the action of the heart have ceased, varies in different states in two particulars. In and occasionally after the removal of this organ; the state of New York, and most other states, and that in the same cadaver a high degree of dower is a charge upon all the lands of which the calorification, together with active capillary and husband was seized at any time during the mar- chylous circulations, may continue simultaneriage, except such as she has released by joining ously for several hours. His researches on ani. in the conveyance thereof by the husband. In mal heat, in health, in disease, and after death, some of the states, as Vermont, Connecticut, which have from time to time been published

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