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in medical journals, have led to important dis- tion, while the most convenient limb was also coveries, particularly with reference to post directed to the exact place where the foreign mortem calorification, which his experiments body impinged, in order to remove it, if possible. have shown will, after death from fever, After as well as before decapitation, after comcholera, or sun-stroke, &c., rise in some cases plete evisceration, and after the subdivision of much higher than its antecedent maximum dur- the spine and its cord in 2 or 3 places, each secing the progress of the disease. From these tion mutually and simultaneously perceived or experimental researches, as well as from a ra- folt in common the presence or contact of á tional interpretation of the respiratory action pain-producing agent. In some instances Dr. of the lungs, either in their natural, diseased, Dowler observed that the separated head could obstructed, or disorganized conditions, Dr. see a body, like the finger, purposely directed Dowler has been led to reject the long re- close to the eye, as was shown by the violent ceived theory which ascribes animal heat to opening of the mouth, as if to bite, and by the the lungs, as the sole heating apparatus of the head jumping several feet from the operating animal economy. He maintains that the chem- table to the floor. The vivisection of the spinal ical history of respiration may be interpreted cord satisfied him also that neither root of the either as a refrigeratory or heat equalizing pro- spinal marrow is the exclusive seat of sensation cess, and that while the absorption of oxygen or of motion, and that motion as well as senduring respiration may generate heat, on the sory phenomena may be excited by irritation other hand the parting of carbonic acid gas and of either root; a result directly opposed to the aqueous vaporization from the lungs, together celebrated theory of Sir Charles Bell on the with the incessant respiration of the air, almost functions of these roots. The vivisection of always much cooler than the body, must re- the inferior animals (hitherto the basis of exfrigerate the animal economy; that for all that perimental physiology), as well as the pathohas been proved to the contrary, oxidation and logical, anatomical, and experimental phenomdeoxidation, repair and waste, composition and ena observed in man, has therefore led Dr. decomposition, inhalation and exhalation, are Dowler to the following conclusions : that the mutually compensating or equiponderant in the functions and structures of the nervous system regulation of animal heat; and that, while it constitute a unity altogether inconsistent with may be plausibly assumed that nearly the whole the anatomical assumption of 4 distinct and series of organs and organic functions, especially separate sets of nerves
, and a corresponding those of nutrition, contribute directly or indi- fourfold set of functions; that there is no anarectly to the origin and distribution of animal tomical or other proof that one set of nerves heat during life, post mortem calorification might transmits impressions to, and a separate set to some extent be accounted for by assuming from, a sensorial spot somewhere in the brain, that respiration is not a heating, but a refriger- nor that the nerves themselves are simple conatory process, which, ceasing with apparent ductors and wholly insensible; that the 2 sepadeath, ceases to liberate the free caloric of the rate sets of nerves usually assigned to what is economy; whence the calorifacient function, called the excito-motory action of the spinal not being in many instances extinguished with cord are wholly hypothetical; that instead of the respiration, persists, and for a long time 4 travelling impressions there is but one, the accumulates faster than can be radiated into primary or sensiferous impression, which is sithe surrounding media. He has not, however, multaneously cognized upon the periphery as been able to trace a necessary connection, ante. well as in the centre, and not solely by an uncedence, or parallelism between post mortem known spot in the brain through the intermecalorification and muscular contractility, the dium of a secondarily transmitted impression, development, degree, and duration of which being intuitively felt where it really is; and may or may not coincide. In March, 1845, Dr. that sensuous cognition or sensation is immeDowler commenced a series of experiments in diate, intuitive, and not representative, nor the comparative physiology on the great saurian or result of transmitted secondary impressions, but alligator of Louisiana, which he regarded as a directly felt relation, ab initio, between an much better for the purpose than any of the object and a sentient subject, and not one becold blooded animals usually selected for vivi- tween a mere secondary representation, idea, or section. From these experiments, which em- transmitted impression of an object. The assidbrace a period of 10 years, he has ascertained uous devotion of Dr. Dowler to researches conthat after decapitation the head, and more espe- nected with medical and physiological science cially the trunk, afford unequivocal evidences has won for him a wide reputation as an expeof possessing the faculties of sensation and voli- rimenter, an anatomist, and a pathologist. tion for hours after a complete division of the DOWLETABAD, DowLATABAD, DOWLUTAanimal. The headless trunk, deprived of all the BAD, DOULETABAD, 'or DEOGHIR (the fortunate senses but that of touch, perceived, felt, willed, city), a town and fortress Hyderabad, in and acted with unerring intelligence in re the Nizam's territory, Hindostan, about 10 m. moving or avoiding an irritant, such as an ig- N. W. from Aurungabad. The fortress is situ. nited match or bit of paper; when even a simple ated on a hill about 500 feet in height, about touch or a positive irritant was applied laterally, 150 feet of which rises nearly perpendicularly, the body curved or receded in a contrary direc- like a wall. The entrance is by a passage cut
through the rock. Notwithstanding its natural officers and men to the United States. In June, strength, the fortress has been several times 1813, Lieut. Downes was promoted to the rank taken, and has fallen under the dominion of of master commandant, and in March, 1815, be various masters. Near the town are the re- commanded the brig Epervieț of 18 guns in the markable cave temples of Ellora.
squadron employed against Algiers in that year, DOWN, a maritime co. in the N. E. part of under Commodore Stephen Decatur, On June Ireland, province of Ulster; greatest length, 17, 1815, the Epervier assisted in the capture of N. E. to S. W., 51 m.; greatest breadth, 38 m.; the Algerine frigate Mashouda off Cape de Gatt. area, 956 sq. m.; pop. in 1851, 328,883. Near Two days afterward the Epervier and 3 of the the middle of the county is a group of hills, and smaller vessels of the squadron captured the in its S. W. part are the Mourne mountains, some Algerine brig of war Estido, 22 guns and 180 of whose summits are among the highest peaks men, which had been chased into shoal water in Ireland; but with these exceptions the sur- off Cape Palos. After the conclusion of the face of the county is for the most part tolerably treaty of peace with Algiers, Commodore De
There are several rivers and numerous catur transferred Downes to his own ship, the lakes, both abounding in fish, but insignificant Guerriere, while the Epervier, which was sent in size. Lough Strangford in the E. part of to the United States with the treaty, was never the county, though almost surrounded by land, afterward heard from; it was supposed that she is yet only a large inlet of the sea, with which foundered in a heavy gale near the Western it communicates by a channel navigable for large islands. In March, 1817, he was promoted to a vessels. The county contains many mineral captaincy, and from 1819 to 1821 commanded springs, and is one of the best cultivated of all the Macedonian frigate of 50 guns in the Pacific. the counties of Ireland, producing large crops In 1828–9 he commanded the frigate Java in of grain, peas, beans, potatoes, turnips, &c. The the Mediterranean, and from 1832 to 1834 the total extent of land under crops in 1855 was squadron in the Pacific ocean. On his way to * 310,424 acres. The raising of cattle is carried his station he anchored, Feb. 5, 1832, off Quallah on mostly for dairy purposes, large quantities Batoo, on the coast of Sumatra, where an outrage of butter being annually made and exported; had been committed on an American vessel. and logs are reared in great numbers. There His ship, the Potomac of 50 guns, was disguised are extensive quarries of limestone, sandstone, as a merchantman. The town was supposed to and slate ; and granite, coal, and chalk also contain not less than 500 fighting men, and was occur. The most important manufacture is that defended by 5 forts, owned and commanded by of linen, though there are also cotton and wool- different rajahs or chiefs. The commodori had len mills. The climate is healthy and somewhat obtained tolerably correct information of their cold, and the people generally are in a better positions, as well as of the general topography condition than those of most Irish counties of the place, but nevertheless deemed it advisaThe fishery occupies many of the inhabitants, ble to make an actual reconnoissance if possible. though not to an extent commensurate with An attempt was made to land a party of officers the facilities for it. Some interesting remains for this purpose, in citizens' dress, but as the of antiquity are found, and there are also ruins boat (rowed by officers disguised as seamen) apof abbeys and castles of the middle ages. Four proached the landing, such hostile demonstramembers are returned to the house of commons, tions were made by the natives that she was two for the county, and one each for the towns recalled. Preparations for an attack were now of Downpatrick and Newry.
made, and about 2 o'clock in the morning of DOWNES, John, a commodore in the U. S. Feb. 6, about 150 officers, seamen, and marines navy, born in Canton, Norfolk co., Mass., in 1786, were landed under the command of Lieut. Irvine died in Charlestown, Mass., Aug. 11, 1855. He Shubrick, the 1st lieutenant of the ship. This entered the navy as a midshipman in June, 1802, force was organized in divisions, the marines and his first service was in the frigate New York under Lieuts. Edson and Terrett, the seamen in during the war with Tripoli. In May, 1803, he 4 divisions commanded by Lieuts. Pinkbam, distinguished himself in a boat attack upon some Hoff, Ingersoll, and Sailing-master Totten. To Tripolitan feluccas, which had been chased into each division a particular duty was assigned, the port of Old Tripoli. In March, 1807, Downes and although the surprise was not quite perwas promoted to a lieutenancy, and during the fect, the result was entirely successful. Afwar of 1812 served as executive officer of the ter 24 hours of severe fighting, the town was frigate Essex, Capt. Porter, during her cele- nearly reduced to ashes, many of the natives brated cruise in the Pacific ocean. Among the were killed, and 4 of the forts were captured numerous prizes of the Essex was the whale and blown up. This being accomplished, the ship Georgiana, which Capt. Porter fitted as a expedition reëmbarked in perfect order, and cruiser, with 16 guns, named the Essex Junior, returned to the ship with a loss of 13 killed and and placed under the command of Lieut. Downes wounded. A flag of truce was immediately seut with a crew of 41 men. Finally, after the cap- off from the town, and peace sued for, which ture of the Essex at Valparaiso by the British was granted. Several of the rajahs from the frigate Phæbe and sloop Cherub, the Essex towns in the vicinity sent deputations, declaring Junior was converted into a cartel for the pur- their friendly disposition to the Americans, to pose of carrying Capt. Porter and his surviving which the commander gave corresponding 10.
surances, and soon after sailed for the Pacific. appreciation in which he was regarded abroad Our commerce at Quallah Batoo has never since was evinced by his election as corresponding been molested. The sea service of Com. Downes member of many of the chief horticultural terminated with this cruise. From 1837 to 1842, societies of Europe. In 1845 appeared simuland from 1850 to 1852, he commanded the navy taneously in London and New York his "Fruits yard at Boston.
and Fruit Trees of America," of which more DOWNING, ANDREW Jackson, an American than 14 editions have been published; and in landscape gardener, born in Newburg, N. Y., 1846 he became the editor of the “HorticulOct. 30, 1815, drowned in the Hudson river, turist, a monthly magazine published in AlDear Yonkers, July 28, 1852. From an early bany, for which he wrote an essay every age his tastes were directed to horticulture, month until the close of his life. In 1849 he botany, and the natural sciences, which the oc- wrote “ Additional Notes and Hints to persons cupation of his father, who carried on business about building in this country” for an Amerias a nurseryman in the vicinity of Newburg, can reprint of Wightwick's “ Hints to Young gave him many opportunities to cultivate. His Architects," and in 1850 published his “ Archischool education was acquired chiefly at an tecture for Country Houses."
His remaining academy in the neighboring town of Montgom- work was an edition of Mrs. Loudon's "Gardenery, from which he returned home at the ageing for Ladies.” The summer of 1850 he passed of 16 to assist an elder brother who had suc- in England, chiefly among the great country ceeded his father in the management of the seats, of which he wrote some genial descriptions. nursery. At school he was a thoughtful, re- On his return to America, having determined to served boy, made few friendships, and sel- devote himself exclusively to architecture and dom joined in boyish pastimes; but he was building, he received many private commisalways a diligent reader and a close observer, sions, and was intrusted by President Fillmore and now endeavored to compensate for what hé in 1851 with the laying out of the public grounds considered a premature removal from his stu- in the city of Washington, in the vicinity of the dies by a course of self-instruction in his favor. capitol, the president's house, and the Smithite sciences. In the intervals of his labors in sonian institution. In the midst of these labors the garden be read treatises on landscape gar- he took passage at Newburg on July 28, 1852, in dening, botany, the culture of fruits and flow- the steamboat Henry Clay, for New York. ers, and in general every thing pertaining to the When near Yonkers, about 20 miles above New economy of rural life ; and found time also to York, the Henry Clay, which had been racing make himself familiar with poetry, art, and with a rival steamboat, was discovered to be on elegant literature. At 20 years of age he de. fire, and was immediately steered for the shore. termined to become a rural architect, and with In the confusion of the moment Mr. Downing & mind richly stored with knowledge suitable was separated from his wife, and when the heat to his vocation, he began to visit the neighbor- of the conflagration had compelled him with ing estates on the Hudson river, to enlarge his many others to jump overboard, he was seen experience and confirm his theories of art in for the last time struggling in the water, with landscape gardening. Three years later he was several persons clinging to him. His body was married to Miss Caroline De Wint, and almost subsequently recovered and sent to Newburg immediately afterward commenced the erection for interment. A memoir of him by George on his little paternal estate of an elegant man- W. Curtis, and a "Letter to his Friends," by sion, which, with its tastefully arranged grounds, Miss Bremer, who had been his guest during afforded the first practical illustration of the her visit to America, were prefixed to a collecbuilder's conception of an American rural home. tion of his contributions to the “Horticulturist,” He had previously written a few fugitive pieces published in 1854, under the title of “Rural for the newspapers, but his career as an author Essays." The labors of Mr. Downing gave a properly commences with the publication in great impulse to the dissemination of correct 1841 of his “Treatise on the Theory and Prac- taste in rural architecture among the American tice of Landscape Gardening.” As a pioneer people, and of a love for rural life. work of its class in this country, it necessarily DOWNS, a term applied in England to hills attracted attention, and the author's extensive of shifting sand along the coast; also called information, correct ideas of taste, and appre- DUNES, which see. Barren tracts of hilly land ciation of the conditions of rural architecture used for sheep pasture are also called downs. in America, gave it immediate popularity and a A portion of the English channel, affording exposition as a standard authority. In England cellent anchorage, and much used by the British it was highly commended by such competent navy, bears the same name. judges as Loudon and Dr. Lindley, the latter of DOWSE, Thomas, an American mechanic, whom said that he “knew of no work in which who has obtained considerable celebrity as a the fundamental principles of this profession lover of books and the collector of a valuable were so well or so concisely expressed." The library, born in Charlestown, Mass., Dec. 28, “ Cottage Residences,” which followed in the 1772," died in Cambridgeport, Nov. 4, 1856. succeeding year, was received with equal favor; He has sometimes been called “the literary and until his death Downing continued to be leather dresser.” His father, Eleazer Dowse, the chief American authority in rural art. The was a leather dresser, and was driven with his
family from Charlestown on June 17, 1775, his employed in reading. He thus acquired an inhouse being one of those destroyed by the con- telligent knowledge of the contents of his steadiflagration of that day. After a short time ly increasing library. Having formed a taste, passed at Holliston, he established himself at not only for good books but for handsome ediSherborn, a small town in Middlesex co., the tions, in which the American press was then original seat of the family, and there resumed greatly deficient, he was accustomed to import his occupation as a leather dresser. At the age them directly from London. About the year of 6, Thomas was severely injured by a fall 1820 his agent in England sent him the prosfrom a tree; and a rheumatic fever setting in pectus of a lottery for the disposal of the sets before he had recovered from the effects of this of a costly collection of engravings of the most accident, a lameness resulted which continued, famous works of the old masters, and of the wa. with frequent attacks of severe pain, through ter-color copies made from the originals, for life. At the proper age, Thomas began to work the purposes of this publication. Mr. Dowse with his father, at his trade and on the farm; bought 3 tickets in this lottery, and drew 3 forming at the same time a taste for reading, prizes, one prize consisting of 2 sets of the enwhich he indulged with so much eagerness gravings, colored and uncolored; the other that, by the age of 18, he had read all the books prize being of the water-color copies framed, he could procure in Sherborn. All his little 52 in number. He thus became possessed of a earnings were expended in the purchase of large collection of admirable copies of some of books. He had no education but what could the most celebrated paintings in England. In be obtained at the town school. He contin- the judgment of Mr. Washington Allston, it afued to live at home as an apprentice to his forded ampler means for the study of art than father till he had attained his majority. He were elsewhere to be found at that time in the was then seized with a desire to visit foreign United States. The paintings were advantacountries. A neighbor of his father's, who com- geously arranged in rooms adjoining Mr. Dowse's manded a vessel that traded from Norfolk in library, and formed with it an attraction of
Virginia to London, offered him a free passage; steadily increasing interest to men of letters and he was, however, to reach Norfolk at his own taste resident in the neighborhood, and to stranexpense. Too poor to accompany the captain gers. Mr. Dowse's bodily infirmity unfitted him by land, he engaged a passage in a coasting ves- for much active intercourse with society, and sel from Boston. Head winds prevented the his disposition naturally inclined him to retiredeparture of the coaster till the vessel had sailed ment and solitary occupation. He abstained from Norfolk, and thus Thomas Dowse lost the from public life in all its forms, and though & opportunity of visiting foreign countries. An- diligent reader, committed nothing to writing. other never presented itself. He immediately He continued to work at his trade till after he sought employment in the business in which he was 70 years of age ; but for the last 10 years had been brought up, and entered the service of his life, though his shop remained open in of Mr. Wait, a leather dresser and wool puller the lower story of his dwelling, the business at Roxbury, Mass., at $12 a month wages. His was conducted by persons in his employ. Of pay was afterward raised to $25. He remained the eminent men whom the country has proin this employ 10 years. He once informed a duced, Franklin was one of the special objects friend that at the age of 28 his highest income of Mr. Dowse's admiration. Toward the close was $25 a month; that he had never paid $5 of his life be expressed this sentiment by the for conveyance from one place to another, never erection, at his own expense, of a substantial owned a pair of boots, and was then the possos- granite obelisk at Mount Auburn, by the side of sor of several hundred volumes of good books his own tomb. With the exception of the stawell bound. In 1803 he set up in business at tue of Franklin presented by Mr. Bingham to Cambridgeport, with the assistance of Mr. Wait, the public library at Philadelphia, and the ura who advanced the capital and shared the profits. in Franklin place, Boston, which is rather an This partnership was dissolved at the end of ornamental than a commemorative work, the the year; after which Mr. Dowse carried on obelisk erected by Mr. Dowse is believed to have the business of a leather dresser, wool puller, been the first monument dedicated to the memand glover, at first with a succession of partners, ory of Franklin in the United States. As Mr. and afterward alone, till he was far advanced Dowse was childless, the destination of his librain life. His business was successful, and the ry after his decease was a matter of some curios. articles manufactured by him enjoyed the repu- ity among those acquainted with its value. A tation of being the best of their kind in the few months before his death he formed the resomarket. In 1814 he erected a large and com- lution to present it to the Massachusetts histori. modious dwelling-house and shop in Cambridge- cal society; and on July 30, 1856, the formal port, and laid out 2 or 3 acres as a garden ; and transfer was made. The library, however, was here he lived unmarried the rest of his days. left by the society in the possession of M. Dowse From the earliest period he devoted a large part during the brief remainder of his life. It conof his income to the purchase of books. The sisted of about 5,000 volumes of a iniscellaneous working hours of the day were devoted to his character, generally in good, often in elegant shop or business connected with it; but the bindings, and of the best editions. It is almost early morning and the evening hours were exclusively an English library, though containing translations of the principal authors in the fact sketches of the every-day life of the people, ancient languages, and the cultivated languages and for liveliness of invention and various techof modern Europe. It is estimated to have cost nical merits may be regarded as unique perMr. Dotse $40,000 without interest. After his formances. The “Continental Tour of Messrs. death the library was deposited in the historical Brown, Jones, and Robinson,” perhaps the society's building, in an inner room fitted up for most popular of his works, is in like manner the purpose, and arranged in tasteful cabinets at a somewhat exaggerated view of the lights and a cost of $3,000 advanced by his executors, in ad- shadows of travel on the continent. In 1850 dition to a sum of $10,000 also given by them as Mr. Doyle, taking umbrage at the severe ata permanent fund for the conservation and care tacks of "Punch" upon the Roman Catholic of the library. Mr. Dowse in his will made hierarchy, severed his connection with that provision for his relatives to the extent of $25,- paper, since which time he has employed his 000. The residue of his property, amounting to pencil chiefly in illustrating books of fairy about $40,000, was placed at the disposal of his tales, and similar publications, including the executors, to be by them appropriated to liter- "Fairy Ring,” “Fairy Tales from all Nations," ary, scientific, or charitable purposes. The col- Leigh Hunt's "Jar of Honey,” Ruskin's "King lection of water-colors was given by them to of the Golden River,” &c. He fails in attempt the Boston Athenæum, where it is displayed in ing to depict the merely prosaic or the sentian apartment exclusively devoted to that pur- mental, and his illustrations to Thackeray's pose. Handsome donations have been made by “Newcomes” are comparatively feeble. the executors to the botanic garden of the uni- DRACHENFELS (Dragon's Rock), the most versity at Cambridge, and to other meritorious celebrated of the Siebengebirge range, or “seven public objects in Cambridge and Boston. The hills” (though their number is really more than Dowse high school has been founded by them 7), on the right bank of the Rhine, near Bonn. at Sherborn, where he passed his youth and The ascent of the mountain, which is 1,056 learned his trade; and the Dowse institute feet high, is fatiguing from its steepness, but established at Cambridgeport, in the immediate amply rewards the traveller by the majestic vicinity of his residence. A commemorative beauty of the scenery of the river and valley discourse was delivered by Mr. ward Ever- beneath, and of the adjoining panorama of ett, at the opening of the Dowse institute, Dec. ruin-clad mountains. Upon the summit of the 7, 1858, and before the Massachusetts histori- Drachenfels are the ruins of a castle of the cal society on Dec. 9. A fine portrait of Mr. 12th century, a monument erected in 1814 by Dowse was painted a short time before his de- the Siebengebirge militia to their gallant leader cease by Wight of Boston, at the request of the Genger, who died on the battle field, and ansociety, and now adorns the room in which bis other in August, 1858, in commemoration of the library is deposited.
German war of independence. Here also is & DOXOLOGY (Gr. 80$a, glory, and leyw, to famous quarry which furnished stone for the ascribe), in general, a prayer to celebrate the cathedral of Cologne, and hence called Domgrandeur and majesty of God. In the Roman bruch (dome or cathedral quarry). The beauty Catholic church it is applied particularly to the of this far-famed mountain has been a fruitful angelic hymn or canticle of praise which is sung theme with poets of every land, but to Eng. in celebrating the mass, and is otherwise called lish readers it is familiar chiefly from the wellthe Gloria in excelsis. This is also styled the known verses of Byron. Its name is explained greater doxology, to distinguish it from the less- by a tradition of a dragon which inhabited a er, or Gloria Patri, which is usually sung after cavern in its sides, and was slain by Siegfried, the chanting or recitation of a psalm. Both the hero of the Nibelungen lay. doxologies are traced to the earliest periods of DRACHMA, a measure both of weight and the church, and though slightly and temporarily value among the ancient Greeks. In either modified during the prevalence of some here- case it was composed of 6 oboli, and was the sies, have not been permanently changed. They jóo part of the mina, and the both have a place in the liturgy of the Anglican Attic talent. The drachma was the principal church, and are of common use in the service silver coin of the Greeks, and its value was from of other branches of Protestantism.
15.20 to 17.05 cents. The drachma or drachm DOYLE, RICHARD, an English humorous art- mentioned by Jewish writers was the Greek ist, born in London in 1826. From his father, coin which became current among the Jews Mr. John Doyle, an able political caricaturist, he in the latest period of their national existence. inherited a taste for humorous illustration, and DRACO, the author of the first written code a few years after the establishment of “Punch" of laws at Athens, which he is supposed to have became known to the public by his designs pub- published in the 4th year of the 39th Olymlished in that paper. ' His political caricatures piad, 621 B. C. He was of distinguished birth are singularly free from direct personalities or and virtue, honored for his severe manners and the appearance of malice, but his humorous il- bis large experience in public affairs; and the lustrations of London life afford the best exam- people of Athens, a prey to anarchy, besought ples of his harmless wit and graceful fancy. him to give them a code of laws. Like all the The series entitled “Manners and Customs of y• other legislative systems of antiquity, the system Englyshe," though ostensibly caricatures, are in which he proposed linked together civil and
1000 part of the