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moral duties. He took the citizen at the moment lime Porte, and is usually held by a Greek, beof his birth, prescribed the manner in which he longing to one of the most illustrious families should be nourished and educated, followed him of his nation. Most foreign ambassadors and with directions through the different epochs of consuls in the ports of the Levant, and many life, and flattered himself that he should make travellers, keep private dragomans at their own men free and virtuous. The penalty of death expense. was to be inflicted for almost every crime, for DRAGON (draco, Linn.), an iguanian lizard, homicide and idleness, for sacrilege and the of the subfamily of acrodonts, or those having stealing of garden herbs. The slightest offence, the teeth implanted in the bony substance of the he said, deserved death, and he knew no punish- jaws, to which they firmly adhere by the base ment more severe for the greatest. He even of the roots. The head of these reptiles is triancarried his severity to a fantastic extreme, or- gular, flattened, and covered with small irregular dering punishment to be inflicted upon inani- scales, sometimes ridged; the small circular and mate things, as for instance on a statue whose tubular nostrils open at the end of the obtuse fall had injured a man. So violent a code could snout; the tongue is thick and spongy, with a not last, and within 30 years Athens was again round single extremity; the anterior teeth are in anarchy. Recourse was then had to Solon, 3 or 4, and resemble incisors; behind these the whose wisdom and moderation gave to the median ones are conical, like canines, and there Athenians, not, as he himself said, the best laws, are generally 2 pairs in each jaw; the posterior but the best that they were able to support. teeth, or molars, are tricuspid and compressDraco died at the culmination of his glory upon ed; under the neck is a long crest or dewlap, the isle of Ægina. As he entered the theatre and on each side a triangular cutaneous fold he received the acclamations of the people, and placed horizontally, all 3 having in their thickwas stifled amid the mass of caps, robes, and ness a process from the hyoid bone; there is cloaks, which they in accordance with their generally a small cervical crest. While some custom threw upon him as a mark of honor. species have no external ear, in others there is a
DRACUT, a post village and township of small circular membranous tympanum. The Middlesex co., Mass., on the N. bank of Merri- neck is slightly compressed; the body has a mack river, opposite Lowell, with which it is central dorsal depression, and is covered above connected by 2 bridges, 28 m, N. W. from Bos- and below with small imbricated ridged scales. ton, and 16 N. E. from Concord; pop. of the Dragons are at once distinguished from all other township in 1850, 3,450; in 1855, 1,966, a por- reptiles of this order by the horizontal expantion of it having been annexed to Lowell in sion of the skin of the sides into a kind of wing, 1851. It borders on New Hampshire, and is supported chiefly by the first 6 false ribs, which traversed by Beaver river, which supplies it are extended horizontally outward instead of with water power. It is mainly an agricul- surrounding the abdomen. This flying memtural town, but in 1855 had 1 cotton mill manu- brane, of a semicircular form, is about as wide facturing $62,000 worth of goods per annum, as the arm is long, free in front, but attached be1 woollen mill producing 475,000 yards of stuff, bind to the anterior part of the thigh; in a state and 2 paper mills producing $10,500 worth of of rest the animal keeps it folded like a fan paper. In 1858 it contained 4 churches. along the body, and spreads it like a parachute
DRAFT, a word used indiscriminately with to sustain it when leaping from branch to the synonymous term DRAUGHT, from which, branch; it cannot be moved as an active organ according to Dr. Webster, it is corrupted. Al- of flight like the wing of a bird or the memthongh no less than 17 définitions are given in brane of the bat, but serves only as a passive his dictionary, no mention is made in this or in supporting instrument like the parachute memWorcester's of the common use of the word to brane of the flying squirrel; both surfaces of express a carrent of air ; as the draft of a chim- this membrano are furnished with very small ney—to sit in a draft of air. In the former ap- smooth scales. The fore and hind limbs, each plication it is also used to express quality, as a with 5 toes, are of about the same length, the chimney of strong draft; so the word is used in latter being flattened, with the posterior border the example given by Dr. Webster of a cart of fringed with serrated scales; there are no femeasy draft, expressing “the quality of being oral pores; the tail is very long, slender, wide drawn.”
and Aat at the base, round at the end, with DRAGOMAN, an oriental word signifying rhomboidal imbricated scales, strongly ridged interpreter. It is applied, in the Ottoman em- beneath. Among the species with a visible tyinpire and the courts of the further East and panum, and the nasal openings directed lateralof Barbary, to men who know several lan- İy, are: 1, the fringed dragon (D. fimbriatus, guages, and make it their business to act as in- Kuhl), with the thighs fringed behind with triterpreters between foreigners and the natives. angular scales, and with longitudinal white lines What was formerly a necessity for commercial on the wings; the general color above is an relations, has since become so for purposes of olive gray with shades of brown in transdiplomacy. At Constantinople the office of verse bands, and whitish below; this is the prime dragoman, through whom the sultan re- largest species described by Duinéril and Bibron, ceives the communications of Christian aibas. the total length being about 11 inches, of which sadors, is one of the most important of the Sub- the body is only 3; it is peculiar to Java : 2,
the flying dragon (D. Daudinii, Dam.), from arising from a firm thorax formed of 3 united Java, of a grayish color above with black spots, segments; the abdomen is very long, a flattened and the wings marbled with the same ; total cylinder, soft, without sting or piercer, and in length about 9 inches : 3, the Timor dragon the males terminated by 2 lamellar appendages. (D. Timorensis, Peron.), with wings spotted In some genera the male sexual organs are with brown on a reddish ground, and a row of placed in the 2d abdominal ring, and those of ridged scales larger than the rest on each side the female in the last ring, which requires an of the median line of the back ; length about 8 unusual position in the act of reproduction; the inches; probably a variety of the last: 4, the female deposits her eggs on aquatic plants bebanded dragon (D. quinquefasciatus
, Gray), neath the surface of the water. From their with 5 brown bands traversing the upper sur- lightness and beauty the French call them deface of wings and back; from the East Indies; moiselles. Kirby speaks of their “dress” a3 about 10 inches long. The dragon of Dussu- silky, brilliant, and variegated, and trimmed mier (D. Dussumieri, Dum.) has the nostrils with the finest lace;" Mouffet 'says they “set opening vertically, the wings spotted with forth nature's elegancy beyond the expression brown near the body and widely marbled with of art;" yet with all their gay coloring they are the same on their upper free edge, and a black among the most voracious and cruel of insects, band across the lower surface of the neck; darting with hawk-like swiftness and ferocity length about 8 inches; it is a native of the con- upon gnats, mosquitoes, butterflies, and almost tinent of India. The red-bearded dragon (D. any soft-bodied winged insect, eating even their hæmatopogon, Boie), from Java, has vertical own species. They are not only in no way injunostrils, and a large black spot on each side of rious to man, attacking neither his person, cattle, the red gular pouch ; length about 9 inches. nor crops, but are directly beneficial in destroyThere are 2.species which have the tympanum ing many noxious insects. They hover over pools concealed under the skin, constituting the genus in search of prey, or dart from a post or fence updrucunculus of Wiegmann; these are the lined on insects coming near; having caught one, they dragon (D. lineatus, Daudin) of Amboyna and alight to devour it, first pulling off the wings; in Celebes, about 64 inches long, with the back ash- their habits they resemble the fiy-catchers among colored, and the wings grayish brown with birds. They are equally carnivorous in the larva longitudinal white lines; the Philippine dragon state, which they pass in the water. The larvæ (D. spilopterus, Wiegm.), from the neighborhood are without wings; they have 6 feet, and a very of Manila, about 84 inches long, with red wings complicated arrangement of the parts forming spotted with black or brown, and throat yellow the under lip, which covers the face like a mask, with black dots. Dragons live almost entirely concealing the mouth, and serving by the unfoldin trees, and feed upon insects, which they catch ing of its plates for seizing and conveying food with dexterity.
to the mouth; they crawl stealthily along the DRAGON, an animal often alluded to in the bottom, like a cat, and when within reach spring Bible, supposed by some to be the crocodile, and their jointed mask upon insects and even smali by others to refer, in some passages, to a species fishes with great precision. By a valvular apof giant serpent, or to a wild beast like the jack- paratus at the end of the tail
, these larvæ draw al or wolf. According to Robinson's Calmet, it in and expel water, using the jet against the is not improbable that St. John had in mind surrounding stationary fluid as a means of locothe enormous boa of Africa and the East when motion; the currents thus produced also bring he described the symbolic great red dragon.- insects within reach of the jaws, and doubtless In mythology, the dragon is a fantastic animal, serve some of the purposes of respiration, though variously represented as of immense size, with respiratory tracheæ also exist on the sides of the wings, thorny crests, powerful claws, and a body. They remain several months in the wasnaky tail and motion. He figured in the an. ter, and change their skins several times. The cient conceptions of the Orient and of the clas- nymphs have rudimentary wings, and when sical nations, was a familiar subject in the middle they are ready to assume their final change, the ages, is still an emblem of universal use among brilliant eyes of the future fly may be seen the Chinese, and seems to have existed almost through the envelope, which becomes more everywhere except in nature.
transparent; they crawl out of the water upon DRAGON-FLY (libellula, Linn.), an insect some bank or aquatic plant, where the pupa skin of the family subulicornes of Latreille, and the becomes dry and crisp and bursts open on the order neuroptera. The insects of this genus, in back; the head and legs of the perfect insect this country commonly called “ devil's needles," are slowly thrust and drawn out, the wings gradin the perfect form are light and graceful fliers, ually expand themselves and become smooth, of the most brilliant and beautiful colors, with and the body and limbs assume their just pro4 large, shining, delicate wings of nearly equal portions. During the drying of the wings the size; the mouth is arranged for crushing insect insect bends the body into a crescentic form, prey, provided with strong horny mandibles and that their delicate tissue may not be disturbed spiny maxills; the eyes are lateral, large, and by contact with any foreign substance. The brilliant, with 3 stemmata upon the top of the anterior nervures of the wings must be very head; the antenne consist of from 3 to 6 joints; strong, though light, to enable the rapid vibrathe legs are short, 6 in number, directed forward, tions of these organs to be performed ; their sec
tion, as in the butterfly, would probably present fantry, but they were reduced to simple cavalry the form found by engineers to be that of the by his successor. The first corps of dragoons beam of greatest strength and lightness, viz.: in England, called the royal regiment of drathe greatest amount of material thrown into the goods of North Britain, was raised in 1681, and oval fanges, connected by the thinnest possible is now the Scots greys. There are two regimedian pport. According to Drury, these in- ments of dragoons in the U. S. army. (See also sects are 2 years in reaching the perfect form Cavalry.) from the egg ; after flying about a few weeks, DRAGUIGNAN, a town of France, capital and having performed the act of reproduction, of the department of Var, 41 m. N. E. from Toqthe wings become ragged, the strength fails, and lon; pop. in 1856, 9,900. It rises in the midst they soon die. They are sometimes seen in im- of a fertile valley, surrounded by high hills cov. mense swarms; M. Poey says that at certain ered with rich vineyards. It is well built, with seasons of the year the north winds sweep hosts several elegant edifices, and numerous fountains. of them into the neighborhood of Havana; in It contains a library of 15,000 volumes, among Belgium in 1854 a swarm was seen extending & which are a few very valuable works, a cabinet of a mile, and requiring nearly an hour to pass of medals and of natural history, law courts, a a given spot, the lowest individuals flying at a parish church, and a fine clock tower. The inheight of about 6 feet. The restricted genus habitants are employed chiefly in the silk mills libellula, of which nearly 20 species inhabit and soap works of the environs, and in prepar. New England, has a flattened, moderately long ing and selling olive oil. Draguignan is an anbody, an almost globular head, the eyes contigu- cient town; was last fortified in 1615; and its ous or approximate, and the wings horizontal possession was a matter of contention in many when at rest. The larvæ are short and thick, of the wars of France. of a rough appearance, and a dirty color; they DRAINAGE, the art of freeing land from suhave 5 appendages to the tail. The genus æsh- perfluous water by cansing it to flow off in channa (Fab.) includes the large species, with long nels or through porous substances. The system slender bodies, which keep the wings expand- of drainage adopted for cities and towns is comed when at rest; the larvæ are larger, long monly described as SEWERAGE, and will be noand slender, with the abdomen flat below and ticed under this head, as that of mines in the rounded above; this includes the L. grandis article devoted to that subject. (See also PrmP.) (Linn.), the largest and most predaceous of the The art is of especial interest in its application British genera; there are about a dozen species to the reclaiming of wet lands, and the improvein Massachusetts. In the genus agrion (Fab.) ment of those through which the water that falls the wings are perpendicular during repose, thé upon them in rain, or is brought by subterrahead transversal, and the eyes far apart; this nean channels, does not find a ready exit. The includes the species with the slender and filiform importance of this branch of the art appears to abdomen, sometimes of extraordinary length; have been appreciated by the ancient Romans, the larvæ are small, with round slender bodies who are known to have constructed open drains terminating in 3 feathery appendages; there are for conveying away the superficial water from about 10 northern species well known, many of their lands, and to have laid underground wathem delicate and beautiful; among the foreign ter pipes of earthenware, which some suppose species are some of the most brilliant of insects. were for the same purpose, but which are with Many of the finest American species of this more probability referred by others to the purfamily are described and figured by Drury. poses of aqueducts for supplying water to their
DRAGON'S BLOOD. See BALSAMS. houses. In England publio attention was di
DRAGOONS (Fr.dragons, from Lat. dracona- rected to the injurious effects of water retained rius, a standard bearer), a species of cavalry first in cultivated lands by the treatise of Capt. Walintroduced by Marshal de Brissac in France in ter Blyth in 1652. In this work the tendency the 16th century, when they were armed with of wet lands to produce the flag and rush inmuskets and trained to fight according to cir- stead of useful crops was forcibly portrayed, and cumstances, either as cavalry or infantry. They the remedy of deep drainage as strongly urged. manœuvred either in or out of the line, extended The author condemned the shallow open drains themselves as skirmishers on the wings, fired in common use, and recommended straight upon the enemy, and then deployed behind a trenches reaching below the spring of "cold, column of infantry to reload their pieces, prompt- spewing, moyst water,” which he regarded as ly returning again upon their adversaries. They the source of the "corruption that feeds and were subsequently of especial service in passing nourisheth the rush or flagg," even to the depth rivers and defiles, and as an escort for the bag- of 3 or 4 feet, and the filling in of the trenches gage and convoys of artillery. In the 18th cen- with stones, or with faggots covered over with tury they lost their hybrid character, were gen- turf. It was long, however, after his time beerally used as cavalry, and now form in most of fore the excellence of this system was generally the European armies a grade between cuirassiers recognized, and little attention appears to have and hussars, mounted on horses too heavy for been directed to the subject until the latter part the latter and too light for the former. Nicho- of the next century. About the year 1764 a las of Russia created a dragoon corps of 8 regi- shrewd farmer of Warwickshire, Mr. Elkington, ments designed to act either as cavalry or in- undertook to investigate the peculiar qualities of one of his fields in which the sheep were depth of 7 inches may be raised 10° above that badly affected by the rot. He discovered that of undrained adjoining land of the same quality. when an impervious stratum beneath the soil was Thus drainage produces the effect of a warmer perforated with an iron bar, the water confined climate, and may add in fact many days to the below welled up and flowed away; and he hence length of the season; and this not merely by inferred that the water in wet lands came chief- reason of the warmth extended for a longer ly froin subterranean sources, and might be re- period, but in the spring the soil is sooner premoved by tapping the stratum that confined pared for cultivation, and may be in condition it, and thus letting off the superfluous quan- for ploughing and planting even two weeks betity. On this theory he established an original fore neighboring land of similar quality in other system of drainage, and was himself remarkably respects would admit of the passage of oxen and successful in seeking out the sources of the wa- horses for working. An instance of such a gain ter, the supplies of which, after reaching by an in time was reported in 1856 by the secretary auger, he drew off in a single deep channel dug of the board of agriculture of the state of Maine. for the purpose. _This system came into exten- In the late spring of the northern states, where sive practice in England and Scotland, and its the snow often lies in April, and the ground is imperfections were not fully appreciated till saturated with moisture in May, the advantage after the introduction of the system of Mr. thus secured is of great importance. While James Smith of Deanston, first brought forward frequent accession of water is a great benefit to in 1823. This, which its inventor called fre- lands through which it finds a ready passage, quent or thorough drainage, and others named its retention impairs in various ways the fertilthe Deanston system, was contrived with refer- ity of the soil. It prevents the pulverization ence to the removal of the water collected by of the earth by the plough and harrow, and the rains upon the surface, as well as that lying be- circulation of air to the roots of the plants. neath the soil, and was in fact the practice It nourishes a growth of noxious plants, and in recommended nearly 200 years before by Capt. woodlands its injurious effect is seen in the proBlyth. A series of parallel drains were sunk in duction of many lichens, fungi, and other parathe direction of most rapid descent, and be- sites upon the trees. Even the cattle and ing partially filled with stones small enough to sheep pastured upon wet lands are subject to pass through a 3-inch ring, were covered over diseases from which those in dry fields are comwith soil. At the bottom a main drain was con- paratively free, and are moreover pestered by structed, of sufficient capacity to convey away swarms of fies and mosquitoes, which disappear all the water from the smaller drains, and this as the same lands are drained. Man himself is he directed should be made in stone work or often the greatest sufferer from undrained lands, with tiles. The new practice met with great which tend to engender fevers and agues; and opposition from the advocates of the method of these are known to prevail long after the forests Elkington, but finally came to be regarded as have been removed, showing that the cause is the only complete system applicable in all cases. not so much the decay of large bodies of vegetaIn some instances the other plan may no doubt ble matter, as the cold dampness produced by be economically adopted. The drains came at the saturation of the earth with moisture. By last to be made chiefly of tiles, for the manu- the recent researches of Dr. H. I. Bow ditch of facture of which the first machine was invented Boston, it appears that consumption also is more by the marquis of Tweeddale. The practice has prevalent in those localities in Massachusetts been successfully introduced into the United which are badly drained, 50 out of 55 districts in States; and in Ålbany and New York draining the state of decidedly consumptive character betiles are already a considerable branch of manu- ing found wet by contiguity to ponds or marshes, facture. They are also made in New Jersey, or by reason of low and springy lands. In the Pennsylvania, and Obio. Their forms and the vicinity of the wet and unhealthy localities are manner in which they are used will be described often found others which appear to be as free after a few remarks upon the necessity and from any tendency to induce or aggravate the effects of drainage.-Wet lands are well known disease as the distant regions to which patients to be unfavorable to the production of large are sent for recovery. It is a singular fact, fully crops; it is also true that grains, potatoes, grass, established by experience, that undrained lands &c., are of sounder and better quality when are more liable to suffer from drought than those grown upon lands not subject to excess of moist- thoroughly drained. The former
in a dry time ure. The soils that retain it are correctly de- become baked and compact, and do not readily scribed as cold, while the more porous soils absorb moisture from the atmosphere; but a of a sandy nature are called warm. The former well pulverized and open soil receives into its are chilled by the evaporation continually going pores and absorbs like a sponge the dew and on, while the latter are warmed below by the rain aqueous vapor in the air. The moisture finds water which percolates through from the sur- its way to the lower portions of the soil, and is face, and are heated by the direct action of the there taken up by the rootlets, which penetrate sun's rays. By the experiments of Mr. Parkes deep into the loosened materials. Deep or subin a bog in Lancashire, it appears that by giving soil ploughing is thus seen to be most advanfree passage to the water through a cold soil tageously employed in connection with underby thorough drainage, its temperature at the draining. The same cause which prevents the penetration of the water also keeps near the causing depressions in which sediment might acsurface the fertilizing substances applied as cumulate to obstruct the drainage. The least manure; and these exposed to the heat of the fall admitted by most authorities in the usual sun are in great part dissipated, their richest sized draips is not less than 1 in 600 or 700; ammoniacal portions going off in exhalations to but so gentle a slope is rarely advisable ; indeed, be precipitated by the rains upon other lands. not less than 1 in 200. The depth generally Undrained soils in cold climates suffer from an- agreed upon as the best is at least 4 feet. The other cause. They are liable to freeze when tiles are at this depth rarely reached by a hard saturated with moisture; and as they thaw, or, frost, and are not disturbed by the pressure of in popular language, as the frost comes out of the subsoil plough, which penetrates a few inchthe ground, they are so heaved and broken up, es over 2 feet below the surface. This depth that the roots of the grasses and winter grains is also lower than the roots of most of the crops are thrown out, and the plants are destroyed; are likely to extend; but the tiles cannot be this is what is called winter-killed. By drain- placed beyond the possibility of injury from the ing and subsoiling, a way is opened for the roots of willows, poplars, and other trees which moisture to sink beyond the reach of frost, strike down in an open soil to uncertain depths. and the soil is left too dry to be disturbed by Their distance apart should depend upon the the thaws of spring.–From these remarks may nature of the soil. In compact clays they have be inferred the inutility of mere surface drain- been set within 15 feet of each other; but this ing. Open trenches may convey away the sur- is unnecessarily close. If the subsoil be clayey, face water, but do not reach the cold stagnating it is not well to exceed 30 feet; for if the repositories beneath the soil, which check that drains once laid are found to be ineffectual, as free circulation of fluids which is as essential to they have in many instances proved, the only the health of vegetable bodies as that of the air expedient is to make an additional one between to animals. Such ditches should be used only each 2 of the original set. If the subsoil is very as brooks in the lowest grounds to convey away porous, the tiles may be placed 40 feet apart; the water discharged into them by the under- but if trials at a greater distance than this are ground drains coming down the slopes. Deep ever found effectual
, it is believed their success ditches partially filled with small stones or with should be referred to the principle of Elkington, brush, or laid at bottom with flat stones, are the drains tapping a porous stratum containing found by long experience to be not so well water which was kept from flowing by an imadapted to accomplish the object sought for as pervious overlying stratum. The effect of drains drains laid with tiles. These are short pipes is not always perceived immediately after heavy moulded and baked of brick clay. Some are of rains. Some time is required for a dry soil to cylindrical shape; and in others, called the become saturated, and the moisture is then horse-shoe tile, the section is an incomplete gradually given off below. The plants thus circle, and when laid the tiles are placed upon have sufficient opportunity to obtain the benethe 2 edges, either directly upon the ground, fit of the water which passes through, and no or separated froin it by the intervention of flat danger is incurred of overdrainage, especially as pieces of the same material, placed so as to the lands are left in better condition, as albreak joints with the tiles. In another form ready stated, for absorbing atmospheric vapor. which is very generally used, called the sole tile, In stiff clayey soils the operation, though it the flat bottom piece, instead of being separate, would at first appear impracticable, is greatly is a part of the tile itself, and is the foot upon facilitated by the property of the clays to shrink which it stands. This and the pipe tile are and open in cracks in passing from a wet to a considered far superior to the horse-shoe. Tiles dry state. This process commences near the are made of various sizes from 2 to 8 inches drains, and the cracks extend back, serving as diameter, moulded by machines in lengths of they open as minor channels for leading the water about a foot, and bakod as thoroughly as com- down to the tile beds. They have been traced mon hard-burned bricks. They are carefully stretching across through the clay with innuset in the ground end to end; but the cylindri- merable ramifications nearly from one drain to cal pipes are often furnished with a collar the next; and though they close again when very which slips over and holds 2 adjoining ends. wet, they still let water pass along their lines.The bottom of the trench is dug with excavat. The most extensive agricultural draivage operaing tools, made for the purpose, just wide tions in the United States are on the farm of Mr. enough to admit the tiles. The water filtering John Johnston, near Geneva, N. Y. By steadily through the soil passes into the pipes by the pursuing the practice for about 20 years, he has numerous joints, entering chiefly at the bot- accomplished the laying of 210,000 tiles, or over tom, and the multiplication of these joints is 47 m. An instance of their beneficial effect the chief object of the short lengths. Tiles was observed a few years since, when by the should always be imbedded in compact soil, and destructive action of the midge the crop of at a depth somewhat dependent upon the con- wheat upon 6 adjoining farms was reduced to tour of the ground as well as other circum- 7 bushels per acre, while he obtained 29 bushels. stances. A sufficient slope must be secured for The system of drainage adopted in the central the water to flow through the drains. park of New York city, under the direction of There should be no interruptions to the descent, George E. Waring, Esq., is very complete, and