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exhibits some peculiar features. The soil is mills. The great difficulty appears to have been chiefly a clay loam, and in this the drains are in securing main channels of sufficient capacity dug mostly from 4 to 5 feet deep, at distances to discharge the waters in time of freshets; and apart of 40 feet, and directed down the line of through want of these the banks were often steepest descent. The depths of the excavations overflowed, and the former works washed away. are regulated by grade stakes set at the inter- Among the numerous drainage channels cut sections of the drains, and at various points on through these lands are 2 nearly parallel, of their lines, the levels of which are taken, as in more than 20 m. in length, and both navigable, railroad excavations, and from these points the serving to cut off a long circuitous route of the whole plan is prepared. In this no fall is ad- river Ouse. By other direct channels made durmitted less than i in 200, and no diminishing ing the present century above the outlet of the slope toward the outlet if this can be avoided. same river, and also of the neighboring river The small drains discharge into the tops of the Nene, many thousand acres more of land have main drains. Where a diminishing slope toward been reclaimed. The steam engine has been the discharge cannot be avoided, a “silt basin” advantageously substituted in many instances or catch-pool, formed of brick or of a large for the windmills; and it has been found practile set on end, is placed on the line of the ticable to estimate closely the power and exdrain to retain the sediment. A silt basin of pense required to keep an area of given exabout 3 cubic feet capacity receives the drain of tent thoroughly drained, the drainage from every 20 acres. It is built up to the surface, neighboring high lands being cut off by catch and furnished with an iron cover, secured by drains, and the
height to which the water must lock. This affords an opportunity of examining be raised being known. The annual fall of rain at any time the condition of the drainage, and averaging 26 inches, there would be, with a of removing the sediment which is deposited. very moderate allowance for evaporation, 2 By reference to the plans of the work kept in inches per month of water to be raised, or 14 the office, changes and additions may at any time cubic feet of water as a maximum on every be introduced in accordance with the general square yard of surface. The amount upon an system.—The expense of underground drainage acre, or 7,260 cubic feet, may be raised to the seriously checks the extension of the practice. height of 10 feet and discharged in about 2 The 2-inch sole tile, or 24-inch borse-shoe tile, hours and 10 minutes by the power of one costs $12 per 1,000 feet length, and the prices horse. A steam engine of 10 horse power could rapidly increase up to $80 for 1,000 feet of 6- then each month raise to the same height and inch sole tile, and $60 for the same length of discharge the water from 1,000 acres in 232 64-inch horse-shoe tile. The least expense per hours. Similar calculations may be made for the acre in nearly all arable soils for proper drains drainage of submerged lands in the United States, properly constructed may be estimated at from proper allowance being made for the difference in $35 to $50.-In Europe the largest draining oper- the annual fall of rain in the district from that ations have been those designed for reclaiming which occurs in England.—The drainage of the immense tracts of submerged or boggy lands, Haarlem lake in Holland, undertaken in 1839, some of which were altogether below the level was a gigantic operation of this class. From an of natural drainage. As early as 1436 attention area of 70 sq. m. of average depth of water of was directed to the possibility of reclaiming the 124 feet, situated below the level of any sluices fens bordering the river Ouse and its tributary that could be constructed, it was required to brooks. These covered an area of some 400,000 raise the water an average height of 16 feet, acres of land, which in ancient times appears to and to an estimated possible amount of 35,000,have been in a condition for cultivation. The 000 tons in a single month. An enormous tract is partly in Cambridgeshire and Hunting- steam engine was constructed in London for donshire, extending into the adjoining counties, working 11 pumps of 63 inches diameter each, by the high ridges of which it is bounded. It and 10 feet stroke, the maximum capacity of receives the waters of 9 counties, and presents all which was to raise 112 tons of water 10 feet but very limited natural channels for conveying at each stroke. These were set around the cirthese into the sea on the N. E. The attempts cular tower which contained the engine, and to embank and deepen these in the 15th cen- from the upper portion of which the balance tury were unsuccessful, and the undertaking beams radiated—one for each pump. They was abandoned till 1634, when it was renewed raised in actual work 66 tons per stroke, disby the earl of Bedford. In 3 years he ex- charging the water in a large canal 38 miles in pended £100,000 in embankments for keep- length, and from 115 to 130 feet in width, which ing out the waters of the rivers, and removing had previously been constructed around the area. those within by pumping machinery and dis- Two other similar engines were applied to the charging them over the dikes. This attempt same work, and the pumping was continued also failed; but in 1649 his son recommenced from May, 1848, to July 1, 1852. Then the area operations, and finally succeeded after the ex- was thoroughly drained, and the lands were penditure of £300,000 more. From that time ready to be divided out for sale. The entire the lands reclaimed-now known as the Bedford expenses from the commencement of operaLevel-have been kept free from water by tions in 1839 to the close of 1855 were estimeans of efficient machinery, worked by wind- mated at £748,445, which would be more than
paid by the proceeds of the sale of the lands, not calculated or intended for permanent use. the greater part of which had then been dis- His first book, the “Picture of Cincinnati" posed of. The swamp lands and salt water (1815), attained in its day a wide reputation, marshes of the United States present vast and and drew from Thomas Jefferson a highly comalmost untouched fields for this system of ope- plimentary letter. His last work, upon which rations. The accumulations of vegetable mate his fame as an author must principally rest, was ters they contain give fertility to the soil, when “ A Systematic Treatise, historical, etiological, the stagnating waters are removed; and the and practical, on the Principal Diseases of the success that has attended small operations un- Interior Valley of North America, as they apdertaken to bring them into cultivation, gives pear in the Caucasian, African, Indian, and encouragement to expect great results from Esquimaux Varieties of its Population," vol. i. operations undertaken upon a larger scale.-The of which was published in 1850, and vol. ii., subject of drainage may be further studied in the posthumously edited, in 1854. À memoir of number of Weale's “Rudimentary Series," by his life and services, by Edward D. Mansfield, G. D. Dempsy, “On the Drainage of Districts LL.D., was published in Cincinnati in 1855. and Lands." It is also treated in an article in DRAKE, Sir Francis, an English navigator, the U. S. patent office “ Agricultural Report” born near Tavistock, in Devonshire, according to for 1856; and by H. Colman in his reports of Eu- some authorities in 1539, and to others in 1545 or ropean agriculture. The very complete treatise 1546, died Dec. 27, 1595. His father, a poor yeoof James Donald has been recently republished man, and a recent convert to the Protestant faith, in New York; and William McCammon, civil obtained from Queen Elizabeth an appointment engineer of the “Albany tile works," has pre- as naval chaplain. He had 12 sons, of whom sented in an advertising pamphlet a summary Francis, the eldest, received a scanty education of the principles and advantages of drainage, through the liberality of his kinsman John, with exact descriptions of the tools and methods afterward Admiral Sir John Hawkins, and as employed and estimates of cost.
soon as he was old enough to serve as a cabin DRAKE, DANIEL, an American physician, boy, was apprenticed to the master of a bark. born in Plainfield, N. J., Oct. 20, 1785, died By his industry and frank and decided characin Cincinnati, O., Nov. 5, 1852. His father, a ter he so gained the affections of his master, farmer in indigent circumstances, emigrated that the latter at his death bequeathed his vesfrom New Jersey to Mason co., Ky., in 1788, sel to his young apprentice. Being thus at the where Daniel's childhood and youth, up to his age of 18 years a good sailor and the proprietor 16th year, were passed on a small farm, amid the of a ship, he quickly completed his education labors and privations of a frontier life. In Dec. by learning how to command, and made a com1800, with only such education as he had re- mercial voyage to the bay of Biscay and afterceived in the course of some 6 months' desul. ward to the coast of Guinea. Inspired by the tory attendance at different times upon country adventures and successes which the new world schools, taught by wandering and ignorant then offered, he sold his vessel and invested the schoolmasters, he was placed under the care of proceeds with all his savings in the expedition Dr. William Goforth, of Cincinnati, as a student of Capt. Hawkins to Mexico in 1567, receiving of medicine, and in 1804 he commenced the the command of the Judith. The fleet was atpractice of that profession. In 1816 he was tacked by the Spaniards, and only 2 of the 6 graduated at the university of Pennsylvania, and ships escaped. Drake, barely succeeding in savin 1817 he was invited to a professorship in the ing his own vessel, returned to England, with a Transylvania medical school at Lexington, Ky., loss of his entire property, and fruitlessly petiin which he lectured one session. In Dec. 1818, tioned the court of Spain to restore what its on his personal application, the legislature of subjects had taken from him. Then with an Ohio granted a charter for the medical college oath he declared that he would obtain by force of Ohio, at Cincinnati, and also established there the rights which he could not get otherwise, the commercial hospital. In the autumn of 1820 and began to sail with the avowed object of the former institution was opened for students, pillaging the Spaniards. In 1570 he obtained and for 2 sessions Dr. Drake was connected with a commission from Queen Elizabeth. In 1572 it. In 1823 he again accepted a chair in the he armed 2 ships at Plymouth, with which, Transylvania school; and thenceforth, till the joined by a third at Port Pheasant, on the coast close of his career, was with brief intermissions of South America, he made a descent upon connected with medical schools, holding profes- New Granada, captured and plundered varisorships in that institution, and in the Jefferson ous Spanish settlements, and made at the er. medical college, Philadelphia, in the Cincinnati pense of his enemies a fortune vastly larger medical college, in the university of Louisville, than they had taken from him. He returned and finally, again, in the medical college of to England in 1573, and was welcomed as a Ohio, with which he was connected at the time hero. While at Darien lie had seen from a of his death. As a professor of the theory and mountain top the waves of the Pacific, and had practice of medieine he held an eminent position, there conceived the purpose of an expedition and as a practitioner his reputation was coex- into those waters, yet unexplored by English tensive with the Mississippi valley. His writings vessels, which he now prepared to execute. His were voluminous, but principally of a character eloquence was sufficent to gain the patronage of Elizabeth, to whom he exposed the feeble- fatal malady broke out among his sailors, and ness of Spain in her colonies and promised as he heard of the defeat of a division of his treasures and conquests. He set sail from Ply- forces which he had sent to operate by land, he mouth, Dec. 13, 1577, with 5 vessels' and 164 himself fell sick, and died from the combined gentlemen and sailors, to follow the route which effects of fever and of mental agitation on achad been traced by Magellan.' While in Port count of the reverses of the expedition. His San Julian on the coast of Patagonia, he put to body received a sailor's funeral in sight of Puerdeath Captain Doughtie, a good sailor and brave to Bello, and was buried in the sea. Admiral officer, and a gentleman of birth and education, Drake was one of the founders of the naval who was charged with having conspired against greatness of England; and though in his spirit the life of the admiral. Directing his course to and conduct there was something of the buccathe N., Drake pillaged the Spanish settlements neer, he was yet one of the most daring and of Peru and Chili, captured a royal galleon efficient of naval commanders. richly laden with plate, and took possession of DRAKE, JOSEPH RODMAN, an American poet, California in the name of the queen of England, born in New York, Aug. 7, 1795, died Sept. 21, and then, burdened with gold, sated with ven- 1820. He lost his father in early life, and with geance, and fearing to meet the Spaniards in 3 sisters struggled against adversity. He studied superior force if he returned upon his steps, he medicine, and his marriage in 1816, shortly after sought to find by the N. E. a passage back to taking his degree, placed him in affluence. He the Atlantic. Being repelled by the severe cold, travelled in Europe, and after his return in 1819 he changed his purpose, and determined to contributed under the signature of “Croaker" make the circuit of the globe. He traversed the many pleasant and effective verses to the colPacific ocean, the archipelago of the Spice isl. umns of the “New York Evening Post.” His ands, the Indian ocean, doubled the cape of friend Fitz-Greene Halleck joined him in this Good Hope, and arrived at Plymouth, Sept 26, series, signing his own pieces at first “Croaker 1579. Elizabeth received him with favor, and jr.," but soon they both adopted the signature 4 months afterward knighted him, and partook of“ Croaker and co.” The novelist Cooper was of a banquet on board of his ship. The rupture also one of the intimate associates of Drake, and which followed between Elizabeth and Philip a conversation between them as to the poetical II. gave Drake a new opportunity to gratify his uses of American rivers, in the absence of hisanimosity against Spain, and within one year torical associatious such as belong to the streams he captured and plundered Carthagena and of the old world, was the occasion of Drake's several other towns, burned the forts of San longest and most imaginative poem, the “CulAntonio and Saint Augustine, and visited and prit Fay.” It was his aim to conjure up in this brought away with him the remains of the fanciful production all the associations of natcolony which Raleigh had planted in Virginia. ural life and beauty which gather around a sylIn 1587 he was placed in command of a fleet van scene, and to show how the earth, the air, of about 30 sail designed to attack the Span- the sea, the field, the wave, the moonlight, are ish ports. He destroyed 100 ships in the har- in themselves vital with poetical images and bor of Cadiz, an exploit which he spoke of as meaning. Though Drake had written verses singeing the king of Spain's beard, and soon from his boyhood, yet the poems which gave after captured an immense carrack, from papers him his wide reputation as a writer of genius in which the English first learned the value of and taste were all the productions of a single the East India traffic, and the mode of carrying season. His health failing, he passed the winit on. In 1588, as vice-admiral, he commanded ter of 1819 in New Orleans, hoping to be beneone squadron of the fleet by which, with the assis- fited by the milder climate. But the progress tance of the elements, the " invincible armada" of the consumption which had smitten him could was annihilated. In 1589 he ravaged the coasts not be arrested, and he lived but a short time of the Spanish peninsula, leaving fearful traces after his return to New York in the spring. His of his passage, and in 1592 and 1593 was a mem- death called forth a beautiful poetical tribute ber of parliament for Plymouth. In 1594, a re- from his friend Halleck. port having reached England that Spain was pre- DRAKE, NATHAN, an English physician and paring against that country a fleet more numerous miscellaneous writer, born in York in 1766, died and powerful than the armada, he again entered in Hadleigh, June 7, 1836. He was educated at the service against his old enemy. Convinced the university of Edinburgh, and practised his that the West Indies was the point where Spain profession in Hadleigh from 1792 till his death, could be best attacked, he sailed for America in during which time he was a frequent contrib1595 with 26 vessels, in company with Admiral utor to literary and medical periodicals. His Hawkins. A divided command produced its works are numerous ; they include " Shakeusual bad results, and their first attempts were speare and his Times” (2 vols. 4to., London, unharmonious and fruitless. At Porto Rico 1817), and various criticisms and illustrations of Admiral Hawkins died, either of a wound or of the writings of the age of Queen Anne. chagrin, and Drake then in the region where his DRAKE, SAMUEL GARDNER, an American first anger against Spain had been
kindled gained author, born at Pittsfield, N. H., Oct. 11, 1798. new triumphs. He burned Santa Marta, Ranche- He was educated at the common schools of the ria, Nombre de Dios, and Rio Hachá; but a neighborhood, and between the ages of 20 and 27 was a district school teacher. Subsequently tion of the Greeks about 700 B. O. The relihe removed to Boston, and in 1828 established gious festivals of Bacchus were believed to have an antiquarian book store, one of the first of its been introduced into Greece by Melampus. In class in the United States. In 1825 his literary the Bacchic ritual an ode in honor of the god and antiquarian labors commenced with the re- was recited; and to produce the best ode, the publication with notes of Church's " Entertain- one which should be selected by the priests to be ing History of King Philip's War," of which inserted into their ceremony, became a favorite several editions have since appeared. In 1833 he contest among the poets of the time. A goat reprinted 5 old tracts, which, with the preceding was either the principal sacrifice at the altar, or work, comprise, in his opinion, all that can be the prize awarded to the successful competitor; recovered in relation to King Philip's war. In thus from the two words rpayos and won, the 1832 appeared his "Indian Biography," and in ode for the goat, came the Greek word "paywius, 1833 the “Book of the Indians, or History and tragedy. In like manner, at the rustic festivals Biography of the Indians of North America,” a or harvest homes of the Greeks, semi-religions work of high authority for facts, and of which ceremonies, composed of odes and dances in the 11th edition, much enlarged, appeared in honor of Bacchus, were enacted. These odes 1851. His remaining publications on Indian being of a more genial and comic character, history are “Old Indian Chronicles” (Boston, consistent with the occasion of an agricultural 1836), "Indian Captivities" (Boston 1839), and triumph, were called kwpwdia, comedy, from " Tragedies of the Wilderness ” (Boston, 1841), koun, village, and wồn, song, the song of the vil. Since 1847 he has edited the New England lage. Some writers are of opinion that the Historical and Genealogical Register," which, word comedy originally signified drama, and under the direction of a historical and genealo- had not the distinctive sense in which we apply gical society in Boston of which he is president, it, but included tragedies and theatrical repres has contained many valuable contributions to sentations of every kind.—The earliest known local and family history. His latest work is an form of drama is the dithyrambus, a hymn in elaborate history of Boston in 1 vol. royal 8vo. honor of Bacchus, sung by a chorus of voices,
DRAKENBERG, CHRISTIAN JACOBSEN, à accompanied by music, expressive gesture, and Norwegian, remarkable for his long life, born in dances. In 562 B. O., Susarion, à native of Blomsholm, Nov. 18, 1626, died in Aarhuus, Megara, appeared at Athens, where he, as a Oct. 9, 1772, at the age of 145 years and more single speaker, recited an ode. In 536 B. O., than 10 months. The son of a sea captain, he Thespis, a native of Icaria, recited an ode with himself led a seafaring life till 1717, when he responses made to him by a dithyrambic chorus; abandoned it on account of the dimness of his in this we faintly perceive the first germ of diaeyesight, though his strength and vigor were logue. Such were the rude elements found by undiminished. In 1732 he was residing in Co- Æschylus in 499 B. O., and out of them he alone penhagen, and his advanced age having been and unaided created and perfected the drama disputed by persons who judged from his looks as we now behold it. Nothing essential has that he was younger, he indignantly set off to since been added to its structure; he seems to procure his baptismal certificate, and having for have forestalled future ages of invention, and that purpose performed a long journey through to have left nothing undone. He removed the Sweden chiefly on foot, reappeared with his chorus into the background, and used them documentary proof at Copenhagen. He was only as an auxiliary. He brought a second married in 1737, and in 1759 still continued to actor upon the scene, and introduced dialogue; exercise much in walking, and retained extra- thus the drama became an action instead of ordinary strength. He died after a gentle sick- a narrative. He invented scenery, costume, ness of 13 days. He was of medium stature, and machinery, of a grandeur unknown to our passionate, but rather temperate, with a good stage. Banishing the lewd and Bacchanalian appearance and address.
character from the dithyrambic hymn, he supDRAMA (Gr. &paua, from Spaw, to make), a plied its place with pure tragedy, simple and story represented by action. The principle of grand in its form, noble and dignified in its obimitation is inherent in human nature; painting, ject. From his works were gathered those sculpture, and the na must be coeval with rules called the unities, referred to by Aristotle; society, and have been practised in some form indeed, he may be truly said to have found by almost every nation. Among the South sea the drama chaos, and left it a world. These islanders a rude kind of drama was discovered. changes were wrought within the space of 30 In China the drama dates its origin to remote years, and so rapidly were they accomplished, ages. The war dance of the Indian and the Af- that they were at the time regarded as the work rican, intermingled with pantomimic descrip- of inspiration. The expansion he gave to the tions of the preparations for battle, the stealthy drama caused the Athenians to build the great advance upon the foe, the combat, and the death theatre of Bacchus, the Lenaion, the foriner of the enemy, greeted with applause from the ex- theatre having broken down under the pressure cited spectators, is essentially a dramatic exhibi- of the people gathered into it to witness a repretion, although wordless. But that form of the sentation in which Æschylus and Pratinas were drama accepted and followed in Europe, divided rivals. Thirty years later, Sophocles introduced chiefly into tragedy and comedy, was the crea- a third actor, and thus diffused the dialogue and
fertilized the action. As a dramatic poet he sur century after Æschylus. He was the last of passed Æschylus by a poble grace and a sweet what was called the old school. Comedy was dimajesty, which were wanting to the Titanic father vided into 3 forms, the old, the middle, and the of the drama. Fifteen years afterward Euripides new. In the first or old comedy, the characters enabled Greece to behold as contemporaries the were real living personages, who, under their real three greatest purely tragic poets the world has names, were freely satirized. This license was produced. In reviewing their works we must re- soon so abused that a law was passed forbidding member that Æschylus was the creator of that the names of real personages to be used in comfanciful world which Sophocles and Euripides so edy. This impediment produced the second wonderfully cultivated. The dramas of Æschy- or middle comedy, where the prohibition was lus are dark, gloomy, and terrible; thunder and evaded by giving fictitious names to real characlightning are their atmosphere, and demigods ters, and distinguishing the individual intended their dramatis persone ; his human beings are to be satirized by a mask or by some unmisgigantic in moral stature, and removed above takable inference. The middle comedy lasted our sympathies. Sophocles, more human but about 50 years, when it was superseded by the not less divine, drew human nature as it ought 3d or new comedy; in this form the characters to be. Euripides, descending still further, de- and the subject were fictitious, and as the old picted men and women as they were.—The ori- satirized and ridiculed statesmen, orators, and gin of the drama is popularly but erroneously generals under their real names
, so the new ascribed to Thespis. This improvisatore did was aimed at abstract vice, and not at the indino more than improve upon the dithyrambus; vidual offender. As tragedy descended from he first organized a regular chorus, and invent- the contemplation of divine matters to depict .ed dances of peculiar energy and grace; but his and sympathize with human woes, it gradually performances were a kind of ballet farce. Of lost its grandeur and depreciated. So, also, as tragedy he had no idea.—The tragedy of the comedy divested itself of its direct influence Greeks was a fable or a series of events begotten upon men and things, and from a statesman beof each other in a natural sequence. It began came a philosopher, it lost its pith and power.with a simple position, so selected that the The list of dithyrambic poets preceding Æschyauditor required no explanation to understand lus from 700 to 525 B. O. includes Archilochus, the present condition of matters or persons; it Simonides, Lasus, Arion, Stesichorus, Solon, was a simple beginning. The development of Susarion, Hipponax, Theognis, Thespis (birth the characters was required to be simultaneous of Æschylus). Afterward came Chærilus, Phrywith the action, the one being involved in the nichus, Epicharmus, Æschylus (invents the draother. The action should not stray from the ma, and first exhibits 499 B. C.), Chionides, one place beyond such a limit as the time em- Sophocles (first victory 468 B. C.), Euripides ployed in the performance might naturally per- (first exhibits 455 B. C.), Cratinus, Aristarmit; nor should a lapse of time take place during chus, Ion, Crates, Achæus, Melanippides, Pherethe piece beyond the limit of one day. These crates, Phrynichus the comic poet, Lysippus, unities of action, place, and time, however, so Eupolis, Aristophanes (427 B. C.), Agathon, strenuously insisted upon by the French drama- Xenocles, Ameipsias, Sannyrion, Astydamas, tists, were not strictly observed by the Greeks, Antiphanes, Theopompus, Eubulus, Alexis, Henor were they considered essential, for Æschylus raclides, Menander (first exhibits 321 B. C.), himself did not always observe them. Aristo- after whom the Greek drama died obscurely. tle refers indistinctly to the unity of action; he The Romans derived their drama from the says in reference to the unity of time: "Tragedy Greeks. Terence, Plautus, and Seneca are the endeavors as much as possible to restrict itself only Latin dramatists worthy of mention, and to a single revolution of the sun." Of the unity these are but translators and imitators of the of place he says nothing. The Greek tragedy Greek. The only element introduced by the was composed in trilogies, or 3 distinct plays, Romans into the drama was farce, an invention continuations of each other; such, for example, of the Tuscans; buffoonery became more popular was the trilogy of Æschylus, formed of the than wit. In truth the Roman people took litAgamemnon, the Choëphoroi, and the “Furies.” tle pleasure in pure intellectual amusement, and In the 1st, Agamemnon, returning from the what the poet was to the Greek the gladiator siege of Troy, is murdered by his wife Cly- was to the Roman. The coarser Roman pretemnestra; in the 2d, Orestes, Agamemnon's ferred to watch the agonies of the body suffered son, avenges his father by the slaughter of his in the circus, rather than sympathize with the mother; in the 3d, Orestes is pursued by, the woes of the soul simulated in the theatre. Thus Furies for this unnatural deed; the gods cannot ended the first or classic age of the drama. The agree upon his case until Minerva decides in his second, or romantic age, gave its first indication favor, and releases him from the torture of the of existence in the 12th century, when dramatic avenging divinities. These 3 subjects conjoin- performances called entremets were introduced, ed formed a complete action, divided into a as the word implies, between the services at thesis, an antithesis, and a synthesis.—The early royal banquets and carousals. These entremets history of comedy is more obscure than that of soon became pageants, masks, and mummeries, tragedy. The earliest comic poet of whom we and lasted as distinct dramatic entertainments have remains is Aristophanes, who flourished a up to the period of Shakespeare. Simultaneously