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a dramatic composition called a Mystery, usually sic rivals in the rich coloring of their characfounded on passages of Scripture, was introduced ters; they drew men more like imperfect huand became a popular exhibition on saints' days. man beings and less like inspired statuary; and Subjects from the Bible, rudely treated in the if less noble in contour, they were more truly form of a dialogue between the holy person- flesh and blood. The Shakespearean characters ages

, were represented on a stage erected in the are constructed piecemeal out of the small imchurch or church yard, the priests and acolytes perfections and humors that make up human being the actors. These performances were nature; the Greek heroes are made of one piece, carried to an abuse, and they became so blas- one passion. The English dramatists of this age phemous a scandal that they were suppressed. gave originality at least to the form of the roThe next form of drama was the Morality, mantic drama, and, whatever its faults, it was bearing a relation to the mystery similar to that new. The French and Italian poets clung to between the new and old comedy of the Greeks. the Greek models; Corneille and Racine were The morality was aimed at abstract vice, its ac- but faint and poor imitators of Euripides; Alfi. tion was a fable, its characters typical. - In the eri affected the same ancient simplicity. As 15th and 16th centuries Histories began to be students of the Greek, their individual merit is written-long, rambling pieces of action with- great; but having had no share in the progress out form or object, but introducing rudely the of the drama, they have no prominent place in design of that romantic drama destined to so its history. The Italians and Spaniards at this wondrous a perfection under the minds of Shake- period contrived a species of performance, part speare and his colleagues. As the classic drama pantomime, part farce, part comedy of intrigue. was derived from the dithyramb, a pure poetic It was derived from those Italian narrators of germ, subsequently developed into action, the whom Boccaccio is the best type, and representromantic drama was derived from the pageanty ed dramatically those short and pithy tales in mask, or mummery, a pantomimic germ, subse- which Margaret of Navarre was wont to take quently developed into poetry. In the first the such delight. Lope de Vega was the first to inauaction is subservient to the passion ; in the sec- gurate this comedy of intrigue; it was quickly ond the passion is subservient to the action. imitated and greatly improved by the French, Thus we find Shakespeare borrows his plots who by admitting more Italian elements gave it from Boccaccio, and makes his passions fit un- variety and scope. Hardy, Rotrou, and Corneille, der these forms, where his characters rather en- Scarron and Quinault, prepared the public taste cumber than assist the intrigue. In the Eliza- for Molière, who truly founded and made the bethan age the romantic drama sprang at once second or middle age of comedy, as Shakespeare into existence; and as in the single life of Æs- and his colleagues made the first or old. Comchylus the classical or Greek drama passed edy at this time mainly occupied the stage. In from infancy to maturity, so Shakespeare and England the four great masters, Wycherly, Conhis colleagues raised the romantic or Gothic greve, Vanbrugh, and Farquhar, brought forth drama from rudeness to the highest perfection the prose drama. If inferior to Molière, they it has ever achieved. In the romantic drama 'were less tainted with that leaning toward Greek the unities of time, place, and action are not ob- classicality which has always retarded the true served. The poet is allowed unbridled license; progress of the drama in France. The most oriprose and poetry may be mingled without rule ginal of Molière's works is the Bourgeois genor reason, beyond the aptitude of each to the tilhomme, because in its form and treatment he moment and the character. In the Greek mind has exhibited more freedom from scholastic tramthe sense of form was very acute; we see it in mel. In the beginning of the 18th century the their architecture, sculpture, and poetry ; we sentimental drama, a mixture of comedy and have it in their social and political institutions. tragedy, a weak solution, obtained great popuThe Greek taste demanded grace of outline, pro- larity, but cannot be considered a forward moveportion of parts to the whole, and was so ex- ment in the art. In Germany this drama obtremely sensitive to this element in art, that tained great popularity under Kotzebue, and at we find it in all things Greek which remain the same time a wild, mythic, philosophical drato us. The Gothic mind is eminently defect- matic form of poem was created by Goethe and ive in this sense. The only ideas of form we Schiller. These poets have rather embellished have are derived from study of the ancient dramatic literature than added to the developmodels, and are not inherent in us. Reckless of ment or progress of the drama as an art. Lese form, therefore, Shakespeare depicted charac- sing, who preceded them, may be said to have ters and developed passions, flung them into founded the German drama, but he attempted groups, hurried them through the action, over the no reform. The next and last great step which possible and the impossible, and landed them on the drama has made, and one that has become a catastrophe not prepared by design, but which prominent in the present age, is the invention of suited his convenience. His works present a opera, or a drama in which music takes the place glorious intellectual anarchy in which he has had of poetry, and the dramatic action is subserno follower, for the reason that no mind of less vient to a new musical development. It is a power than his own could contend with the mistake to presume that an opera is a musical confusion he so marvellously controls. T ma The musical form of an opera and its romantic dramatists greatly excelled their clas- dramatic treatment are essentially different from the form and treatment of a drama based on the language, “they will not act." Having secured same fable. There is also in the form of the a fit theme, it should be examined to see if it be music, apart from the libretto, a plan and agreeable. Thus in tragic subjects horror should proportion to which the drama must be subser- be distinguished from terror. Horror has in it vient.--Among the various minor forms of the something repulsive; it has the ingredients of modern drama are melodrama, farce, vaudeville, disgust to distinguish it from terror, which posand pantomime. Melodrama owes its invention sesses a charm most attractive, having the into the laws which restricted the performance gredient of pity mingled in its sentiment. Proof tragedies and comedies to certain privileged vided with an appropriate subject, the dramatist theatres. Booths were erected in which were must proceed to select a good beginning. If in performed serious pantomimes, or dramas with- his first act he has to employ his characters in out words, accompanied throughout with ex- long explanations of that part of his story which pressive music. By degrees the actors ven- precedes the rising of the curtain, then has he tured a few extempore phrases or jests. This made a beginning in the middle, as it were, and license was gradually extended, until dialogue his drama is taking place off the stage, instead was regularly introduced, and the music was of upon it; for the mind of the auditor is only used to accompany the movement of the fixed upon a scene described, and the action of actors. Melodrama is now understood to be a the play ceases to give place to narrative; if drama wherein the passion and development of he can find no means of avoiding these explanacharacter are subservient to the action and plot; tions, then he must consider that his subject is whereas tragedy is a drama where the action not susceptible of a good dramatic form. Having and plot are subservient to the passion and de- begun well, the action must never pause, and it velopment of character. Farce is a humorous must be continuous, for in this continuity is the piece of buffoonery, in which probability may secret of interest; it betrays an object which, be outraged both in the incidents and character, though kept out of sight, is palpably ahead. As and stands in relation to comedy as melodrama the plot proceeds, it should embrace nothing does to tragedy. Vandeville is an invention but what is essential to its support; whatever of the French stage. Schlegel states that may be the beauty of an episode, it is a distrac* vaudeville is only a variation of comic opera;" tion, and has always more charms for the author bnt it is essentially a different thing, and was than the auditor. Shakespeare triumphed over in no manner derived from it, nor has it ever this fault so often that he has done great damage been connected with it. It has its name from to the English dramatist by his example. At a tau de Vire, which was originally a satirical song certain proportionate distance from the end of containing a keen, witty thought, and applicable the work comes the climax or çatastrophe, toto some popular person or event. It was a lyric ward which achievement all the action conspires. epigram invented in that part of Normandy This event generally occupies the latter half of called Vire, and carried thence to Paris, where the 4th act in a 5 act play. The 5th is used to these musical satires became the vogue. Pres- bring the fable in all its parts to a simple and ently the writers of small comedies threw their clear conclusion, leaving a sense of completekeenest epigrams into verse, by which they gaveness in the mind, where nothing remains to be them more point and drew io them more at- desired or told.-A further account of the dratention; these verses might be sung to any air matic literature of each nation will be found that would happily suit them, and were called under the titles of the respective countries. See Fandevilles. The comic pieces through which also ÆSCHYLUS, ALFIERI, CALDERON DE LA they were scattered eventually received the BAROA, CORNEILLE, GOETHE, GOLDONI, LESSING, name. When the work is but slightly speckled LOPE DE VEGA, MOLIÈRE, RACINE, SCHILLER, and with these musical epigrams, it is distinguished SHAKESPEARE.

a comédie vaudeville, or å drame vaudeville. DRAMMEN, a commercial town of Norway, Pantomime is a drama without language, com- situated on the southern coast, in the province posed of gesture accompanied with music. It of Aggershuus, 20 m. S. W. from Christiania ; is probably the most ancient form of drama, and pop. in 1855, 9,916. It lies on both sides of has changed less in its essential form than any the river Drammen, and is composed of 3 small other. The most perfect and most elegant kind villages, separated from each other by natural of pantomime is the ballet, where graceful limits. The commerce of which Drammen is dances are interspersed amid the pantomimic the centre gives it the third rank among the action.-No work of the mind possesses such cities of Norway, but in respect to its timber charms for the author as the drama; the com- trade it stands first. It manufactures tobacco, bination of poetry, music, oratory, sculpture, earthenware, sail cloth, rope, carriages, leather, and painting, represents an army of muses &c.; and beside timber, which is exported chiefwhich almost every literary aspirant desires to ly to Great Britain, France, and Holland, has a command; but few are found adequate to the commerce in iron ware and agricultural produce. task. The first difficulty consists in the selection About 40,000 tons of shipping are annually emof a subject fit for dramatic treatment. Many ployed in its port. It suffered considerably in fable s read well, that lose the appearance of life 1850 and 1857 from conflagrations. whera deprived of the peculiar charms of narra- DRAPER, JOHN WILLIAM, an American tive, and given in dialogue. In the dramatist's chemist and physiologist, born near Liverpool,

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England, May 5, 1811. He received his early sophical Journal” between the years 1837 and education at the Wesleyan Methodist school at 1857 about 40 treatises, principally on topics Woodhouse Grove, an institution for the sons previously little understood. He is the author of clergymen of that denomination, of which his of many literary works, reviews, &c., but for father was one. Having here acquired the ru- the most part published anonymonsly; of a diments of knowledge, his maturer education “ Treatise on the Forces which produce the was intrusted to private instructors; and while Organization of Plants” (4to., New York, 1844); thus employed, he devoted much attention to of a popular "Text Book on Chemistry" (12mo. chemistry and natural philosophy, a partiality New York, 1846), and another on" Natural for which he imbibed from his father, who Philosphy" (8vo., New York, 1847), wbich made these pursuits a relaxation from his cleri- consist of excerpts from his courses of lectures. cal duties. The higher mathematics were also His last and most elaborate work is a treatise on a part of his early training, and his writings “Human Physiology, Statical and Dynamical; denote their successful cultivation. He subse- or the Conditions and Course of the Life of Man quently went to the university of London, where (8vo., New York, 1856, and a new edition, 1858). he had the opportunity of prosecnting his chem- DRAPER, SIR WILLIAM, an English officer, ical studies under the late Dr. Turner. Some born in Bristol in 1721, died in Bath, Jan. 8, of Dr. Draper's ancestors had been attracted to 1787. He was educated at Eton and CamAmerica before the revolution, and a greater bridge, entered the army, won distinction in part of his family connections followed at later the East Indies, obtained a colonelcy in 1760, periods, and in 1833 he came over to join them. acted as brigadier at the capture of Belle Isle He then continued his chemical and medical in 1761, and led the land forces at the taking studies at the university of Pennsylvania, where of Manila in 1763. The Spaniards ransomed he took the degree of M.D. in 1836, and with the latter place by the promise of £1,000,000, the rare distinction that his thesis was an. which was never paid, and Sir William correnounced at commencement as having been se- sponded long but unprofitably on the subject lected for publication by the medical faculty. with his own and the Spanish governments. For A few weeks after, he received the appointment his services, however, he was made knight of the of professor of chemistry, natural philosophy, bath. When the first of the “Junius" letters and physiology in Hampden-Sidney college, appeared in Jan. 1769, he came forward under Virginia, in which institution he remained until his own name in defence of his friend the mar1839. During his residence there his time was quis of Granby. Junius replied with marvellous occupied in original chemical and physiological skill and sharpness; two more letters passed investigations, many of the latter appearing in on each side, and Sir William then retired from the “ American Journal of Medical Sciences.” a contest which had endangered his good name, From Hampden-Sidney college Dr. Draper was damaged the cause of his friend, and heightened called to the chair of chemistry and natural his opponent's reputation. Six months afterhistory in the academic department of the uni- ward, when he saw these letters republished, he versity of the city of New York, where, beside appeared twice again in print to complain of their instruction in those branches, he has delivered injustice, and was again worsted by his anonylectures to the advanced undergraduates upon mous antagonist. During the same year he visitphysiology. In 1841 he was appointed profes- ed America, where he was married to Miss De sor of chemistry in the university medical col- Lancey of New York. 'In 1779 he was appointlege, which forms the medical department of ed lientenant-governor of Minorca, and on the the city university, having coöperated with 5 surrender of that island brought 29 charges others (Drs. Valentine Mott, Granville S. Pat- against the governor, Murray, for all but 2 of tison, John W. Revere, Gunning S. Bedford, and which he was obliged to offer an apology. Martyn Paine, who were simultaneously elected DRAUGHTS, a game played by 2 persons, professors) in establishing that very flourishing on a checkered board like the chess-board, school of medicine; and in 1850 physiology was with 12 or 20 pieces on each side, which cap. added to the chair of chemistry. These rela- ture each other by angular movements governed tions to the academic and medical departments by certain rules, until the game ends by one of the university have been continued without player losing all his pieces, or by both players interruption to the present time; and it is also getting their pieces into positions from which worthy of remark, as illustrating his industry, they cannot be taken. In America the game is that he has acted throughout as the medical commonly called checkers. In France it is known faculty's secretary, and since 1850 as their pre- as le jeu de dames, in Italy as dama, in Germany siding officer. As an instructor, Dr. Draper as Damen; all which terms are commonly supstands in the very first rank, and to his rich posed to have their origin in some fancied adapvariety of attainments unites all the important tation of the game as a pastime for women. elements of a public speaker. Although his But as it has been played in Egypt for more researches have been mostly experimental, in- than 4,000 years, and made its appearance in volving therefore great labor and cost, he has Europe only 3 or 4 centuries ago when there written voluminously and with high reputation. was much intercourse between southern Europe Beside contributions to various other scientific and Alexandria and other Egyptian ports, bejournals, he furnished to the “Edinburgh Philo- fore the passage to India round the cape of Good

Hope replaced that through the isthmus of Suez, by leaping over the other into that

square. The it is probable that the Egyptian-Arabic name piece leaped over is removed from the board. of the game, dameh, is the source of its appel- If several pieces on forward diagonals should be lations in French, Italian, and German. In exposed by having alternate open squares bePolish, the game has, beside that of dama, a hind them, they may all be taken at once, and foreign designation, arcaby or warcaby, sup- the taking piece placed on the square behind posed to be of oriental origin. In Spanish, the the last piece captured. When a piece has word ajedrez, applied to both chess and draughts, reached one of the 4 squares of the extreme opis also of eastern derivation, and appears to be posite row, it becomes a king, and is crowned by nearly equivalent to the American term check- placing one of the captured pieces upon it. ers. The origin of the game is uncertain. It is Kings can move backward as well as forward, supposed to have preceded chess, and is certainly though only one square at a time. The princiof very high antiquity, for in Egypt, as appears pal laws of the game are these: if a piece is from the monumental paintings, it was a com- touclied, it must be moved, if a move be possimon amusement in the reigns of the Osirtasens, ble; the player who has the move must take a 2000 B. C. It was played as now with pieces, piece which is exposed to capture; if he negall of which on the same board were alike in lects to take it, his adversary may remove from size and form, though on different boards they the board the piece with which the capture varied in shape, some being small, others large should have been made; but a player has no and rounded at the top or carved into human right to decline to take under any circumstances. heads. The kind used by King Rhamses, 1311 The first move of each game is to be taken by B. C., who is represented on the walls of his the players in turn; if lots are drawn for the palace at Thebes playing at draughts with the move, he who gains the choice may move first ladies of his household, resembled small nine- or require his adversary to move. In Polish pins, and seem to have been about 1} inches draughts, a variety of the game played not high, standing on a circular base of half an inch only in Poland, but in other parts of the contiin diameter. Some have been found of ivory, 14 nent of Europe, and sometimes in England and inches high and 14 in diameter, with a small knob America, the pioces are moved forward as in the at the top. The opposite sets of pieces were dis- English form of the game, but in taking they tinguished sometimes by their color and some- move like the kings of the English game, either times by their form, one set being black, the other backward or forward. The kings in the Polish white or red, or one set having round, the other game have the privilege of passing over several flat tops. It is uncertain how the Egyptians play- squares at one time, and even over the whole ed the game, though from the position of some of length of the diagonal when no pieces obstrnct the pieces in the paintings it would seem that they the move. Polish draughts is sometimes played did not take backward, as is done in the Polish with 40 pieces on a board divided into 100 game of draughts. The modern Egyptians, who squares.-M. Mallet, a celebrated professor of use pieces similar to those used by their prede- mathematics, published a treatise on draughts cessors, play the game as it is generally played at Paris in 1668. Another teacher of mathein Europe and America. By the Greeks the in- matics, William Paine, published at London in vention of draughts, as well as of dice and many 1756 an“Introduction to the Game of Draughts." other things, was poetically ascribed to Pala- The best work on the subject is the “Guide to medes, one of the heroes of the expedition against the Game of Draughts," by Joshua Sturges Troy, 1193 B.O. Plato, however, attributes the '(London, 1800), of which an improved edition invention to the Egyptian Theuth. Homer, in the appeared in 1835, the whole of which, with ad1st book of the Odyssey, describing Minerva's ditions, is comprised in the "Handbook of arrival at the palace of Ulysses in Ithaca, says: Games” which forms one of the volumes of “ There she found the haughty suitors; some “Bohn's Scientific Library” (London, 1850). of them were amusing themselves before the DRAVE (Ger. Drau; Hung. Dráva; anc. gates with draughts, sitting upon the hides of Dravus), one of the principal tributaries of the oxen which they themselves had slain.” There Danube, rises from 2 sources situated in the E. is reason to believe, however, that the game portion of the Tyrol. In its upper part it is a mentioned by the Greek writers was a species of small and extremely rapid river, with craggy and backgammon.-In playing draughts, the board overhanging banks, but it becomes navigable at is placed with an upper white corner on the Villach, and flows with a slow current through right hand. Each player places liis pieces on a low and marshy country, through S. Styria, the 3 lines of squares nearest to him. 'In Eng- where it washes the walls of Marburg and Frieland the white squares are played upon; in dau, then along the S. border of Hungary, which Scotland and America the black squares are gen- it separates from Croatia and Slavonia, till it enerally selected. The game is begun by each ters the Danube 14 m. E. from Eszek, as a large player moving alternately one of his men along and powerful stream, after a course of 360 m. the diagonal on which they are first placed, one Its navigation above Völkermarkt is obstructsquare at a time to the right or the left. When 2 ed by various falls and cataracts. The most hostile pieces encounter each other, the one that important of its numerous affluents is the Mur, has the move may take the other, if there be a the largest river in Styria. Lienz in Tyrol, Vilvacant square of the color played upon behind it, lach, Pettau, Warasdin, and Eszek, are among

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the chief towns situated on its banks. One of the different sections are expressed by lines inthe most interesting uses of the Drave is that clined in opposite directions. In most archito which the Hungarian peasants put it, who tectural and mechanical constructions it would descend it on rafts of empty barrels after having be obviously impossible that they could be disposed of their wine in the mountains of drawn full size. Scales are therefore made use Carinthia.

of in which fractional parts represent wholes. DRAWING, the representation or delinea- The scale in most common use in architectural tion of objects, either as they appear to the eye, drawings is that of of an inch to the foot, or or as projected on assumed planes, or as desig- of the lineal dimensions; in mechanical drawpated by conventional signs having a certain ings, 1 or } full size, that is, as usually undersimilarity to the appearance of the objects them- stood, 1 or of the lineal dimensions. Beside selves. The painter, with free hand, draws or these scales, the divisions of one inch or foot sketches objects in their visible and natural are very pumerous, according to the purposes forms; the mechanical or architectural draughts. for which the drawing is designed. Working man projects, according to certain established drawings of machines, or those intended to be rules and principles, objects existing or design- used in construction, are generally laid off to as ed; while from the notes of the surveyor the large a scale as possible; they are inostly onttopographical draughtsman plots the surface of line drawings, consisting of lines to indicate the a field or locality, with its natural and artificial form of the object represented. The roundness, objects represented somewhat as they would fulness, or obliquity of the individual surfaces is appear projected on a transparent plane above not indicated by the lines, although it may be them, but with certain conventionalities to ex- generally inferred from the relation of the difpress more definitely certain features. Archi- ferent views of the same part. The direct sig. tectural and mechanical drawing is in general nificance of an outline drawing is often considthe delineation of objects by geometric or or- erably increased by strengthening those lines thographic projection. Since the surfaces of all which indicate the contours of surfaces resting bodies may be considered to be composed of in the shadow. That all parts may be shadepoints, the first step is to represent the position of lined according to one uniform rule, the light a point in space, by referring it to planes whose is supposed to fall upon the object obliquely at position is established. In general these planes an angle of 45°, that the horizontal and vertical are assumed at right angles to each other, and lines may be relieved equally. In general the the points projected upon them to make up the light is supposed to fall, as it were, from the drawings of the plan, ond and sido elevation. upper left hand corner of the paper diagonally, Let a brick be held flatwise in the corner of a and the same rule is followed in the more finrectangular box, with its sides parallel to the ished drawings where both shade and shadow various sides of the box; if now from the are introduced. As a means of avoiding the several corners of the brick perpendiculars be indefiniteness presented by mere outline, relet fall upon the adjacent sides, the points thus course is bad frequently to the mere shading of found will be the orthographic projections of the parts of a machine or edifice, usually done the corners; and if these points be connected with color and a brush. In architectural drawby corresponding lines, there will be outlines of ings, a complete picture is often attempted with the brick under 3 views or projections: upou all the appliances of shade and shadow, intended the bottom of the box a rectangle 8 by 4 inches, to show the artistic effect of the construction. being the plan of the brick; upon one side á Color is introduced not unfrequently in both rectangle 8 by 21 inches, the side elevation; mechanical and architectural drawings, to show on the other side a rectangle 4 by 24 inches, the the material of which the construction is comend elevation. If the brick be inclined to either posed; in these cases it is usual to imitate someor all of the sides of the box, the projected out- what the natural color of the substances—wood lines will be varied; but the same rule for de- with burnt sienna, brick with Indian red, termining the position of points obtains, viz.: by wrought iron with Prussian or indigo blue, cast letting fall perpendiculars 'on the planes to iron with a dark blue tint, shading off to a green. which they are referred. The orthographic pro- —Beside orthographic projection, architects, for jection of any object in outline is the shadow it the representation both of exterior and interior of would cast on a plane perpendicular to the edifices, frequently make use of perspective, and rays of the sun, if held between it and the mechanical draughtsmen, for the better undersun. Simple objects in general may be de- standing of the parts of a machine than by sepafined by 2 views, a plan and elevation; but rate plans and elevations, unite them by the rules often, to illustrate the construction of the inte- of isometrical drawing. The science of perspecrior, sections are necessary, that is, the ap- tive is the representation by geometrical rules, pearances that might be presented were the on a plane surface, of objects as they appear to objects cut by planes; all portions that would the eye from an assumed point of view. All the be thus absolutely cut, are designated by filling points of the surface of a body are visible by up the outline with a quantity of inclined par- means of luminous rays proceeding from these allel straight lines, at equal intervals from each points to the eye, forming a cone of mys. The other; should there be distinct parts in section, intersection of these rays by an intervening in contact with each other, to prevent confusion transparent plane is the perspective projection

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