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a dramatic composition called a Mystery, usually sic rivals in the rich coloring of their characfounded on passages of Scripture, was introduced ters; they drew men more like imperfect huand became a popular exhibition on saints' days. man beings and less like inspired statuary; and Subjects from the Bible, rudely treated in the if less noble in contour, they were more truly form of a dialogue between the holy person- flesh and blood. The Shakespearean characters ages

, were represented on a stage erected in the are constructed piecemeal out of the small imchurch or church yard, the priests and acolytes perfections and humors that make up human being the actors. These performances were nature; the Greek heroes are made of one piece, carried to an abuse, and they became so blas- one passion. The English dramatists of this age phemous a scandal that they were suppressed. gave originality at least to the form of the roThe next form of drama was the Morality, mantic drama, and, whatever its faults, it was bearing a relation to the mystery similar to that new. The French and Italian poets clung to between the new and old comedy of the Greeks. the Greek models; Corneille and Racine were The morality was aimed at abstract vice, its ac- but faint and poor imitators of Euripides; Alfi. tion was a fable, its characters typical. - In the eri affected the same ancient simplicity. As 15th and 16th centuries Histories began to be students of the Greek, their individual merit is written-long, rambling pieces of action with- great; but having had no share in the progress out form or object, but introducing rudely the of the drama, they have no prominent place in design of that romantic drama destined to so its history. The Italians and Spaniards at this wondrous a perfection under the minds of Shake- period contrived a species of performance, part speare and his colleagues. As the classic drama pantomime, part farce, part comedy of intrigue. was derived from the dithyramb, a pure poetic It was derived from those Italian narrators of germ, subsequently developed into action, the whom Boccaccio is the best type, and representromantic drama was derived from the pageanty ed dramatically those short and pithy tales in mask, or mummery, a pantomimic germ, subse- which Margaret of Navarre was wont to take quently developed into poetry. In the first the such delight. Lope de Vega was the first to inauaction is subservient to the passion ; in the sec- gurate this comedy of intrigue; it was quickly ond the passion is subservient to the action. imitated and greatly improved by the French, Thus we find Shakespeare borrows his plots who by admitting more Italian elements gave it from Boccaccio, and makes his passions fit un- variety and scope. Hardy, Rotrou, and Corneille, der these forms, where his characters rather en- Scarron and Quinault, prepared the public taste cumber than assist the intrigue. In the Eliza- for Molière, who truly founded and made the bethan age the romantic drama sprang at once second or middle age of comedy, as Shakespeare into existence; and as in the single life of Æs- and his colleagues made the first or old. Comchylus the classical or Greek drama passed edy at this time mainly occupied the stage. In from infancy to maturity, so Shakespeare and England the four great masters, Wycherly, Conhis colleagues raised the romantic or Gothic greve, Vanbrugh, and Farquhar, brought forth drama from rudeness to the highest perfection the prose drama. If inferior to Molière, they it has ever achieved. In the romantic drama 'were less tainted with that leaning toward Greek the unities of time, place, and action are not ob- classicality which has always retarded the true served. The poet is allowed unbridled license; progress of the drama in France. The most oriprose and poetry may be mingled without rule ginal of Molière's works is the Bourgeois genor reason, beyond the aptitude of each to the tilhomme, because in its form and treatment he moment and the character. In the Greek mind has exhibited more freedom from scholastic tramthe sense of form was very acute; we see it in mel. In the beginning of the 18th century the their architecture, sculpture, and poetry ; we sentimental drama, a mixture of comedy and have it in their social and political institutions. tragedy, a weak solution, obtained great popuThe Greek taste demanded grace of outline, pro- larity, but cannot be considered a forward moveportion of parts to the whole, and was so ex- ment in the art. In Germany this drama obtremely sensitive to this element in art, that tained great popularity under Kotzebue, and at we find it in all things Greek which remain the same time a wild, mythic, philosophical drato us. The Gothic mind is eminently defect- matic form of poem was created by Goethe and ive in this sense. The only ideas of form we Schiller. These poets have rather embellished have are derived from study of the ancient dramatic literature than added to the developmodels, and are not inherent in us. Reckless of ment or progress of the drama as an art. Lese form, therefore, Shakespeare depicted charac- sing, who preceded them, may be said to have ters and developed passions, flung them into founded the German drama, but he attempted groups, hurried them through the action, over the no reform. The next and last great step which possible and the impossible, and landed them on the drama has made, and one that has become a catastrophe not prepared by design, but which prominent in the present age, is the invention of suited his convenience. His works present a opera, or a drama in which music takes the place glorious intellectual anarchy in which he has had of poetry, and the dramatic action is subserno follower, for the reason that no mind of less vient to a new musical development. It is a power than his own could contend with the mistake to presume that an opera is a musical confusion he so marvellously controls. T ma The musical form of an opera and its romantic dramatists greatly excelled their clas- dramatic treatment are essentially different from


the form and treatment of a drama based on the same fable. There is also in the form of the music, apart from the libretto, a plan and proportion to which the drama must be subservient.-Among the various minor forms of the modern drama are melodrama, farce, vaudeville, and pantomime. Melodrama owes its invention to the laws which restricted the performance of tragedies and comedies to certain privileged theatres. Booths were erected in which were performed serious pantomimes, or dramas with out words, accompanied throughout with expressive music. By degrees the actors ventured a few extempore phrases or jests. This license was gradually extended, until dialogue was regularly introduced, and the music was only used to accompany the movement of the actors. Melodrama is now understood to be a drama wherein the passion and development of character are subservient to the action and plot; whereas tragedy is a drama where the action and plot are subservient to the passion and development of character. Farce is a humorous piece of buffoonery, in which probability may be outraged both in the incidents and character, and stands in relation to comedy as melodrama does to tragedy. Vaudeville is an invention of the French stage. Schlegel states that "vaudeville is only a variation of comic opera;" but it is essentially a different thing, and was in no manner derived from it, nor has it ever been connected with it. It has its name from vau de Vire, which was originally a satirical song containing a keen, witty thought, and applicable to some popular person or event. It was a lyric epigram invented in that part of Normandy called Vire, and carried thence to Paris, where these musical satires became the vogue. Presently the writers of small comedies threw their keenest epigrams into verse, by which they gave them more point and drew to them more attention; these verses might be sung to any air that would happily suit them, and were called vaudevilles. The comic pieces through which they were scattered eventually received the name. When the work is but slightly speckled with these musical epigrams, it is distinguished as a comédie vaudeville, or a drame vaudeville. Pantomime is a drama without language, composed of gesture accompanied with music. It is probably the most ancient form of drama, and has changed less in its essential form than any other. The most perfect and most elegant kind of pantomime is the ballet, where graceful dances are interspersed amid the pantomimic action.-No work of the mind possesses such charms for the author as the drama; the combination of poetry, music, oratory, sculpture, and painting, represents an army of muses which almost every literary aspirant desires to command; but few are found adequate to the task. The first difficulty consists in the selection of a subject fit for dramatic treatment. Many fables read well, that lose the appearance of life when deprived of the peculiar charms of narrative, and given in dialogue. In the dramatist's VOL. VI.-39



language, "they will not act." Having secured a fit theme, it should be examined to see if it be agreeable. Thus in tragic subjects horror should be distinguished from terror. Horror has in it something repulsive; it has the ingredients of disgust to distinguish it from terror, which possesses a charm most attractive, having the ingredient of pity mingled in its sentiment. Provided with an appropriate subject, the dramatist must proceed to select a good beginning. If in his first act he has to employ his characters in long explanations of that part of his story which precedes the rising of the curtain, then has he made a beginning in the middle, as it were, and his drama is taking place off the stage, instead of upon it; for the mind of the auditor is fixed upon a scene described, and the action of the play ceases to give place to narrative; if he can find no means of avoiding these explanations, then he must consider that his subject is not susceptible of a good dramatic form. Having begun well, the action must never pause, and it must be continuous, for in this continuity is the secret of interest; it betrays an object which, though kept out of sight, is palpably ahead. As the plot proceeds, it should embrace nothing but what is essential to its support; whatever may be the beauty of an episode, it is a distraction, and has always more charms for the author than the auditor. Shakespeare triumphed over this fault so often that he has done great damage to the English dramatist by his example. At a certain proportionate distance from the end of the work comes the climax or catastrophe, toward which achievement all the action conspires. This event generally occupies the latter half of the 4th act in a 5 act play. The 5th is used to bring the fable in all its parts to a simple and clear conclusion, leaving a sense of completeness in the mind, where nothing remains to be desired or told.-A further account of the dramatic literature of each nation will be found under the titles of the respective countries. See also ÆSCHYLUS, ALFIERI, CALDERON DE LA BARCA, CORNEILLE, GOETHE, GOLDONI, Lessing, LOPE DE VEGA, MOLIÈRE, RACINE, SCHILLER, and SHAKESPEARE.

DRAMMEN, a commercial town of Norway, situated on the southern coast, in the province of Aggershuus, 20 m. S. W. from Christiania; pop. in 1855, 9,916. It lies on both sides of the river Drammen, and is composed of 3 small villages, separated from each other by natural limits. The commerce of which Drammen is the centre gives it the third rank among the cities of Norway, but in respect to its timber trade it stands first. It manufactures tobacco, earthenware, sail cloth, rope, carriages, leather, &c.; and beside timber, which is exported chiefly to Great Britain, France, and Holland, has a commerce in iron ware and agricultural produce. About 40,000 tons of shipping are annually employed in its port. It suffered considerably in 1850 and 1857 from conflagrations.

DRAPER, JOHN WILLIAM, an American chemist and physiologist, born near Liverpool,

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England, May 5, 1811. He received his early sophical Journal” between the years 1837 and education at the Wesleyan Methodist school at 1857 about 40 treatises, principally on topics Woodhouse Grove, an institution for the sons previously little understood. He is the author of clergymen of that denomination, of which his of many literary works, reviews, &c., but for father was one. Having here acquired the ru- the most part published anonymonsly; of a diments of knowledge, his maturer education “ Treatise on the Forces which produce the was intrusted to private instructors; and while Organization of Plants” (4to., New York, 1844); thus employed, he devoted much attention to of a popular "Text Book on Chemistry" (12mo. chemistry and natural philosophy, a partiality New York, 1846), and another on" Natural for which he imbibed from his father, who Philosphy" (8vo., New York, 1847), wbich made these pursuits a relaxation from his cleri- consist of excerpts from his courses of lectures. cal duties. The higher mathematics were also His last and most elaborate work is a treatise on a part of his early training, and his writings “Human Physiology, Statical and Dynamical; denote their successful cultivation. He subse- or the Conditions and Course of the Life of Man quently went to the university of London, where (8vo., New York, 1856, and a new edition, 1858). he had the opportunity of prosecnting his chem- DRAPER, SIR WILLIAM, an English officer, ical studies under the late Dr. Turner. Some born in Bristol in 1721, died in Bath, Jan. 8, of Dr. Draper's ancestors had been attracted to 1787. He was educated at Eton and CamAmerica before the revolution, and a greater bridge, entered the army, won distinction in part of his family connections followed at later the East Indies, obtained a colonelcy in 1760, periods, and in 1833 he came over to join them. acted as brigadier at the capture of Belle Isle He then continued his chemical and medical in 1761, and led the land forces at the taking studies at the university of Pennsylvania, where of Manila in 1763. The Spaniards ransomed he took the degree of M.D. in 1836, and with the latter place by the promise of £1,000,000, the rare distinction that his thesis was an. which was never paid, and Sir William correnounced at commencement as having been se- sponded long but unprofitably on the subject lected for publication by the medical faculty. with his own and the Spanish governments. For A few weeks after, he received the appointment his services, however, he was made knight of the of professor of chemistry, natural philosophy, bath. When the first of the “Junius" letters and physiology in Hampden-Sidney college, appeared in Jan. 1769, he came forward under Virginia, in which institution he remained until his own name in defence of his friend the mar1839. During his residence there his time was quis of Granby. Junius replied with marvellous occupied in original chemical and physiological skill and sharpness; two more letters passed investigations, many of the latter appearing in on each side, and Sir William then retired from the “ American Journal of Medical Sciences.” a contest which had endangered his good name, From Hampden-Sidney college Dr. Draper was damaged the cause of his friend, and heightened called to the chair of chemistry and natural his opponent's reputation. Six months afterhistory in the academic department of the uni- ward, when he saw these letters republished, he versity of the city of New York, where, beside appeared twice again in print to complain of their instruction in those branches, he has delivered injustice, and was again worsted by his anonylectures to the advanced undergraduates upon mous antagonist. During the same year he visitphysiology. In 1841 he was appointed profes- ed America, where he was married to Miss De sor of chemistry in the university medical col- Lancey of New York. 'In 1779 he was appointlege, which forms the medical department of ed lientenant-governor of Minorca, and on the the city university, having coöperated with 5 surrender of that island brought 29 charges others (Drs. Valentine Mott, Granville S. Pat- against the governor, Murray, for all but 2 of tison, John W. Revere, Gunning S. Bedford, and which he was obliged to offer an apology. Martyn Paine, who were simultaneously elected DRAUGHTS, a game played by 2 persons, professors) in establishing that very flourishing on a checkered board like the chess-board, school of medicine; and in 1850 physiology was with 12 or 20 pieces on each side, which cap. added to the chair of chemistry. These rela- ture each other by angular movements governed tions to the academic and medical departments by certain rules, until the game ends by one of the university have been continued without player losing all his pieces, or by both players interruption to the present time; and it is also getting their pieces into positions from which worthy of remark, as illustrating his industry, they cannot be taken. In America the game is that he has acted throughout as the medical commonly called checkers. In France it is known faculty's secretary, and since 1850 as their pre- as le jeu de dames, in Italy as dama, in Germany siding officer. As an instructor, Dr. Draper as Damen; all which terms are commonly supstands in the very first rank, and to his rich posed to have their origin in some fancied adapvariety of attainments unites all the important tation of the game as a pastime for women. elements of a public speaker. Although his But as it has been played in Egypt for more researches have been mostly experimental, in- than 4,000 years, and made its appearance in volving therefore great labor and cost, he has Europe only 3 or 4 centuries ago when there written voluminously and with high reputation. was much intercourse between southern Europe Beside contributions to various other scientific and Alexandria and other Egyptian ports, bejournals, he furnished to the “Edinburgh Philo- fore the passage to India round the cape of Good


Hope replaced that through the isthmus of Suez, it is probable that the Egyptian-Arabic name of the game, dameh, is the source of its appellations in French, Italian, and German. In Polish, the game has, beside that of dama, a foreign designation, arcaby or warcaby, supposed to be of oriental origin. In Spanish, the word ajedrez, applied to both chess and draughts, is also of eastern derivation, and appears to be nearly equivalent to the American term checkers.-The origin of the game is uncertain. It is supposed to have preceded chess, and is certainly of very high antiquity, for in Egypt, as appears from the monumental paintings, it was a common amusement in the reigns of the Osirtasens, 2000 B. C. It was played as now with pieces, all of which on the same board were alike in size and form, though on different boards they varied in shape, some being small, others large and rounded at the top or carved into human heads. The kind used by King Rhamses, 1311 B. C., who is represented on the walls of his palace at Thebes playing at draughts with the ladies of his household, resembled small ninepins, and seem to have been about 1 inches high, standing on a circular base of half an inch in diameter. Some have been found of ivory, 14 inches high and 1 in diameter, with a small knob at the top. The opposite sets of pieces were distinguished sometimes by their color and sometimes by their form, one set being black, the other white or red, or one set having round, the other flat tops. It is uncertain how the Egyptians played the game, though from the position of some of the pieces in the paintings it would seem that they did not take backward, as is done in the Polish game of draughts. The modern Egyptians, who use pieces similar to those used by their predecessors, play the game as it is generally played in Europe and America. By the Greeks the invention of draughts, as well as of dice and many other things, was poetically ascribed to Palamedes, one of the heroes of the expedition against Troy, 1193 B. C. Plato, however, attributes the invention to the Egyptian Theuth. Homer, in the 1st book of the Odyssey, describing Minerva's arrival at the palace of Ulysses in Ithaca, says: "There she found the haughty suitors; some of them were amusing themselves before the gates with draughts, sitting upon the hides of oxen which they themselves had slain." There is reason to believe, however, that the game mentioned by the Greek writers was a species of backgammon.-In playing draughts, the board is placed with an upper white corner on the right hand. Each player places his pieces on the 3 lines of squares nearest to him. In England the white squares are played upon; in Scotland and America the black squares are generally selected. The game is begun by each player moving alternately one of his men along the diagonal on which they are first placed, one square at a time to the right or the left. When 2 hostile pieces encounter each other, the one that has the move may take the other, if there be a vacant square of the color played upon behind it,



by leaping over the other into that square. The piece leaped over is removed from the board. If several pieces on forward diagonals should be exposed by having alternate open squares behind them, they may all be taken at once, and the taking piece placed on the square behind the last piece captured. When a piece has reached one of the 4 squares of the extreme opposite row, it becomes a king, and is crowned by placing one of the captured pieces upon it. Kings can move backward as well as forward, though only one square at a time. The principal laws of the game are these: if a piece is touched, it must be moved, if a move be possible; the player who has the move must take a piece which is exposed to capture; if he neglects to take it, his adversary may remove from the board the piece with which the capture should have been made; but a player has no right to decline to take under any circumstances. The first move of each game is to be taken by the players in turn; if lots are drawn for the move, he who gains the choice may move first or require his adversary to move. In Polish draughts, a variety of the game played not only in Poland, but in other parts of the continent of Europe, and sometimes in England and America, the pieces are moved forward as in the English form of the game, but in taking they move like the kings of the English game, either backward or forward. The kings in the Polish game have the privilege of passing over several squares at one time, and even over the whole length of the diagonal when no pieces obstruct the move. Polish draughts is sometimes played with 40 pieces on a board divided into 100 squares.-M. Mallet, a celebrated professor of mathematics, published a treatise on draughts at Paris in 1668. Another teacher of mathematics, William Paine, published at London in 1756 an "Introduction to the Game of Draughts." The best work on the subject is the "Guide to the Game of Draughts," by Joshua Sturges (London, 1800), of which an improved edition appeared in 1835, the whole of which, with additions, is comprised in the "Handbook of Games" which forms one of the volumes of "Bohn's Scientific Library" (London, 1850).

DRAVE (Ger. Drau; Hung. Dráva; anc. Dravus), one of the principal tributaries of the Danube, rises from 2 sources situated in the E. portion of the Tyrol. In its upper part it is a small and extremely rapid river, with craggy and overhanging banks, but it becomes navigable at Villach, and flows with a slow current through a low and marshy country, through S. Styria, where it washes the walls of Marburg and Friedau, then along the S. border of Hungary, which it separates from Croatia and Slavonia, till it enters the Danube 14 m. E. from Eszek, as a large and powerful stream, after a course of 360 m. Its navigation above Völkermarkt is obstructed by various falls and cataracts. The most important of its numerous affluents is the Mur, the largest river in Styria. Lienz in Tyrol, Villach, Pettau, Warasdin, and Eszek, are among

the chief towns situated on its banks. One of the most interesting uses of the Drave is that to which the Hungarian peasants put it, who descend it on rafts of empty barrels after having disposed of their wine in the mountains of Carinthia.

DRAWING, the representation or delineation of objects, either as they appear to the eye, or as projected on assumed planes, or as designated by conventional signs having a certain similarity to the appearance of the objects themselves. The painter, with free hand, draws or sketches objects in their visible and natural forms; the mechanical or architectural draughts man projects, according to certain established rules and principles, objects existing or designed; while from the notes of the surveyor the topographical draughtsman plots the surface of a field or locality, with its natural and artificial objects represented somewhat as they would appear projected on a transparent plane above them, but with certain conventionalities to express more definitely certain features. Architectural and mechanical drawing is in general the delineation of objects by geometric or orthographic projection. Since the surfaces of all bodies may be considered to be composed of points, the first step is to represent the position of a point in space, by referring it to planes whose position is established. In general these planes are assumed at right angles to each other, and the points projected upon them to make up the drawings of the plan, end and side elevation. Let a brick be held flatwise in the corner of a rectangular box, with its sides parallel to the various sides of the box; if now from the several corners of the brick perpendiculars be let fall upon the adjacent sides, the points thus found will be the orthographic projections of the corners; and if these points be connected by corresponding lines, there will be outlines of the brick under 3 views or projections: upon the bottom of the box a rectangle by 4 inches, being the plan of the brick; upon one side a rectangle 8 by 24 inches, the side elevation; on the other side a rectangle 4 by 24 inches, the end elevation. If the brick be inclined to either or all of the sides of the box, the projected outlines will be varied; but the same rule for determining the position of points obtains, viz.: by letting fall perpendiculars on the planes to which they are referred. The orthographic projection of any object in outline is the shadow it would cast on a plane perpendicular to the rays of the sun, if held between it and the sun. Simple objects in general may be defined by 2 views, a plan and elevation; but often, to illustrate the construction of the interior, sections are necessary, that is, the appearances that might be presented were the objects cut by planes; all portions that would be thus absolutely cut, are designated by filling up the outline with a quantity of inclined parallel straight lines, at equal intervals from each other; should there be distinct parts in section, in contact with each other, to prevent confusion

the different sections are expressed by lines inclined in opposite directions. In most architectural and mechanical constructions it would be obviously impossible that they could be drawn full size. Scales are therefore made use

in which Fractional parts represent wholes. The scale in most common use in architectural drawings is that of of an inch to the foot, or

of the lineal dimensions; in mechanical drawings, or full size, that is, as usually understood, or of the lineal dimensions. Beside these scales, the divisions of one inch or foot are very numerous, according to the purposes for which the drawing is designed. Working drawings of machines, or those intended to be used in construction, are generally laid off to as large a scale as possible; they are mostly outline drawings, consisting of lines to indicate the form of the object represented. The roundness, fulness, or obliquity of the individual surfaces is not indicated by the lines, although it may be generally inferred from the relation of the different views of the same part. The direct significance of an outline drawing is often considerably increased by strengthening those lines which indicate the contours of surfaces resting in the shadow. That all parts may be shadelined according to one uniform rule, the light is supposed to fall upon the object obliquely at an angle of 45°, that the horizontal and vertical lines may be relieved equally. In general the light is supposed to fall, as it were, from the upper left hand corner of the paper diagonally, and the same rule is followed in the more finished drawings where both shade and shadow are introduced. As a means of avoiding the indefiniteness presented by mere outline, recourse is had frequently to the mere shading of the parts of a machine or edifice, usually done with color and a brush. In architectural drawings, a complete picture is often attempted with all the appliances of shade and shadow, intended to show the artistic effect of the construction. Color is introduced not unfrequently in both mechanical and architectural drawings, to show the material of which the construction is composed; in these cases it is usual to imitate somewhat the natural color of the substances-wood with burnt sienna, brick with Indian red, wrought iron with Prussian or indigo blue, cast iron with a dark blue tint, shading off to a green. -Beside orthographic projection, architects, for the representation both of exterior and interior of edifices, frequently make use of perspective, and mechanical draughtsmen, for the better understanding of the parts of a machine than by sepa rate plans and elevations, unite them by the rules of isometrical drawing. The science of perspective is the representation by geometrical rules, on a plane surface, of objects as they appear to the eye from an assumed point of view. All the points of the surface of a body are visible by means of luminous rays proceeding from these points to the eye, forming a cone of rays. The intersection of these rays by an intervening transparent plane is the perspective projection

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