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of these points, the rules for the projection of ern, a horse shoe for a smithy, a church with a which mechanically are simple and well estab- cross or steeple, &c. The localities of mines are lished. The supposed transparent plane is called represented by the signs of the planets which the plane of projection or plane of the picture. were anciently associated with various metals, The horizon of the picture is the horizontal line and a black circle or dot for coal. Hills are resulting from the intersection of the plane of represented by 2 methods, the vertical and the the picture by a horizontal plane passing through horizontal. În the first the strokes of the pen the eye. Point of view or point of sight is the follow the course the water would take in runpoint where the eye is supposed to be placed. ning down the slopes, the strokes being made Vanishing points are points in a picture to which heavier the steeper the inclination; and systems all lines converge that are in the object parallel have been proposed and used by which the into each other. An object is said to be in paral- clination is defined by the comparative thicklel perspective when one of its sides is parallel ness of the line and the intervening spaces. In to the plane of the picture—in angular per- the system proposed for the U. 8. coast surspective when none of its sides are so. Isomet- vey, slopes of 750 are represented by a proporrical drawing implies that the measures of the tion of black to white of 9 to 2, and so down representations of the lines forming the sides by 9 grades to a slope of 23°, in which the proof each face are equal. The principle of iso- portion is 1 black to 10 white. By the horizonmetrical projection consists in selecting for the tal method, or by contours, hills are represented plane of the projection one equally inclined to by horizontal lines traced round them, such as 3 principal axes at right angles to each other, would be shown on the ground by water rising so that all straight lines coincident or parallel by equal vertical stages. The choice of a scale to these axes are drawn in projection to the for a plot depends in a great measure on the same scale. To draw a cube in isometrical pro- purpose for which the plan is intended. Plans jection, with a radius equal to one side of the of house lots are usually named as being so cube, describe a circle, inscribe a regular hexa- many feet to the inch, plots of surveys so many gon, and connect alternate angles by lines to the chains to the incb, maps or surveys of states centre; the hexagon will be divided into 4 qua- so many miles to the inch, and maps of raildrilaterals, each of which will represent a face way surveys as so many feet to the inch, or so of the cube; all the lines will be equal, and many inches to the mile. In the U. S. coast equal to the side of the cube. On these lines survey all the scales are expressed fractionally can be set off distances as in orthographic pro- and decimally. The scales of small harbor charts jection, but only upon these lines, or those vary from 1:5,000 to 1: 60,000; that of charts parallel thereto. Curved or inclined lines are of bays and sounds is usually 1 to 80,000, of gentherefore to be established by reference to these eral coast charts 1 to 400,000. In the U. S. lines, and not by direct measure of the lines them- engineer service the following scales are preselves. Isometrical drawing is especially valu- scribed : general plans of building, 1 : 120 ; able to the mechanical draughtsman, embrac- maps of ground with horizontal curves, 1 : 600; ing as it does the applicability of a scale with topograbical maps comprising 1} miles square, pictorial representation. In drawings for the 1 m. to 2 ft., or 1 : 2,640; 3 miles square, 1 : 5,patent office it is of very general application.- 280; between 4 and 8 miles, 1: 10,560; 9 miles Topographical drawing is the delineation of the square, 1: 15,840; not exceeding 24 miles square, surface of a locality, with the natural and arti- 1:31,680; 50 miles square, 1:63,360 ; 100 miles ficial objects, as houses, roads, rivers, hills, &c., square, 1: 126,720; surveys of roads and canals, upon it, in their relative dimensions and posi- 1: 600. In the plotting of sections, as of rail. tions; giving as it were in miniature a copy way cuttings, a horizontal or base line is drawn, of the field, farm, district, &c., as it would be on which are laid off the stations or distances seen by the eye moving over it. Many of the at which levels have been taken ; at these points objects thus to be represented can be defined by perpendiculars or ordinates are erected, and upon regular and mathematical lines, but many other them are marked the heights of ground above objects, from their irregularity of outline and base, and the marks are joined by straight their insignificance in extent, would be very lines. To express rock in a cut, it is generally difficult to distinguish. Certain signs have there- represented by parallel inclined lines; rivers by fore been adopted into general use among horizontal lines, or better colored in blue; the draughtsmen, some of which resemble in some depth of sounding in a mud bottom by a mass degree the objects for which they stand, while of dots. Since it would be in general impossiothers are purely conventional. Sand is repre- ble to express the variations of the surface of sented by fine dots, gravel by coarser dots; mea- the ground in the same scale as that adopted for dow or grass line is represented by tufts of little the plan, it is usual to make the vertical scale perpendicular lines; trees, although not conso- larger than that of the horizontal lines in the pronant with the other parts of the plan, are repre- portion of 10 or 20 to 1.–Topographical features sented often in elevation, at other times by clumps are represented as effectively by the brush and of foliage in plan, sometimes distinctive in their watercolors as by the pen. Colors are used foliage; dwellings and edifices usually in plan conventionally. Thus in the practice of the Inade distinctive by some small prefix, as a pair French military engineers, woods are repreof scales for a court house, a sign post for a tav- sented by yellow, gamboge with a very little
indigo; grass land green, gamboge and indigo; by Sir E. Brydges (Kent, 1814). The last is cultivated land brown, lake, gamboge, and a one of his most admirable productions. His little India ink or burnt sienna; adjoining fields. historical poems are dignified, full of fine deare slightly varied in tint; gardens, by patches scriptions, and rich in true poetic spirit, and his of green and brown; uncultivated land, marbled “Poly-olbion” is moreover so accurate as to be green and light brown; brush, brambles, &c., quoted as authority by antiquaries. Notes to marbled green and yellow; vineyards, purple; the first portion of it were written by Selden. sands, a light brown; lakes and rivers, a light He was buried in Westminster abbey, where a blue; seas, a dark blue, with a little yellow monument was erected to his memory. An edi. added; roads, brown; hills, greenish brown. In tion of his works, with a historical essay on bis addition to the conventional colors, a sort of life and writings, was published in 1752-'3 (4 imitation of the conventional signs already ex- vols. 8vo., London). plained is introduced with the brush, and shad- DRAYTON, WILLIAM, LL.D., an American ows are almost invariably introduced. Topo- judge, born in the province of South Carolina graphical drawings receive the light, the same in 1733, died in June, 1790. He was educated as architectural and mechanical drawings, from for the bar in the Middle Temple, London, where the upper left hand corner. Hills are shaded, he studied 4 years. He returned to America in not as they would appear in nature, but on the 1754, and was appointed chief justice in the conventional system of making the slopes darker province of East Florida in 1768. During the in proportion to their steepness, the summit of war of the revolution he was suspended from the highest ranges being left white. Topo- his office and reinstated in it, and went with his graphical drawings embrace but a small portion family for a time to England. After the peace of surface, and are therefore plotted directly he became successively judge of the admiralty from measures ; but in geographical maps, em- court of South Carolina, associate justice of the bracing at times a great extent of country, va- state, and a judge under the federal government. rious projections are made use of to express as DRAYTON, William, an American polinearly as possible a spherical surface upon a tician, a native of South Carolina, died in Philaplane. These species of projection are gener delphia, May 24, 1846. Though a federalist in ally included under the head of mapping, and 1812, he held a commission in the army after belong to the province of geography.
the declaration of war. He was a representative DRAYTON, MICHAEL, an English poet, born in congress from South Carolina from 1825 to in Hartshill, or Harshull, in the parish of Ather- 1833, and in 1830 was a leader of the union ston, Warwickshire, in 1563, died in 1631. His party in opposition to that of nullification. He life is involved in obscurity. It is said that resided in Philadelphia many years prior to his he was the son of a butcher, was a page to a death, and in 1839 succeeded Nicholas Biddle person of rank, was maintained for some time as president of the U. S. bank, the affairs of at Oxford by Sir Henry Goodere, held a commis- which he found it impossible to retrieve. sion in the army, and witnessed the defeat of DRAYTON, WILLIAM HENRY, an American the Spanish armada; but none of these state- statesman of the period of the revolution, born ments are well supported. In 1626 he was poet at Drayton hall, on Ashley river, S.C., in Sept. laureate. He found patrons in Sir Walter Aston 1742, died in Philadelphia in Sept. 1799. He beand the earl of Dorset, but he never became longed to an influential family of South Carolina, wealthy or powerful, though respected for his and was educated in England at Westminster virtues and talent. It is not easy to discover the school, and at Baliol college, Oxford. Returnorder of his various poems, some of which were ing to America in 1764, he became an active published without date. The best known is bis writer on political affairs. In 1769 he published "Poly-olbion," a descriptive poem on England, letters on the side of the government, which her legends, antiquities, and productions, thé brought him into controversy with Christofirst 18 books of which were published in 1613, pher Gadsden and other patriotic leaders. In and the whole 30 in 1622. Among his other 1771, after revisiting England, he was appointed works are “ Harmony of the Church, contain: privy councillor for the province of South Caroing the spiritual Songs and holy Hymns of lina; but as the revolutionary crisis approached godly Men, Patriarchs, and Prophets” (4to., he espoused the popular cause, and protested 1591, only one copy of which edition is known against the proceedings of his colleagues. In to exist; and 8vo., London, 1843, edited by 1774 he was appointed judge of the province, Dyce); “Idea, the Shepherd's Garland, and Ro- and when the continental congress was about to land's Sacrifice to the Nine Muses” (4to., 1593), sit he published a pamphlet under the signature the second of which was reissued under the of "A Freeman," which substantially marked title of “Pastorals;' “Mortimeriados" (4to., out the line of conduct pursued by the congress. 1596), reprinted under the title of the "Barons' Suspended from his offices under the crown, he
England's Heroical Epistles” (8vo., was made a member of the popular committee 1598); the “ Legend of Great Cromwell” (4to. of safety, and was prominent in advising the 1607);
“ Battle of Agincourt” (folio, 1627); seizure of the provincial arsenals and British “Muses' Elysium" (4to., 1630); numerous le- mails. In 1775 he was president of the progends, sonnets, &c., mostly printed in collections; vincial congress, and in 1776 was elected chief and "Nymphidia, the Court of Fairy,” edited justice of South Carolina. He soon after de.
livered an energetic charge to the grand jury on the sleep, however, be partial and disturbed, the question of independence, which was pub- these results do not follow, but the waking lished throughout the colonies and had great state is accompanied by a sense of lassitude influence. He had produced several other po- and fatigue. It is in this latter condition that litical charges and pamphlets, when in 1778 he dreams take place, and hence Dugald Stewart was elected a delegate to the continental con- has properly defined dreaming to be that congress, of which he was a prominent member till dition of sleep in which we have nearly or his death. He left a minute narrative of the quite lost all volition over the bodily organs, preliminary and current events of the revolu- but in which those mental powers necessary tion, which was prepared for the press and pub- for volition retain a partial degree of activity. lished by his son, Gov. John Drayton (2 vols. M. Perquin observed in the hospital of Mont8vo., Charleston, 1821).
pellier in 1821 a case which throws considDREAM, the series of thoughts which occu- erable light upon the actual condition of the py the mind during sleep. The whole animal brain in profound sleep, and in that in which kingdom is characterized in its sensuous rela- dreams occur. A female aged 26 had lost a tions with the external world by two distinct, portion of her scalp, skull bone, and dura maand, so far as the organs involving these rela- ter, under an attack of malignant disease, by tions are concerned, opposite conditions, the one means of which a portion of the brain was erof wakefulness, and the other of sleep. Within posed in such a manner as admitted of inspeccertain limits this alternation of action and re- tion. When this patient was in a dreamless pose presents itself as a general law of animal state, or in profound sleep, her brain was moorganization, more or less varied, according to tionless, and lay within the cranium. When the simpleness or complexity of the functions the sleep was imperfect, and the mind was agiinvolved; and hence it is found that the quantity tated by dreams, her brain moved and protrudand regularity of sleep bear a close relation to ed from the cranium, forming a cerebral her. the degree of development of animal life. To nia. This protrusion was still greater whenever those vertebrata in which the muscular and the dreams, as reported by herself, were most nervous tissues exist in their most complete con- active, and when she was perfectly awake, esditions, sleep is much more important than to pecially if engaged in active or sprightly conthose types of organicexistence which, while en- versation, it attained its fullest development; dowed with some of the functions of animal or- nor did this protrusion occur in jerks, alternatganization, are for the most part devoted to the ing with recessions, as if caused by arterial simple process of assimilation. Indeed, a point blood, but remained permanent while the conis at last reached where no evidence of the phe versation continued. It is clearly shown by this nomenon of sleep is presented. In man, in case, so far as the appearance of the brain is conwhom the voluntary and involuntary functions cerned, that during profound sleep the active exist in their most complete development, and state of the mental faculty ceases, but that, in that in whom their operations are complicated by the condition in which dreams occur, some of the addition of those of the intellect, the periods of mental powers are sufficiently active to excite a waking and repose are most fully marked, and motion in the cerebral organs, less in degree than their presence most important to the welfare of in a state of full wakefulness, but more than in the individual. In sleep, the organs of sense, a condition of profound sleep. Though the the power of voluntary motion, and the active power of volition does not seem to be altogether powers of the mind suspend in a great degree absent in sleep, the will appears to lose its intheir operation, in order to collect by rest new fluence over those faculties of the mind and strength. The approach of sleep is announced members of the body which during our waking by diminished activity of mind and loss of the hours are subject to its authority. Hence it power of attention. The senses become blunted may be inferred that all our mental operations to external impressions, and we feel an uncon- which are independent of the will continue durquerable desire for stillness and repose. Our ing sleep. The senses may be considered as the ideas grow confused, our sensations obscure, media by means of which the spirit within is our sight fails, hearing grows dull and uncer- brought in contact with the external world, and tain, the eyelids close, the joints relax, and the comes to have a knowledge of actual existence. body instinctively assumes an easy position. Although the predisposing causes of dreams may The vital activity, however, is in full vigor; the be diverse, yet they are generally referable to functions of the heart and the lungs, breathing some peculiar condition of the body, and are and the circulation of the blood, continue, but often called into action through the agency of are more calm and equable than during the the external senses. Dr. Gregory relates that, waking season; the nutrition of the system, the having occasion to apply a bottle of hot water to secretion and absorption of the juices, are also his feet upon retiring for the night, he dreamed carried on undisturbedly and perfectly. Hence that he was making a journey to Mount Etna, sleep is not really a state of total inactivity, and and found the heat insufferable. Dr. Reid, hav, only bears a very partial resemblance to death. ing had a blister applied to his head, dreamed A person awaking from profound sleep finds that he was scalped by a party of Indians. M. himself refreshed, and his bodily and intellect- Giron de Buzereingues made a series of experiual functions restored to their usual vigor. If ments to test how far he could determine his dreams at will by operating upon the mind and the crocodile trembled. I was buried for through the medium of the senses. With this 1,000 years in stone coffins with mummies and view he left his knees uncovered on falling sphinxes, in narrow chambers at the heart of asleep, and dreamed that he was travelling at eternal pyramids. I was kissed with cancerous night in a diligence with a vivid impression of kisses by crocodiles, and lay confounded with uncold knees produced by the rigor of the weather. utterable slimy things among reeds and Nilotie Waller relates the case of a gentleman who was mud.” In these hallucinations it will be observed ever after a victim to terror on account of & how completely all ordinary ideas of time and dream, which he could never look upon except space are annihilated. Indeed, De Quincey, in . as a real occurrence. He was lying in bed, and noticing
this curious psychological phenomenon, as he imagined quite awake, when he felt the says: "The sense of space, and in the end the distinct impression of a hand placed upon his sense of time, were both powerfully affected. shoulder, which produced such a state of alarm Buildings, landscapes, &c., were exhibited in prothat he durst not move in bed. The shoulder portions so vast as the bodily eye is not fitted to which had experienced the impression had been receive. Space swelled and was amplified to an uncovered, and the cold to which it was exposed extent of unutterable infinity. This, however, produced the sensation. Persons in whom one did not disturb me so much as the expansion of of the senses is defective frequently have their time. I sometimes seemed to have lived for dreams modified by this circumstance. Darwin 70 or 100 years in a single night." Nor does relates the case of a deaf gentleman who in his it require the aid of a narcotic as powerful as dreams always appeared to converse by means opium, or indeed any thing beyond what ordiof the fingers or in writing. He never had the narily occurs in a state of dreaming, to create impression of hearing speech, and for the same ideas of time and space apparently as incongrureason one who has been blind from his birth ous as those parrated by the opium eater. The never dreams of visible objects. Sensations pro- sleeper who is suddenly awakened by a loud duced by the condition of the digestive apparatus rap does not begin and terminate his dream have a very marked influence on the phenom- with this simple occurrence, but experiences a ena of dreams. When the functions of the long train of events requiring hours and even digestive organs are properly performed, the days for their fulfilment, and which are all evidreams, if affected at all from this cause, are dently occasioned by the sound which awakens pleasant in their character; if however there ex- bim, and concentrated within the brief space ists any disturbance in this part of the system, of time it occupies. A person who was sudthe dreams are apt to assume a painful charac- denly aroused from sleep by a few drops of ter, usually proportioned in intensity to the water sprinkled in his face, dreamed of the amount of disturbance of the alimentary canal. events of an entire life in which happiness and To this class of sensations may be referred those sorrow were mingled, and which finally termidreams produced by the use of opium and in- nated with an altercation upon the borders of an toxicating drinks, which in part at least act by extensive lake, into which his exasperated com. the impression made upon the digestive organs. panion, after a considerable struggle, succeeded Dreams induced by this latter cause are remark- in plunging him. It is evident that the associaable for the extravagance of the phantasmago- tion of ideas in this case which produced the ria they exhibit, frequently presenting shapes of lake, the altercation, and the sudden plunge, the most fugitive and fanciful character. The was occasioned by the water sprinkled upon the dreamer often seems endowed with such elasti- face, and the presumption is probable that the city that it appears as if he could easily mount whole machinery of an entire life was due to to and float upon the clouds above him. De the same cause. Dr. Abercrombie relates & Quincey, in the “Confessions of an Opium Eat- similar case of a gentleman who dreamed that er," has portrayed in the most vivid manner he had enlisted as a soldier, joined his regiment, the effect of that narcotic in the production deserted, was apprehended, carried back, tried, of dreams. “Under the connecting feeling of condemned to be shot, and was at last led ont tropical heat and vertical sunlights I brought to execution. After the usual preparations a together all creatures, birds, beasts, reptiles, all gun was fired, and he awoke with the report to trees and plants, usages and appearances, that discover that the cause of his disturbance was are found in all tropical regions, and assembled a noise in the adjacent room. Dreams are often them together in China and Hindostan. From produced by the waking associations which kindred feelings I soon brought Egypt and all precede them; thus the writer had occasion her gods under the same law. I was stared at, to send a letter to a relative in a neighboring hooted at, grinned at, chattered at by monkeys, city, and upon retiring to rest dreamed that by parroquets, by cockatoos. I ran into pago- he was walking in the principal thoroughfare das, and was fixed for centuries at the summit of the city where his correspondent resided, or in the secret rooms. I was the idol, I was and accidentally meeting him, held a long conthe priest. I was worshipped, I was sacrificed. versation, upon subjects, however, in no way I fed from the wrath of Brahma through all the connected with the one which gave rise to the forests of Asia. Vishnu hated me, Seeva lay in correspondence. So, too, dreams may be cbar. wait for me. I came suddenly upon Isis and Osiris. acteristic of the peculiar idiosyncrasies of the I had done a deed, they said, at which the ibis dreamers: a miser will dream of his gold, a
philosopher of science, a merchant of his ven- markable cases ; from among them the followtures, the musician of melody, and the lover of ing is selected. Mr. D., residing in Edinburgh, his mistress. Tartinia, a distinguished violin informed his aunt one evening of his intention player, is said to have composed his “Devil's to join a sailing party the next morning upon Sonata" under the inspiration of a dream, in the firth of Forth. The lady retired to rest and which the devil appeared to him and invited dreamed repeatedly of seeing a boat sink and him to a trial of skill upon his own instrument, those on board drowning. When wakened she which he accepted, and awoke with the music went to the bedside of her nephew, and with of the sonata so vividly impressed upon his great difficulty obtained his promise to remain at mind that he had no difficulty in committing home. In the afternoon a violent storm arose, it to paper. In like manner Coleridge com- the boat was upset, and all that were in it went posed his poem “Kubla Khan” in a dream, of to the bottom. The earliest mention of dreams which the following is his account: "In the is in the Scriptures and in the poems of Homer, summer of 1797 the author, then in ill health, in both of which a supernatural origin is genhad retired to a lonely farm house between erally ascribed to them. By the ancients, inPorlock and Linton, on the Exmoor confines of deed, dreams were almost universally regarded Somerset and Devonshire. In consequence as coming from the ther world, and from both a slight indisposition an anodyne had been pre- good and evil sources. A great number of inscribed, from the effects of which he fell asleep stances are on record in the Greek and Latin in his chair at the moment he was reading the classics of remarkable dreams, which show how following sentence, or words of the same sub- widely the faith in the spiritual nature of dreamstance, in Purchas's 'Pilgrimage': 'Here the ing was disseminated. The night before the Khan Kubla commanded a palace to be built assassination of Julius Cæsar, his wife Calphurand a stately garden thereunto, and thus 10 nia dreamed that her husband fell bleeding miles of fertile ground were enclosed within a across her knees. On the night that Attila wall.?” Coleridge continued for about 3 hours died, the emperor Marcian at Constantinople apparently in a profound sleep, during which he dreamed that he saw the bow of the Hunnish had the most vivid impression that he had come conqueror broken asunder. Cicero relates a posed between 200 and 300 lines. On awaking story of two Arcadians, who, travelling together, he had so distinct a remembrance of the whole arrived at Megara and went to separate lodgthat he seized his pen and wrote down the lines ings, one of them to an inn, the other to a which are still preserved. Unfortunately, at private house. In the course of the night the this moment he was called out of the room to latter dreamed that his friend appeared to him attend to some business which occupied more and begged for help because the innkeeper was than an hour. Upon his return he found to his preparing to murder him. The dreamer awoke, surprise and chagrin that, although some vague but not considering the matter worthy of attenidea of the vision was still present, yet, with tion, went to sleep again. A second time his the exception of some 8 or 10 scattered and friend appeared, telling him that assistance fragmentary lines and images, the whole had would be too late, for the murder had already been obliterated from his memory. Instances been committed. The murdered person also like the above occasionally occur where the stated that his body had been put into a cart mind in a state of waking is aided by the pro- and covered with manure, and that an attempt cesses carried on during sleep, but these are rare. would be made to take it out of the city the As a general rule dreams are wanting in coher- next morning. The dreamer awoke, went to ence and unsubstantial in reasoning. Nothing the magistrates, had the cart searched, when is more common than for the mind in dreams the body was found and the murderer brought to blend together objects and events which to justice. Dreams were even allowed to incould not have an associated existence in reality. fluence legislation. During the Marsian war The faces of friends long since dead and events (90 B. C.) the Roman senate ordered the temlong since past rise before the mind with all the ple of Juno Sospita to be rebuilt in consequence vividness of real existence, and fail to excite of a dream of Cecelia Metella, the wife of the surprise by their incongruity because the mind consul Appius Claudius Pulcher. Some of the views them without the association of ideas fathers of the Christian church attached conwhich in a waking state would place them at siderable importance to dreams. Tertullian such a distance from the present that no cog- thought they came from God as one species of nizance could be taken of them except as very prophecy, though many dreams may be attribremote events. It is the absence of these asso- uted to the agency of demons. He believed ciated ideas, which in a state of wakefulness fix that future honors and dignities, medical remethe limits as to time and space of each fact of dies, thefts, and treasures had been occasionwhich the mind has a knowledge, that prevents ally revealed by dreams. St. Augustine relates any surprise at the occurrence of unusual events a dream by which Gennadius, a Carthaginian in dreams, and constitutes one of their most re- physician, was convinced of the immortality of markable features. The popular belief that in the soul, by the apparition to him in his sleep dreams an insight is frequently given of coming of a young man, who reasoned with him on events is shared by many well-informed persons, the subject, and argued that as he could see and is supposed to be corroborated by many re- when his bodily eyes were closed in sleep, so