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of the interior from June 2 to Oct. 31, 1849. third shipwreck when near the months of the He was arrested on Dec. 2, 1851, but released Ganges. By the first of these mishaps he and on the following day. He has since devoted his wife lost every thing that belonged to them. himself exclusively to the practice of the law, His plans of operation, his valuable library, and and holds a distinguished position at the bar of the fruits of his careful and laborious study, were Paris. In 1858 he was one of the council for all lost. His pocket Bible, which was picked the defence in the trial of Montalembert. up by a sailor among the rocks a day or two

DU FAY, CHARLES FRANÇOIS DE CISTERNAY, after the wreck, was alone saved. Arrived in a French savant, born in Paris, Sept. 14, 1698, India, a stranger among strangers, he was yet died July 16, 1739. In 1733 he was elected to received and welcomed by many of his countrythe academy of sciences, and he was the only men; but these, for the most part, were disinmember of that body who has ever read papers clined to further the special object of the Chrisin each of its 6 different departments that were tian adventurer. They did not oppose him, bat deemed worthy of publication. He made new neither had they the heart to succor him. The researches concerning phosphorus, the barome- well-known Rammohun Roy, however, who ter, the refracting power of crystals, the mag. from his position and character could exercise net, and electricity. He introduced the theory considerable influence over the natives, entered of two kinds of electricity, the vitreous and the warmly into the views of Duff, and with his asresinous. Among the chief services which he sistance a school was commenced under a banrendered to science were those which he per- ian tree. Five young men assembled to receive formed as director of the jardin des plantes. instruction from the Scottish missionary. The Du Fay spent 10 years in rearranging and im- shade of the banian tree was soon too narrow proving it, and made it the first establishment to protect the scholars from the fervor of the of the kind in Europe. At his request Buffon, Indian sun, and it became indispensable to prowho was as yet only known by his papers read vide suitable accommodations for the protection to the academy, was appointed to succeed him and advancement alike of teachers and taught. in its superintendence.

From the very outset it was the purpose of Mr. DUFF, ALEXANDER, D.D., LL.D., a Scottish Duff to lead his pupils through the entire range missionary, born in the parish of Kirkmichael, of British literature and science, and with all in the co. of Perth, Scotland, in 1806. At a this the work of the missionary was never for a very early age his mind was directed to the day lost sight of. The readings in classical litministry in the established church of Scot- erature and the scientific and philosophical lecland; and with the view of preparing him- tures were all conducted with a definite end in self for its duties, he entered the university of view—the enfranchisement of the native mind, St. Andrew's at the age of 15, and was grad- and the diffusion of the truth in philosophy and uated in due course. While a'student he be- science, accompanied with the daily reading and came intimate with Dr. Chalmers, who exer- critical and experimental exposition of the Scripcised a profound influence on his character and tures. Mr. Duff's labors very soon began to tell, the direction of his career. He studied theolo and the worth of the man, from the beginning, gy in St. Mary's college in the same university, was apparent both to the native population and and in the summer of 1829 was duly licensed to their British rulers. His honesty, perseverance, preach. During the later years of his academ- and zeal, in connection with his varied gifts and ical studies he was the associate and bosom talents, soon gave a commanding influence to friend of a little circle, all of whose members him and the Scottish college which he had esbecame well known in the missionary field, tablished. In 1843 a crisis occurred in the hisamong whom were the late John Adams and the tory of the institution. It grew out of the dislate John Urqubart. These young men, while ruption in the church of Scotland. On May 18, studying for the ministry, spent much of their 1843, nearly 500 ministers of that church surleisure time in visiting the poor, distributing rendered their livings into the hands of the state, tracts, holding prayer meetings, and organizing rather than submit in the exercise of their official and superintending Sabbath schools in destitute duties to the interpretation of the law relating parts of the surrounding country. By none of to induction to benefices as given by the supreme the churches in Scotland had any effort yet judicatory, and confirmed by parliament. This been made to spread the gospel among the they did on the ground that that interpretation heathen. A more earnest spirit had indeed was contrary to the law of Christ as laid down been gaining ground in the established church, in the Scriptures. The aggregate value of the and under the auspices of Dr. Inglis, aided livings vacated was $10,000,000. When intelby Chalmers and Thomson, and others of the ligence of this disruption reached Calcutta, Dr. evangelical party, a mission to India was re- Duff, and the brethren who had at intervals solved upon. Mr. Duff was selected as their come to his help, had to consider the question first missionary, and having been ordained to whether they could retain their connection with the office of the ministry, he set sail toward the the Scottish church, now, by the interpretation close of 1829. During his voyage to India he given to the law regarding benefices, thoroughly was twice shipwrecked, first on a reef while Erastianized, or whether they ought to throw in rounding the cape of Good Hope, and again on their lot with the seceding party, organized under the coast of Ceylon, and narrowly escaped a the name of the Free Protesting church of Scotland. There was much to induce them to re- nic school in Paris. Having entered the French main as they had been—the labors of 12 years, army, he obtained a commission in 1809, served the complete organization of their edifices and in the last campaigns of Napoleon, and distinplans, past success, the prestige of connection guished himself during the Hundred Days. with a wealthy and endowed church, the sym- When Geneva was restored to Switzerland, he pathies of the government, and then, on the became a citizen of the republic; was continued other hand, their ignorance as to the extent in the rank of captain, which he had received and ability of the Free church to aid them in under the empire, and in 1827 was promoted to the erection of new buildings, and in the car. that of colonel. In 1831 he was made chief rying out of their well tried system. However, of the staff of a corps destined to defend the guided by a clear conviction of duty, Dr. Duff and neutrality of the republic. Intrusted with the his brethren at once and unanimously declared management of the military school at Thun, their adherence to the Free church, and vacated with the survey of Switzerland, and, as quartheir honored and beloved institution, with all its termaster-general, with the reorganization of valuable library and apparatus; and we believe the federal army, he performed his duties with they have had no cause to regret the step. On zeal and ability. When the organization of the the death of Dr. Thomas Chalmers in 1846, the Sonderbund, and the apprehended intervention office of principal and professor of theology in of foreign powers, seemed to threaten the existthe Free church college in Scotland was offered ence of the confederation in 1847, Dufour, at to him, but was refused. He returned to Eu- the age of 60, was chosen by the diet commandrope in 1851 to recruit his broken health; but er-in-chief of the federal forces, and not only instead of finding there the necessary repose, he rapidly suppressed the civil war, but also raised entered on the revival of the missionary spirit the reputation of his country in the eyes of Euamong the British people, and for that purpose rope. His moderation on that occasion equalled visited the churches even in the remotest Brit- his military ability. Being a conservative in polish isles. In 1854 he made a voyage to American itics, the events of 1848 lost him some part of and during the months of February, March, his popularity ; but he has since rendered imApril, and May, he visited the principal cities in portant services to his country as a negotiator the northern and western states, and passed with foreign powers, especially in the question through Canada. While he was in New York of the relations of Ticino and Neufchâtel with the various evangelical churches met by repre- Austria and Prussia. Shortly before the termisentation, and gave him a fraternal welcome, nation of the Neufchâtel affair, he was again apand the university of New York conferred on pointed commander-in-chief of the federal army him the honorary degree of LL.D. In 1855 he in consequence of the warlike preparations of returned to India, where he still remains, de- Prussia. He is the author of several works in voted with untiring industry to his missionary French, the most important of which are: De labors.

la fortification permanente (1824; 2d edition, DUFFY, CHARLES Gavan, an Irish journalist 1850); Geometrie perspective, &c. (1827); and politician, born in Ulster in 1816. He em- moires sur l'artillerie des ancients et sur celle du braced the profession of journalism at an early moyen âge (1840); Manuel de tactique (1842). age, and for several years edited an influential DUFRENOY, PIERRE ARMAND, a French geolnewspaper at Belfast. At the same time he ogist and mineralogist, born in Sévran, Seinepursued the study of the law, and was subse- et-Oise, in 1792, died in Paris, March 20, 1857. quently called to the bar, but he has never His mother (born in 1765, died in 1825) was a practised. In 1841 he went to Dublin, where poetess of some distinction. He entered the polyin 1842' he established the “Nation," a publi- technic school in 1811, and the school of mines cation strongly in the interest of O'Connell and in 1813. His first essay appeared in 1819, and the advocates of repeal of the union; and in was followed by a great variety of papers on 1844 he was compromised in the proceedings mineralogy and geology, which gained for him instituted against O'Connell and the prominent a high reputation in the scientific world. His repealers. In 1847 he joined the party of explorations in southern France and in the young Ireland, and in the succeeding year was Pyréneés led him to develop the theory of metatried with Smith O'Brien, Thomas Francis morphism, according to which the production Meagher, and others, for sedition, but was ac- of many of the newer rocks is explained by the quitted. He then resumed the direction of the action of heat upon those of older date. He ex. “Nation,” in which he advocated various social plored the vicinity of Naples, and in his work on reforms for Ireland, and between 1852 and 1856 the subject (Des terrains volcaniques des environs represented New Ross in parliament. He has de Naples) he maintains that Herculaneum and since emigrated to Australia, where he has been Pompeii were destroyed by a landslide from Vea member of the colonial legislature, and also suvius, and not by lava ejected from the crater. of the ministry. He is the author of “Ballad In concert with Élie de Beaumont he explored Poetry of Ireland,” and other publications. between 1823 and 1836 various parts of France,

DUFOUR, GUILLAUME HENRI, a Swiss gen- England, and northern Spain, and the remarkeral, born in Constance in 1787. He was edu- able geological map of France which appeared cated in Geneva, and after the annexation of that in 1841 was the result of their labors. He was city to France in 1807, studied at the polytech- intrusted with a mission to England for the

purpose of investigating the effect of the sub- phia, in 1848. Among his writings are a “ Com. stitution of the hot for the cold blast in furnaces prehensive Summary of General Philosophy," employed for melting iron. He also investi- published at Philadelphia in 1845, and a "Class gated the methods of various metallurgical oper- Book of Governments and Civil Society," printations in Great Britain, and published in con- ed in 1859 in New York. One of his latest projunction with Elie de Beaumont, Coste, and ductions is the “Tenant House," a work pre Perdonnet, an elaborate and valuable report pared from information acquired while he was entitled Voyage métallurgique en Angleterre a member of the legislature of New York. (2d ed. 1837–39, 2 vols. 8vo.). He was one of DUGDALE, SIR WILLIAM, an English antithe most active members of the academy of quary, born in Shustoke, Warwickshire, Sept. miners, director of the école des mines, and pro. 12, 1605, died Feb. 10, 1686. He was educated fessor of mineralogy and geology: He intro- partly in the free school of Coventry, partly by duced a new classification of minerals based his father, was made pursuivant at arms extraupon crystallography, and promoted in various ordinary under the name of Blanche Lyon in other ways the study of mineralogy and mete- 1638, rose by degrees in the herald's college until orology. The 4th and last volume of the 2d he became garter principal king at arms in 1677, and enlarged edition of his Traité de minéralo- and was knighted. In 1641 exact drafts of all gie appeared in Paris in 1859, with an addi, the monuments in Westminster abbey and in tional volume of illustrations.

many of the churches of England, with copies DU FRESNE, CHARLES. See Du CANGE. of their inscriptions, were made under his super

DU FRESNOY, CHARLES ALPHONSE, a French intendence and deposited in Sir Christopher painter and poet, born in Paris in 1611, died at Hatton's library. With Roger Dodsworth he Villiers-le-Bel, near Paris, in 1665. His pictures projected the publication of the charters and are correct, but not otherwise remarkable, and descriptions of all the monasteries of the kinghe is now chiefly remembered as the author of dom; and after having attended King Charles at a Latin poem entitled De Arte Graphica, the Edgehill and followed him to Oxford, he im“Art of Painting," which has been 3 times proved a long stay in that town by collecting translated into English, viz.: into prose by Dry. from the Bodleian and other libraries there maden (4to. London, 1695), by Wills (4to. 1754); terials for this great work. From the tower and into verse by William Mason, with notes by records, the Cottonian library, and the papers of Sir Joshua Reynolds (4to., York, 1783). André Du Chesne which he examined in Paris,

DUFRESNÝ, CHARLES RIVIỂRE, á French he gathered still more information; and in 1655 dramatist, born in Paris in 1648, died there, Oct. the

first volume of the work appeared in Latin 6, 1724. He was descended from Henry IV. by at London, under the title of Monasticon Angli. one of the mistresses of that monarch, known canum ; the 2d and 3d vols. were issued in 1661 as la belle jardinière. In consequence of his and 1673 ; a new and enlarged edition, in 6 vols. descent and his talents, he enjoyed the favor of crown folio, was published in 1817–'30, with Louis XIV., but his improvident habits were plates, the cost of drawing and engraving which constantly involving him in embarrassments. amounted to $30,000. This edition was reprintHe wrote some excellent comedies, had great ed at London in 8 vols. fol. in 1846. Several skill as a landscape gardener, and was known as abridgments of the original work have been a pleasant companion and a wit. It is related of made in English. Among Dugdale's other conhim that he married his washerwoman in order tributions to history are the “Antiquities of War. to avoid paying her bill. Among his comedies wickshire” (fol., 1656), one of the best works of which obtained the most success, may be men. the kind ever published, and the author's chef tioned L'esprit de contradiction, La coquette

de d'auore; “ History of St. Paul's Cathedral” village, and Le faux sincère. His Poésies diverses (fol., 1658); “History of Imbanking and Draynare also praised. A selection of his works was ing of divers Fenns and Marshes” (fol., 1662), published at Paris in 2 vols. in 1805.

undertaken at the instance of several gentlemen DUGANNE, AUGUSTINE JOSEPH HIOKEY, an who were interested in the draining of Bedford American poet and novelist, born in Boston in Level ; “ Origines Juridiciales, or Historical 1823. He has been a frequent contributor to Memoirs of the English Laws, Courts of Justice, the periodical press, having written between 20 Forms of Trial, Punishment in Cases Criminal, and 30 novelettes and romances, and a great Law Writers," &c. (1666); the “Baronage of number of miscellaneous papers under various England, or an Historical Account of the Lives signatures. His poetical works consist of the and most memorable Actions of our English No“ Iron Harp," “Parnassus in Pillory," a satire, bility” (3 vols. fol., 1675-6); “ A Short View the “Mission of Intellect," a poem delivered in of the late Troubles in England” (Oxford, 1681); New York in 1852, the Gospel of Labor," de- “ Ancient Usage in bearing of such Ensigns of livered before the N. Y. mercantile library as- Honor as are commonly called Arms" (Oxford, sociation in 1853, and a number of short pieces 1682); “A Perfect Copy of all Sammons of the originally appearing in newspapers and maga- Nobility to the Great Councils and Parliaments zines, which were published in a large illustrated of this Realme, from the XLIX. of Henry the edition, in Philadelphia, in 1856. He is also the IIId. until these present Times” (London, 1685). author of the “Lydian Queen,” a tragedy per- Dagdale also completed the 2d volume of Sir formed at the Walnut street theatre, Philadel. Henry Spelman's Concilia. His works are ad. mirable for their accuracy, and his industry verted into a long and narrow canal. The lower was almost incredible. His “Life, Diary, and jaw corresponds to the angle of the intermaxCorrespondence," with an index to his MS. col- illaries, and is bent downward at the sympbylections, many of which are preserved in the sis; on its anterior surface are 3 or 4 rough and Ashmolean museum at Oxford, was published shallow alveoli, sometimes containing rudimenat London in 1827 by William Hamper, F.S.A. tary incisors, according to Sir Everard Home. -His son, Sir John Dugdale, was Norroy king. The cervical vertebræ are 7, separate; the dorsals at-arms, and published a catalogue of the Eng. 18, with spinous processes bent back and elonlish nobility.

gated from the first to the last, and of the same DUGONG, a herbivorous cetacean, of the ge- length as the transverse ; the lumbar 3, with long nus dugungus (Lacépède), or halicore (Illiger), spinous and transverse processes; one sacral, to the only genus of its family, and the only un- which rudimentary pelvic bones are suspended; disputed species of the genus; the Malay name caudals about 24, with chevron bones for the is duyong, and the scientific halicore Indicus anterior 4, and becoming flattened posteriorly. (Desm.) or H. dugung (F. Cuvier). The general The ribs are 18, less thick and dense than those shape is fish-like; the head is proportionately of the manati, the 1st 3 attached by cartilages small, and separated from the body by a slight to the sternum; the shoulder blade is large, with cervical depression; there is no dorsal fin, and the anterior angle rounded, the posterior exthe horizontal tail is crescent-shaped; there are tended backward with a concave margin; the no posterior limbs, but the anterior are like ce- spine is prominent, and the acromion and coratacean paddles without any trace of nails or di- coid processes are pointed; the humerus is short, vision into fingers. The upper lip is very large, thick, with a prominent deltoid ridge; the rathick, obliquely truncated, forming a blunt snout dius and ulna are very short, rounded, anchysuch as would be made by cutting off an ele- losed together at each end; the carpal bones phant's trunk near the mouth; the anterior por- are 4, in 2 rows; the thumb is rudimentary, its tion is covered with soft papillæ with a few metacarpal bone small and pointed; the other stiff bristles; the lips have a corneous edging metacarpals are flattened, with 3-jointed phawhich assists it in tearing sea-weeds from

the langes. The tongue is thick, the anterior upper bottom. In the old animal the incisors are 2 surface with cuticular spines, and on each side above and none below, large, but nearly covered at the base a horny, retroverted, pointed process. by the tumid and movable lip; in the young, The stomach is divided into 2 portions, the carthe 2 upper permanent incisors are preceded diac large and globular, the pylorio narrower; by 2 deciduous ones, and there are 6 or 8 lower at the constriction between the 2 are 2 tubular incisors which fall and are not succeeded by any cæcal prolongations as in some pachyderms, and permanent ones. The molars in the adult are at the cardiac end is a rounded glandular mass as in 3.1, simple and elliptical, in the young 6-8 some rodents; the intestines are 14 times as long far back on the horizontal portion of the jaw; as the body, and the cæcum is simple and heartthe grinding surface presents an outer rim of shaped. The liver is transversely oblong, with enamel, with the central ivory portion slightly 1 large and 3 small lobes; the gall bladder is depressed; they have no proper roots, and grow present, elongated, receiving bile directly from as long as they can be of use to the animal. The the hepatic ducts; the spleen is very small and skin is thick and smooth, with a few scattered rounded. The heart has its ventricles deeply bristles; the color is bluish above and white cleft, not however affecting the circulation; the beneath; the mammæ are 2, and pectoral; the capacity of the pulmonary artery is very great, fins are used not only for swimming, but for to accommodate the delay of the blood in the crawling along the bottom. The cranial bones lungs during submersion. The lungs are very are dense and large, with loose connections long, flattened, 1 as long as the body; the superwhere any sutures exist. The intermaxillaries ficial air cells are large, the dorsal extent is are very large, extending back as far as the mid- great, the trachea divides high up, and the brondle of the temporal fossæ, and bent down at a chi are long, as in marine turtles; the cartilages right angle over the symphysis of the lower jaw, of the bronchial tubes are continued spirally into terminating nearly on a level with its lower mar- each other. The sense of smell must be dull; gin; this is necessary for the accommodation of the eye is very small and convex, with a nictithe incisors, one of which is in each intermax- tating membrane beside the lids; the external illary; for this reason also the nostrils are dis- orifice of the ear is hardly perceptible; the nasal placed upward, different from the allied manati, openings are 2 parabolic slits, whose semi-lunar so that their opening is turned up as in the typ- edge performs the office of a valve which can be ical cetacea; indeed this animal comes nearer opened and shut at pleasure; the interior of the than its congener to the whales in its forked cheeks, according to F. Cuvier, is entirely cortail, absence of nails, and superior opening of ered with strong hairs. The usual length of the the nostrils. The whole skull (and especially dugong is from 8 to 10 feet, though it has been the frontal bones) is comparatively short; the seen as long as 20 feet; it is found in the seas of parietal crests are widely separated; there is no the East Indies, especially in the Malayan archibony tentorium, no sella turcica, very few and pelago, never on land, rarely if ever in fresh small openings in the cribriform plate of the water, but generally in troops in shallows of the ethmoid bone, and the optic foramina are con- sea where the depth is not more than 3 fathoms.

Its food consists of fuci and algæ, and it browses ited by Du Halde from the 9th to the 26th on the marine vegetation as a cow does on land. volume inclusive; and his Description géograIt yields little or no oil, but is hunted by the phique, historique, chronologique, politique, et Malays for its flesh, which resembles young beef, physique de l'empire de la Chine et de la Tar. is tender and palatable, and is considered a royal tarie Chinoise (4 vols. fol., Paris, 1735); two dish. It is generally speared, and at night, es- works of considerable interest and importance, pecially during the northern monsoon, at the and which contributed not a little to advance mouths of rivers, when the sea is calm. The the science of geography. An English translaaffection of the mother for her young is very re- tion of the latter appeared in London in 1736 markable. There are doubtless several species (4 vols. 8vo.), in 1742 (2 vols. fol.), and again in the Indian seas, as it is hardly probable that in 1744 (4 vols. 8vo.). The Lettres édifiante e only one species would be found from the Philip- curieuses have not been translated into English, pine islands to the coast of New Holland; in the but a selection from the earlier volumes appearRed sea is a species called H. tabernacularum by ed in London in 1743, in 2 vols. 8vo., under Rüppell, from his belief that the Hebrews cov- the title of “ Jesuits' Letters." ered with its skin their tabernacle and sacred DUHAMEL DU MONCEAU, HEXBI LOLIS, a ark; this is generally considered a mere variety. French botanist and writer on agriculture, bom In the article ManatI will be given reasons for in Paris in 1700, died there, Ang. 23, 1782. He considering the herbivorous cetaceans as belong- was educated at the college of Harcourt, where ing rather to the pachyderms than to cetaceans, he first displayed a taste for the natural sciences. the manati coming nearer to the former, and the Having been appointed naval inspector, he didugong probably nearer to the latter. (See also rected his attention to the culture and preser. DINOTHERIUM.) An allied fossil genus, halithe- vation of wood suitable for nautical purposes, rium (Kaup), is found in the tertiary calcareous whence he was led to investigate the properdeposits of Europe.

ties of the different species of plants and trees DUGUAY-TROUIN, RENÉ, a French ad- adapted to the climate of France, of which he miral, born in St. Malo, June 10, 1673, died in drew up a catalogue arranged in the alphabetical Paris, Sept. 27, 1736. He was at first intended order of their Latin generic names. His most for the church, but his family yielded to his in- important works are: De la physique des arbres clinations, and allowed him to follow the sea as (2 vols. 4to., Paris, 1758); Des semis et plantahis profession. He distinguished himself as tions des arbres et de la culture (4to., 1760); commander of a privateer in the war against Éléments de l'agriculture (2 vols, 12mo., 1762). England and Holland, and attracted the attention DUIDA, a lofty mountain near the sonthern of Louis XIV., who presented him with a sword, extremity of Venezuela. On the S. and W. and afterward, in 1697, admitted him to the it presents a perpendicular front, bare and stony royal navy, giving him the command of a ves- to the summit. The other sides are less steep, sel. He continued his career, and, in the letters and covered with magnificent forests. The of nobility granted him for his conduct in the summit; 8,500 feet above the sea, has never Spanish war, it was stated that he had captured been reached by man. At the beginning and more than 300 merchant ships and 20 ships of end of the rainy season small shifting flames are

The exploit, however, which won him seen to play about the highest peaks, and bare the most renown, was the capture of Rio Ja- sometimes induced the supposition that the neiro in 1711, which brought an immense sum mountain is a volcano. At its foot is the soliof money to the French government.

tary mission of Esmeraldo. DUGỦET, JACQUES JOSEPH, a French theolo- DUILIUS, CAIUS NEPOs, consul of Rome, 260 gian, born at Montbrison, Dec. 9, 1649, died in B. O., noted for his naval victory over the CarParis, Oct. 25, 1733. He officiated for many thaginians, the first success ever obtained by the years as professor of divinity at the oratoire. Romans on the sea. The battle was fought off His zeal for the cause of the Port Royalists, al- Mylw in Sicily, and the triumph of Duilius is atthough tempered by moderation, which formed tributed to his invention of grappling irons by one of the chief traits of his character, in- means of which he attached his ships firmly to volved him in the religious controversies of his those of the enemy, and enabled his men to fight times. His writings, which comprise nearly 20 hand to hand. On his return to Rome he was works chiefly on theological and ethical sub- honored with a magnificent triumph, and a coljects, are, without being very vigorous, con- umn was raised to commemorate the event. ceived in the gentle and Christian tone which DUISBURG, a Prussian town, capital of a distinguished him in his life.

circle of the same name, in the province of the DU HALDE, JEAN BAPTISTE, a French geog- Rhine, 18 m. W. N. W. from Düsseldorf, at the rapher, born in Paris, Feb. 1, 1674, died Aug. confluence of the Agger with the Ruhr, on the 18, 1743. In 1708 he became a member of the railway from Cologne to Minden; pop. of the society of Jesus, and was afterward appointed circle, 110,000; of the town, 12,000. It is surto the task of editing the letters of missionaries rounded by dilapidated walls, has a library, a sent out by that society to various parts of the botanic garden, and important manufactories of world, and especially to China. The result of woollen and cotton, velvet, leather, tobacco, and these labors is the well-known Lettres édifiantes porcelain. It has also in its vicinity extensive et curieuses écrites des missions étrangères, ed- sugar refineries and iron forges.


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