Obrázky stránek
PDF
ePub

DUJARDIN, FÉLIX, a French naturalist, born dukes and peers held the first rank, and had a seat in Tours, April 5, 1801. The son of a watch- in parliament, and certain honors and prerogamaker, he was obliged to learn with little as- tives at court. The dignity of the second class sistance the sciences which he has since been or hereditary dukes was transmissible to their employed in teaching. From 1827 to 1834 he male children, but that of the dukes by brevet delivered public lectures in Tours upon geom- ceased with themselves. The ducal and all other etry and chemistry as applied to the arts. titles of nobility, abolished at the commencement During the same period he published several of the revolution, were established again in 1806. geological works, in one of which he first made The rank of duke in the royal family of France known the curious fact that Artesian wells bring was superior to that of prince, inferior sometimes to the surface seeds and remains of insects, to that of count, and always to that of dauphin. which have been taken from long distances and In other great families also the title was higher transported through subterranean passages. In than that of prince. In Germany, where the 1833 and 1834 he published descriptions of the idea of sovereignty is inseparable from the ducal flora of the region of the Loire, and of the dignity, this title comes immediately after that geology and fossils of Touraine. He then de- of royalty. Under the emperor Henry IV. dukes voted himself to zoological researches, and pub- began to usurp those sovereign rights which they lished observations upon the rhizopoda, for have since exercised, and 6 dukedoms were then which he proposed a new classification. In established. Several of the primitive dukes 1839 he added extended annotations to the 3d have exchanged their title for that of grand duke. volume of De Lamarck's “History of Inverte- The princes of the house of Austria bear the brate Animals," and among his later publica- title of archduke. In England, it was not till tions have been his researches upon the brain the reign of Edward III. in the 14th century of insects, and upon the instinct of bees. that dukedoms were established giving their

DUJARDIN, KAREL, a Dutch painter, born in proprietors the first rank in the British peerage, Amsterdam in 1640, died in Venice, Nov. 20, a rank which has since belonged to the title. 1678. He was the best pupil of Berghem; The first person created an English duke was studied in Italy, where his pictures were very Edward the Black Prince, who was made duke popular; went to Lyons, got into debt, and mar- of Cornwall in 1337, and that title is still borne ried his landlady, whom

he soon deserted, and by the prince of Wales. The duke of Norfolk, returned to Amsterdam. He again went to whose title is the most ancient of all those Italy to escape from his wife. On his death, now in existence, except the above, is descendthe Venetian senate paid him unusual honors. ed from Margaret, the daughter of a younger In spite of his dissipation he left a great num- son of Edward I., who was created duchess of ber of paintings, principally of pastoral scenes Norfolk in 1358. The dignity became extinct and animals. His pictures are now scarce and in the reign of Elizabeth, in 1572, but was redear.

vived in 1623 in the person of Ludovic Stuart, DUKE (Lat. dux; Byz. Gr. dovkas, a leader), created duke of Richmond. Since the accession a title belonging originally to the commanders of George II. the title has been frugally beof armies. In the later periods of the Roman stowed. From that period to 1766 no person, empire it designated the military governor of a except of the royal family, was raised to a district, and until the time of Theodosius the dukedom, but in the latter year the representarank of dukes was esteemed inferior to that of tive of the ancient house of Percy was made counts. Subsequently their dignity greatly in- duke of Northumberland; 47 years later the creased, several provinces often became subject duke of Wellington received this title from the to a single duke, and the title was not disdained king, as the highest honor which could be renby conquerors such as Alaric and Attila. The dered for his great services. There are now northern barbarians who invaded the vast ter- in the English peerage 21 dukes exclusive of ritories of declining Rome adopted, if they had those of the royal family. Ireland has but one not before borrowed, the titles of duke and duke, the duke of Leinster; of the 7 Scottish count; but among these martial tribes, the dukes, 2 are also English dukes. The title of dukes, as military chieftains, acquired a decided duke, or properly prince, was originally borne by preēminence over the counts, who both in the the czars of Russia, and that of grand duke or Byzantine and western empires had been em- grand prince still distinguishes the princes of ployed chiefly in civil offices. Under the suc- that house. The kings of Poland were grand cessors of Charlemagne, the governors of prov- dukes or grand princes of Lithuania, and the inces generally assumed the title of duke, and kings of Prussia were the dukes of Silesia. achieved an almost absolute independence. The Italy has several sovereign dukes, as the grand kings of France, however, succeeded in reunit- duke of Tuscany, and the dukes of Modena and ing to the crown the dukedoms which had been Parma. The title exists also in the papal states, severed from it; and the ducal sovereignty be- the kingdom of Naples, the Netherlands, and in ing extinguished, the name has remained in Portugal and Spain. In some of the countries France only as a title of dignity hereditary in of Europe it retains the attributes of sovereign certain families. Prior to the revolution dukes power which it received in the middle ages; were created by letters patent of the king, and in others, as in England, it continues to desigwere of 3 kinds, of which those designated as nate the highest rank of nobility ; in others, as

[ocr errors]

in France, it is but a tradition of an ancient po- are set in vibration by little iron rods or wooden litical order.

sticks in the hands of the performer. It is now DUKES, a co. of Mass., consisting of a num- principally used by street musicians. ber of islands in the Atlantic ocean, with an DULONG, PIERRE Louis, a French natural aggregate area of 118 sq. m.; pop. in 1855, philosopher, born in Rouen, Feb. 12, 1785, died 4,401. Martha's Vineyard, the largest of these in Paris, July 19, 1838. At the age of 16 he islands, lies about 5 m. S. of Barnstable co., was received into the polytechnic school, op from which it is separated by Vineyard sound. his departure from which he studied medicine, A great part of the surface is occupied by for- which he practised for some time, and then de ests, but there are large cultivated tracts yield- voted himself

, at the suggestion of Bertbollet, to ing good crops of potatoes, hay, and grain. In physical science. After numerous analyses and 1855 the productions were 16,023 bushels of In- researches upon chlorine and ammonia, he was dian corn, 11,586 of potatoes, 3,024 of oats, 1,810 led in 1812 to the discovery of the chloride of tons of hay, and 28,382 lbs. of butter. In 1858 nitrogen. He was twice injured by the explothe county contained 12 churches and 1 news- sions of this new compound, and lost an eye and paper office. It was organized in 1695. Capi- finger. In 1816 he discovered hypo-phosphotal, Edgartown.

rous acid, and introduced into the nomenclature DULAURE, JACQUES ANTOINE, a French au- the prefix hypo, to denote a less degree of oxidathor and statesman, born in Clermont-Ferrand tion. In 1820 he labored with Berzelius in the in 1755, died in Paris, Aug. 9, 1835. He studied laboratory of Berthollet, and began to investigate architecture and engineering, but the work on the origin of animal heat. In opposition to Lawhich he was employed in the latter capaci- voisier and Laplace, who thought that animal ty being suspended in consequence of the war heat was produced by the transformation of with England in behalf of American independ- oxygen into carbonic acid, he found that in the ence, he turned his attention to literature, and carnivora the heat due to this cause was not on the breaking out of the revolution joined more than $ of the whole, and was even a smaller the republican party. In 1792 he was elected proportion in the herbivora, thus proving that member of the convention, in which he voted the body must have another source of calefacfor the execution of the king, but afterward tion. In 1825 he was associated with Prony, became connected with the Girondists. Com- Arago, Ampère, and Girard, as a commission to pelled to fly from France during the reign of provide precautions against the explosion of terror, he supported himself in Switzerland by steam boilers; and for 4 years he labored alhis labor as an engraver. He afterward return- most alone with Arago in determining the elastic ed, and was elected to the council of 500, but force of steam at different temperatures. Duretired from public life after the revolution of long was a member of the academy of sciences, the 18th Brumaire, 1799. As a historian he has in which in 1832 he succeeded Cuvier as pernot the reputation of impartiality.

petual secretary for the department of physical DULCE, GULF OF (sometimes called lake of sciences. His numerous works treat particuIsabal), a large body of fresh water, extending larly of the gases, and of the nature and laws into the state of Guatemala from the bay of of heat. Amatique, 30 m. long by about 12 broad. It DULWICH, a village of England, in Surrey, seems to be a widening out, over a considerable 5 m. S. of London ; pop. in 1851, 1,904. It is valley, of the waters of the Rio Polochic. Be- chiefly remarkable for its college, founded and tween the gulf and the sea is a small lake, 15 endowed in 1619, by Edward Alleyn, a distinm. long by 3 broad, called La Golfete. The guished actor. The college originally consisted waters from both reach the ocean through a of a master, warden, 4 fellows, 6 poor brethren, narrow and picturesque stream or strait, called 6 poor sisters, 12 scholars, and 30 out members. La Angostura or Rio Dulce. This is shut in by Its income from endowment in 1626 was £800, a rampart of rock, rising perpendicularly to å but through the rise in the value of the estates for height of from 300 to 400 feet above the water. building sites, this gradually increased to £12,000 This river has a bar at its mouth, with but 6 or £14,000, all paid to the master and trustees. feet of water, which deprives the gulf of most By act of parliament, passed Aug. 28, 1857, a of the advantages that would otherwise attach thorough reform was effected. The old officers to it, as the most convenient avenue for the were superseded, and a board of 19 unpaid memcommerce of Guatemala. Notwithstanding this bers created to conduct the government of the deficiency, a considerable part of the trade of college from Dec. 31, 1857. This board is in the state is carried on through the little, un- part elected by the parishes for whose benefit healthy town of Isabal, situated on the gulf, by the institution was founded, and in part appointmeans of vessels sailing from Balize. The trade ed by the court of chancery. One fourth of of Isabal amounts to about $800,000 annually. the revenue is applied to the support of aged

DULCIMER, an ancient musical instrument, men and women, not to exceed at first 24 in resembling, if not identical with, the psaltery number. The educational department consists or nebel of the Jews. The modern dulcimer of an upper and a lower school, to the former consists of a small box, in shape a triangle or a of which all boys between the ages of 8 and 15 trapezium, containing á number of wire strings are admitted on payment of a fee varying from stretched over a bridge at each end, and which £6 to £8, whose parents or next friends reside

in any of the parishes to which the benefits of tion, in a state bordering on destitution. Althe establishment are limited, while boys from EXANDRE Davy, a French dramatist and novelother parishes may be received with a fee of ist, son of the preceding, born in Villers-Cottefrom £8 to £10. To the lower school all boys rets, July 24, 1803. After his father's death, he from the parishes already alluded to are admis- was left to the care of his mother, who left him sible as day scholars on payment of 58. a quarter entirely to his own guidance; she sent him each when under 14, and 108. a quarter each if indeed to school, but the boy was very irregular over 14. No boy can remain in the upper school in his attendance, learned very little French after attaining the age of 18, nor in the lower and less Latin, but became a good horseman, school after 16. The number of foundation billiard player, fencer, and shot. At the age scholars is not to exceed 24, and all boys, of 15 he was placed as copying clerk with a nowhether of the upper or lower school, may be- tary; at 18 he began to write for the stage, come annual candidates for this privilege, which though none of the plays produced at this peentitles its possessors to be clothed, supported, riod were accepted; and at 20 the pressure of and educated at the expense of the institution. family difficulties sent him to Paris, where he There is a valuable picture gallery, chiefly of applied to his father's friends to obtain employItalian and Flemish paintings, attached to the ment for him. After several disappointments college.

he was befriended by Gen. Foy, who procured DŮMANOIR, PHILIPPE FRANÇOIS PINEL, & for him a small office in the household of Louis French vaudevilliste, born in Guadeloupe, July Philippe, then duke of Orleans. His salary of 25, 1808. He received his education in Paris, 1,200 francs a year was a fortune to the young and his first play, produced at the Variétés the- man; he summoned his mother to Paris; but atre, La semaine des amours, was received with his active mind already aimed at higher pursuits. favor. His most popular pieces are Don César He devoted his leisure hours to completing his de Bazan and Les premières armes de Richelieu. imperfect education, wrote some light poems, D'Ennery was his collaborator in the former, and as early as 1825 produced at the Ambigu á and Bayard in the latter. From 1838 to 1841 play called La chasse et l'amour, the composihe was manager of the Variétés. His École des tion of which he shared with MM. Rousseau agneaux obtained for him a gold medal from the and De Leuven. His first pieces were mostly minister of state in 1855.

vaudevilles, brought out anonymously; tragedy DUMAS, ALEXANDRE Davy (DE LA PAILLE- also engaged bis attention for a while, but he TERIE), a French general, born in Jérémie, Hayti, soon abandoned it. His genius was awakened March 25, 1762, died in Villers-Cotterets, France, by the performances of an English company, Feb. 26, 1806. He was the son of a wealthy which in 1827 presented some of Shakespeare's planter, the marquis de la Pailleterie, by an Af plays in Paris; in common with several of his rican negro girl, was sent to France to be edu- contemporaries, he felt that the French stage cated, and at the age of 14 enlisted, under his needed reform, and he resolved to be one of the mother's name of Dumas, as a private in a caval- apostles of the new dramatic creed. He brought ry regiment. He made himself known by his out in 1828 a historical play, Henri III. et sa vivacious temper, handsome figure, and prodi- cour, constructed with utter disregard of the orgious strength, being able, it is said, to strangle a dinary rules. It created a lively sensation, and horse between his knees; but this did not much though vigorously assailed by the critics was improve his condition, as at the end of 16 years enthusiastically applauded by the public; the he was merely a non-commissioned officer. But young author realized from it no less than 30,000 while serving under Dumouriez, he performed francs in a few months. Christine, or Stockholm, several daring acts which pointed him out for Fontainebleau, et Rome, another historical drapromotion. He rapidly passed through every ma in verse, was also well received; and new rank until, in Sept. 1793, he was appointed gen- pieces from his fertile pen appeared in rapid eral of division. In 1796 and 1797 he served succession, which, while eliciting severe criticism, in Italy under Bonaparte, and was especially drew crowded houses. Antony was received employed in the Tyrol, where, at the battle of with signal favor in 1831; if not the best, it is Brixen, he alone defended a bridge against the the most characteristic production of its author. enemy, giving the French time to come to the Richard d'Arlington and Térésa came next. Le rescue, in consequence of which Bonaparte mari de la veuve appeared in April, 1832; and presented him to the directory as “the Hora- the Tour de Nesle, first represented in the foltius Cocles of the Tyrol.” He served with no lowing month, had the unparalleled run of over less distinction in Egypt; but upon some disa- 200 successive nights; the germ of this piece greement with Berthier, he departed for France. had been furnished by Frédéric Gaillardet, but The ship on board of which he had embarked its details, historical character, powerful interest, being obliged to put into Taranto, he was and irresistible pathos belonged to Dumas. Anarrested by the Neapolitan government and de- gèle came out in 1833, Catherine Howard in tained for 2 years. After his release the first 1884, and Kean in 1836; the latter was written consul declined to give him an appointment on expressly for Frédéric Lemaitre. Don Juan de account of his republican opinions. He retired Marana, a fantastic drama, followed; then a to the small town where he had married, and Roman 'tragedy, Caligula, the prologue of there after 3 years' sufferings died of consump- which is in itself a poem; and finally Mle. de Belle-Isle, which is in some respects perhaps the lican in politics, Damas was on terms of friendbest of his dramatic productions. Dumas was ship with the royal family of Orleans, used his now unquestionably the first among the French influence to elicit from them acts of benero dramatists. He had meanwhile entered the lence, not unprofitable to their popularity, and field as a novelist, beginning with Isabelle de when they were exiled from France, he was Bavière, a romantic picture of France in the bold enough to praise the young princes in sev15th century. His intention was to give, under eral public meetings. He now tried to acquire the title of Chroniques de France, a series of political importance throngh the publication of novels, in which he intended, somewhat in imi- a daily newspaper, La Liberté, and afterward a tation of Walter Scott, to treat the most in- monthly review, Le Mois ; but failing in this atteresting incidents of French history; and this tempt, he published for 2 or 3 years the brilliant project he has pursued with some perseverance. Mousquetaire, which he revived in 1857 under These, and his Impressions de voyage, narrating the title of Monte Christo, and in which he conhis travels through Switzerland and Italy, were tinues to publish his romances, translations, eagerly read, and the public found that the stir. Mémoires, &c. Previous to 1848 his pen proring dramatist was a still more enticing story, cured him an income of nearly 60,000f. a year, teller. Les trois mousquetaires and Le comte de and he had undertaken, near St. Germain, the Monte Christo, both of which appeared in 1844, building of a small but fantastic and costly even excelled his theatrical works, and gave a country seat, which became celebrated under new character to his reputation. The success of the name of château de Monte Christo. The these and similar books was only equalled by the revolution cutting short his means, the chateau, wonderful rapidity with which they were pro- upon which he had already expended 450,000f., duced. Such was the confidence of Dumas in was offered at auction in 1854, and sold for less the fertility of his imagination, that in 1846 he than a tenth of its original cost. Dumas was made a contract to furnish 2 newspapers with an married in 1842 to Mle. Ida Ferrier, an actress amount of manuscript equal to 60 volumes a year; of the Porte St. Martin. In 1853 he went for and this exclusive of his plays and other occa- a time to Belgium; in 1858 he travelled in sional productions. Such abnormal fecundity Russia, the Caucasus, Greece, and Turkey, and raised the question whether he was really the returned to Paris in the spring of 1859. Among author of the books bearing his name. A lawsuit his works published in 1858 are Le capitaine in which he was involved in 1847 with the di- Richard (3 vols. 8vo.), L'Horoscope (3 vols.), rectors of the Presse and Constitutionnel brought Les louves de Machecoul (10 vols.), and L'hon. to light the fact that he had engaged to furnish neur est satisfait, & prose comedy in one act, those journals with more volumes than a rapid played at the théâtre du Gymnase ; and a sketch writer could even copy; but though it is cer- of his recent travels, De Paris à Astrakan, tain that he makes liberal use of the talents of appeared in 1859. Notwithstanding his bold assistants, he claims sufficient share in the plan plagiarisms, and the faults incident to his writand execution of every work to make it truly his ing so much and so fast, his books enjoy a own. A judicial decision finally supported this popularity, even in other languages, such as few claim. He is remarkable for indefatigable indus- others can boast, and it is probable that literary try and singular facility of composition, his daily labor never before brought a man so large & work averaging 32 pages of an ordinary French fortune. In skilfulness of arrangement, vi. octavo volume. Among his novels we may men- vacity and sustained interest of narrative, and tion Les mémoires d'un médecin, or rather Joseph inventive faculty, no living French author riBalsamo, Le collier de la reine, Ange Pitou, and vals him; but most of his writings pander to La comtesse de Charny, a sort of romantic re- a morbid love of the extravagant, eccentric, view of the latter part of the 18th century. melodramatic, and frivolous, and tend rather Novel writing has not withdrawn Dumas from to amuse and dazzle the fancy than to prothe drama; beside adapting for the stage some duce any abiding influence upon the mind of of his most successful romances, he has occasion. the reader. Dumas, though the son of a white ally written original pieces, such as Un mariage woman, presents all the characteristics of the sous Louis XV., Les demoiselles de St. Cyr, mulatto, except color, even more strongly than Le comte Hermann, La jeunesse de Louis XIV., his father. The English translations of his prinLa conscience. He has found time also to pubé cipal novels have attained an immense circulalish historical books: Louis XIV. et son siècle, tion in the United States. The most popular are Le drame de 93, Le régent et Louis XV., Florence the "Count of Monte Christo," the " Three et les Médicis.' In 1852 he began the publication Guardsmen," "Twenty Years After," the "Vi. of his Mémoires, a curious autobiography, which comte de Bragelone,” Margaret of Anjou," and also presents interesting sketches of literary life the “Memoirs of a Physician" and its continuaduring the restoration; and though in itself a tions.—ALEXANDRE, & French novelist and dra. monument of egotism, it is full of such un- matist, son of the preceding, born in Paris, July feigned admiration for his eminent contempo- 28, 1824. At 16 he published a volume of light raries, such candor, generosity, and genuine poems under the title of Péchés de jeunesse, humor, that no impartial reader can help sym- which have been forgotten and forgiven; then pathizing with its author. In March, 1856, it he took to novel writing, and produced Quatre had extended to 27 volumes. Though a repub- femmes et un perroquet, Le roman d'une femme,

say, a

Le docteur servant, Quatre hommes forts, La 1753, died in Paris, Oct. 16, 1837. In 1780 he vie à vingt ans, which presented indications of sailed from Brest as aide-de-camp to Rochamneither extraordinary talent nor originality. beau, the commander of the French troops sent But suddenly in 185i he published the Dame to assist the Americans in their struggle for inaux camélias, which showed him under a new dependence, and participated in nearly all the aspect, and made a prodigious sensation. This subsequent important'actions of the war, includwas nothing else than the history, slightly ing the victory of Yorktown. On the conclusion amended and embellished, of a woman of the of peace in 1783, he visited Hayti; then returntown, Marie Duplessis, with whom he had been ing to Europe, he was for two years employed on intimate terms, and who had lately died of in the exploration of the sea-coasts and islands consumption; but it was narrated with such of Turkey. At the beginning of the revolution simplicity and pathos that it had, as the French he sided with Lafayette and the constitutional

success of tears." Two other novels, party; when Louis XVI. was arrested at VaDiane de Lys and La dame aux perles, having rennes he commanded the troops who accompahowever followed without attracting particular nied him to Paris. As a member of the legisattention, he tried his hand at the stage. An lative assembly, he evinced wisdom, firmness unparalleled popularity attached to the Dame of opinion, and considerable oratorical power. aux camélias under its new garb; it drew During the reign of terror he was arraigned and crowded and enthusiastic houses at Paris and sentenced to death, but succeeded in escaping all over France, was translated, performed, and to Switzerland. After the 9th Thermidor he admired everywhere, and was set to music by returned to France, and was afterward elected Verdi in his Traviata. In the United States to the council of 500. Being proscribed as a several versions, " Vice and Virtue,” “Camille," monarchist on the 18th Fructidor, he fled to “The Fate of a Coquette,” were presented at Germany, where he commenced 'writing his once on the stage. Diane de Lys underwent annals of military events. Returning to his the same process of transformation, but not with country under the consulate, he was intrusted the same success; and then, instead of continu- with several important missions. In 1806 he ing this adaptation of novels to the stage, Du- followed Joseph Bonaparte to Naples, was apmas wrote original pieces. Le demi-monde, per- pointed by him minister of war, and organized formed in 1855, gave new evidence of acuteness the Neapolitan army. On the removal of of observation, dramatic power, and cutting wit. Joseph to Spain he reëntered the French army, The same merits are perceptible in Le fils natu- and actively participated in the campaigns of rel and La question d'argent, which appeared 1808 in Spain and 1809 in Germany. He in 1856 and 1857, the former a mere drama was superintendent of the administrative serof the imagination, the latter a satire on the vice of the Russian expedition in 1812, escaped worship of money. Dumas fils, as he is gener. the dangers of the disastrous retreat, was made ally called, presents a striking contrast to his prisoner in Germany in 1813, was liberated on father; instead of imprudently lavishing his wit the peace of 1814, and served the Bourbons and money, he uses both with a sparing hand. during the first restoration. On the return of

DUMAS, JEAN BAPTISTE, a French chemist Napoleon from Elba he refused at first to join and politician, born in Alais in July, 1800. Un- him; but yielding to the entreaties of Joseph der the patronage of De Candolle, at Geneva, he Bonaparte, he consented to superintend the orearly acquired considerable proficiency as a bot- ganization of the national guards of the empire. anist and a chemist. In 1821 he repaired to for this he was placed on the retired list when Paris, married there the daughter of Alexandre Louis XVIII. resumed the crown. He now Brongniart, and henceforth gave his undivided completed his Précis des événements militaires, attention to chemistry. He was a professor in an excellent work, giving a copious and lucid the polytechnic school, in the faculty of science, account of military operations from 1798 to and in the school of medicine, a member of the 1807 (19 vols., Paris, 1816–26). The almost academy of science and that of medicine, and total loss of his sight disabled him from conpresident of the society for the encouragement tinuing his work, but did not prevent him from of national industry; he was frequently con- translating a portion of Napier's “History of sulted by the government of Louis Philippe, and the Peninsular War," as a sort of supplement presented several reports on important questions. to it. He was elected to the chamber of depuAfter the revolution of 1848 he was elected to ties in 1828, actively participated in all the parthe legislative assembly, and was called by Presi- liamentary proceedings, evinced decision and dent Bonaparte, Oct. 31, 1849, to the ministry energy during the revolution of 1830, and was of agriculture and commerce, which he held

un- instrumental in the elevation of Louis Philippe til Jan. 9, 1851. After the coup d'état of Dec. to the throne. Beside the works above men2, 1851, he was appointed a senator and vice- tioned, be left some interesting personal mepresident of the municipal commission of Paris. moirs, since published by his son under the title His scientific memoirs, and his Traité de chimie of Souvenirs. appliquée aux arts (8 vols. 8vo.), including his DUMBARTONSHIRE, an E. co. of Scotland, organic chemistry, are highly valued.

anciently called Lennox, consisting of 2 detached DUMAS, MATTHIEU, count, a French soldier portions, the larger lying between Lochs Lomond and historian, born in Montpellier, Nov. 23, and Long and the frith of Clyde, the smaller

[ocr errors]
« PředchozíPokračovat »