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and Paul, which were among his last, as they are On the 300th anniversary of his birth the corner generally esteemed his grandest works, and which stone of a monument to his memory was laid in he presented to the council of his native city. Nuremberg; and in May, 1840, the work was Dürer had at this time embraced the doctrines completed by the addition of a bronze statue of of the reformation, and these paintings, the fruit the artist by Rauch. of earnest reflection and of deep religions con- DURESS (law Lat. durities, Fr. duresse). viction, are supposed to have conveyed the art- Constraint, either by actual violence or the ist's exhortation to his countrymen to stand firm threat of some injury, is in law an excuse for in the new faith. In dignity and sublimity of com- many acts which would otherwise be criminal; position, and in richness of color, they are mas- so it is also a ground for avoiding conveyances, terpieces of art.-As an engraver and a painter contracts, and other civil acts which have been Dürer was one of the most remarkable men of an compelled by such violence or threat. A disage prolific of great artists. In grandeur of con. tinction is however made as to the nature and ception and invention he was in fact before the extent of the duress, in the two classes of cases age. His rich and inexhaustible spirit grasped above referred to. When set up as an excuse at many things. In painting, he raised German for a criminal act, it is subject to several qualifiart to an excellence which passed away with cations. 1. It cannot in general be admitted in him; he found engraving in its infancy, and justification of a capital offence, but only for carried it to a perfection never since surpassed; lesser crimes, called misdemeanors. This limihe cultivated architecture and sculpture, and as tation applies only when innocent parties are a theorist wrote valuable treatises on geometry involved, for a man has the right to kill an asand fortification, with a purity of style evinc- sailant who puts him in peril of life or of gries. ing a profound knowledge of the German lan- ous bodily injury. 2. The apprehension of guage. He was the first German artist who danger must be such as might be reasonably taught the rules of perspective, and insisted on entertained by a person of ordinary courage ; the study of anatomy. His works exhibit a talis qui cadere possit in virum constantem, non deep sense of the sublime and solemn, as also of timidum et meticulosum. 3. The injury which simple grace and tenderness, and a feeling for art is threatened must be such as to endanger loss such as could only have inspired a great master. of life or limb. Fear of assault and battery Above all, his imagination seemed boundless. merely would not justify, according to the old But the tendency to the fantastic, a striking at cases, even a misdemeanor. 4. Command by a tribute of old German art, obstructed the pure father or master is not a justification to a child development of his power as an artist. This or servant for the commission of a crime, yet tendency, which has been ascribed to the pecu- the wife was by the common law held to be in liar physical aspects of northern nature, and of the power of the husband so far that what was which we have illustrations in the wild'legends done by her in his presence was deemed to be and the grotesque ornamentation of the archi- done under duress, and was a justification even tecture of medieval Germany, seems to have for capital offences, except treason and murder. culminated in that age; and with his country. This was upon the legal presumption that if the men Dürer felt its influence, and reflected it · husband was present, the wife acted by his coin his works. Independence of thought in ercion; still greater would be her claim to exmatters of religious belief necessarily suggest- emption if actual coercion could be proved. ed a greater freedom of imagination, and he There was, however, a singular inconsistency in rejected the classic ideal which Raphael and not allowing the same excuse on the ground of his contemporaries had so successfully real- coercion, actual or presumed, in respect to mere ized, to wander in the realms of fancy. Hence misdemeanors. It has been plausibly suggested his strange attitudes, his fanciful draperies, his that the reason of this anomaly was that the over-elaborate costumes and accessories, and the wife was not entitled to the benefit of clergy, Gothic element, so to speak, which seems to while the husband was so entitled ; and as he pervade all his works. . His wonderful crea- could therefore escape from punishment for certions, nevertheless, surprised and delighted the tain offences, but the wife was subject to the Italians, and Vasari confesses that he would penalty, the law humanely interposed and rehave been an extraordinary artist had he en- lieved her from all legal liability in cases where joyed an Italian instead of a German educa- husband and wife were jointly chargeable, but tion. Raphael had the highest admiration of in which a claim to benefit of clergy was allowhis genius, and sent him a drawing executed by ed, and this privilege did not apply to misdehis own hand. In so great estimation were his meanors, nor to murder or treason. 5. Duress prints held, that the engraver Marc Antonio of imprisonment, by which is meant illegal arRaimondi was induced to execute at Venice a rest or deprivation of liberty, is referred to in set of the "Passion” and the “Life of the Virgin," the English cases only as a ground of avoiding with facsimiles of Dürer's monogram attached, contracts; but upon the principle asserted by the which were sold as originals. The artist was common law that a man's liberty is as sacred as obliged to visit Venice to obtain redress. The the security of life, any interference therewith, memory of Dürer is held in great veneration by unless by process of law, should be held a justhe people of Nuremberg, who preserve the tification for any degree of force necessary to house in which he lived with religious care. resist an unlawful restraint of liberty; and by


analogy to other cases of duress, actual imprisonment, or menace of imprisonment, should also be an excuse to some extent, even if not a full justification, for offences which would be excused by fear of bodily injury. On the other hand, it may be said that wrongful imprisonment is not a permanent injury, like bodily mutilation, and can be compensated in damages. Resistance to an unlawful attempt to deprive a man of liberty would, however, it may be presumed, be justified, even to the extent of taking the life of the wrong doer, if that were necessary; but neither actual nor threatened imprisonment will justify the commission of a criminal offence affecting any other person.-Duress in relation to contracts or other civil acts, is not limited to bodily injury or loss of personal liberty, but may be founded upon apprehension of damage in respect to property. The apprehended injury must, however, be something extraordinary, and which does not admit of exact pecuniary indemnity; but great allowance will be made for the effect of any threatened loss in the disturbance of a man's judgment and self-possession, and probably in our courts a contract would be held void which had been procured by the menace of any considerable damage when made suddenly, and time not allowed for reflection. Bacon mentions the perturbation of mind as a reason why coercion, or what he calls necessity, "carrieth a privilege" as respects crime (Bacon's "Maxims," regula 5); and the reason ought to have equal force in avoidance of a contract. The rule as stated by Blackstone is much narrower, and excludes not only damage to property, but even personal injury, except what involves danger to life or limb. A fear of battery, therefore, or of having one's house burned, or goods taken away, he says, is no duress, because in these cases there can be pecuniary compensation. But he does not seem to have sufficiently observed the distinction between duress as an excuse for a criminal offence and duress as a ground of avoiding a contract. Bacon with more discrimination states the rule in the latter case that restraint of a man's person, or threat of a battery, or of burning his house, is a duress which will avoid a bond given under such restraint or menace. In the courts of the United States the rule has been extended to pecuniary loss affecting personal property. This at least has been decided in the states of South Carolina and New York. (See 1 Bray's Rep. 470; 2 id. 211; 5 Hill, N. Y., 154.)

DURFEE, JOB, an American author and jurist, born in Tiverton, R. I., Sept. 20, 1790, died there, July 26, 1847. He was graduated at Brown university in 1813, afterward studied law, was elected to the state legislature in 1814, and in 1820 was chosen representative in congress, where he served during 2 terms. He was a member of the state legislature again in 1826, and in 1833 was appointed associate justice of the supreme court of Rhode Island. In 1835 he became chief justice, an office which he held until his death. In 1832 he published a poem VOL. VI.-44


in 9 cantos, entitled "Whatcheer," being an account of the departure of Roger Williams from Salem, his adventures in the wilderness, and the settlement of Rhode Island. He also wrote a philosophical treatise called "Panidea," to prove the pervading influence and presence of God throughout nature. His works were collected and published with a memoir by his son (8vo., Providence, 1849).


D'URFEY, THOMAS, a humorous English poet, died at an advanced age, Feb. 26, 1723. He was of a French Protestant family which had fled from La Rochelle in 1628, when it was besieged by Louis XIII., and had settled in Exeter, where the poet was born. Abandoning the profession of law for the more congenial pursuits of literature, he wrote ballads, sonnets, irregular odes, and more than 30 pieces for the theatre. His dramatic pieces were very successful; but as they are written in the licentious style prevalent after the restoration, they are not now represented upon the stage. His works show the character of the author, who was sufficiently amusing to count among his patrons King Charles II., Queen Anne, and even the stern and sombre William III. Steele and Addison in the "Guardian" befriended him, and solicited the attendance of their readers to a play for his benefit. His best known work, beside his plays, was a collection of songs and ballads, partly by himself, entitled "Wit and Mirth, or Pills to purge Melancholy" (6 vols. 12mo., London, 1719-20).

DURHAM, a maritime co. in the N. of England; area, 973 sq. m.; pop. in 1851, 390,997. The general aspect of the county is mountainous, particularly in the western part, where it is traversed by branches of that range of hills to which the name of the English Apennines has been applied. From these several ridges shoot off in different directions, and some of them, projecting as far as the sea, terminate in tall cliffs and headlands. Numerous rivers rising among the mountains in the west flow through the valleys and empty into the ocean. Among these are the Tyne, the Tees, and the Wear, all of which are navigable for a considerable part of their course, and have important towns and tolerable harbors at their mouths. The valley of the Tees, particularly near its estuary, has a great deal of rich alluvial soil, under careful cultivation, or devoted to pasturage. It is here that the Durham cattle, so famous for their many excellent qualities, are most extensively reared. The Teesdale sheep, noted for their unusual size and tender flesh, are scarcely less celebrated than the Durham cattle, and are more highly prized than any other English breed. In the bleak table-lands of the western part, where cultivation is not attempted, are found rich veins of lead, and east of this region occurs the most extensive coal field of Great Britain, known as the Newcastle coal region. In addition to these important productions, iron, firestone, and millstones are found in large quantities. Limestone, some of it of a peculiar excellence, underlies an exten


sive portion of the connty. The value of all once surmounted by spires. The predominant these products is vastly increased by the facilities style of architecture is the early Norman, but in of transportation from the mining district to the the various additions made to the church from seaboard. Beside the navigable rivers, there are time to time, we have specimens of the different many railways traversing the county and con- styles which had prevailed in England up to the necting the great coal region with the coast, close of the 14th century. The Galilee chapel with Scotland, and with some of the most im- at its W. end, built by Bishop Pudsey between portant towns of England. The principal man- 1153 and 1195, contains the remains of the ufactures are iron work, pottery, glass, coal venerable Bede; those of St. Cuthbert, the tar, salt, linen, and woollen. Durham is defi- patron of the church, rest in the chapel of cient in timber, and with the exception of the the nine altars. The old church of St. Nichogroves attached to country seats of the nobility, las was partly repaired and partly rebuilt in and some portions of the vale of Derwent, there 1858, and is now considered one of the finest is little woodland of any value. Durham, Ches- specimens of modern church architecture in the ter, and Lancaster were formerly counties pala- N. of England. There is a school house attine, so called because the bishop of Durham, tached to it. Immediately opposite the cathethe earl of Chester, and the duke of Lancaster dral stands the castle, founded by William the had royal rights in their respective territories Conqueror for the twofold purpose of maintainas fully as the king in lus palace. The juris- ing the royal authority in the adjoining districts diction of the bishop of Durham was transferred and protecting the country from the inroads of to the crown in the reign of William IV. The the Scots. Many additions have been made county consists politically of 2 divisions, each of to it, and it is doubtful whether any part of which sends 2 members to the house of com- the original keep, except the foundation, now mons.-DURHAM (anc. Dunelmia, Dunelmum, remains. For many years it was the residence Dunholmum, Dunholme), the capital of the coun- of the bishop of the palatinate, but of late it has ty, is an ancient episcopal city and parliamentary been given up to the uses of the university. The borough, built on 7 small hills, and nearly en- see of Durham was long the richest in England, compassed by the river Wear, which is here and for the 3 years ending with 1831, the average crossed by several bridges; pop. in 1851, 13,188. annual net revenue of the bishop was £19,066 ; Its external appearance is at once attractive and but in 1836 his income was fixed at £8,000, the imposing. The river banks are skirted by plan- surplus revenue being applied to the augmentatations, hanging gardens, and beautiful public tion of the incomes of poorer bishops. Prior walks, beyond which the houses rise one above to the opening of the collieries, and the construcanother, until they are crowned by the grand tion of the numerous railways which now intercathedral and an ancient Norman castle, which sect the county, Durham made little progress, occupy the summit of a rocky eminence. The but the activity awakened by these great works city consists of several divisions, of which the has given a powerful impetus to its trade and one situated between the cathedral and the river population. "It has manufactories of carpeting has many elegant residences. The old town, and mustard. In the vicinity are Neville's which lies N. of the castle, contains most of the Cross, erected by Lord Neville in commemorashops, and a market place with a fountain. tion of the defeat of David II. of Scotland, in There are suburbs on each side of the river, 1346, and the site of an old Roman fortress, some of which are occupied chiefly by the poorer called the Maiden castle. The town sends 3 classes. Among the public buildings and insti- members to the house of commons. tutions are a town hall, built in the Tudor baro- DURHAM, JOHN GEORGE LAMBTON, earl of, nial style, a great number of schools, an infirm- an English statesman, born in Durham, April ary, hospitals, reading rooms, libraries, assembly 12, 1792, died in the isle of Wight, July 28, rooms, a theatre, 6 parish churches, various 1840. He was educated at Eton, served a short chapels, and a university. A college was founded time in a regiment of hussars, married at the here as early as 1290 by the prior and convent age of 20, and had hardly attained his majority of Durham, which was afterward enlarged, and when he was returned to parliament for his naunder Henry VIII. was transferred with all its tive county. His first speech, delivered in 1814, endowments to the dean and chapter. Under was an unsuccessful appeal in behalf of the peoCromwell the funds were employed by a new ple of Norway struggling under Prince Christian corporation, but on the restoration they revert- of Denmark for their national independence, in ed to the former trustees. The present univer- opposition to the stipulations of the allies at Kiel. sity owes its foundation mainly to Dr. Charles The next year he introduced a motion in bebalf Thorp, archdeacon of Durham. It was opened of Genoa, to which the reēstablishment of its anto students in 1833, and incorporated in 1837. cient constitution bad been promised by Lord Bishop Hatfield's hall was instituted in 1846 for Bentinck in the name of England, but which was divinity students. The most interesting edifice by the stipulations of the congress of Vienna anin Durham is the cathedral, founded in 1093 nexed to the kingdom of Sardinia. When the Casby King Malcolm and Bishop Carilepho. Its tlereagh ministry in 1816 proposed to add more length, including the western porch, is 507 feet, rigorous conditions to the alien act, he opposed its greatest breadth 200 feet, and it has a centhe measure with great energy. During the chartral tower 214 feet high, beside 2 low towers, tist excitement of 1819, he vindicated the rights




of tho people, not only in parliament, but in no- tion. His policy and plans were adopted by his merous public meetings. He was one of the de- successor, and vindicated by himself in the fenders of Queen Caroline in 1821, and seconded house of lords. His political views giving him Lord Tavistock's motion of censure on the min- an almost solitary position, and being unable by istry for their proceedings against her. The reason of feeble health, under which he had long same year he promulgated a scheme of parlia- suffered, to sustain alone a struggle in parliamentary reform, and though his bill was rejected ment, he afterward took but little part in public by a manæuvre before discussion, yet 10 years affairs. later he saw his ideas revived in the celebrated

DURINGSFELD, IDA VON, a German authorreform act, in the passage of which he then as- ess, born in Lower Silesia, Nov. 12, 1815, marsisted as a member of the cabinet. In 1826 the ried in 1845 Baron Reinsberg, visited Italy and feebleness of his health obliged him to relax his Switzerland, and wrote interesting sketches of labors, and he passed a year in Naples, and on her travels (Reiseskizzen, vol. i., Switzerland, his return to England was raised by Lord Go- 1850; vol. ii., Italy, 1857; vol. iii., Carinthia derich to the peerage, under the title of Baron 1857; vols. iv, and v., Dalmatia, 1857), and á Durham. Upon the formation of the ministry series of sketches of high life, or Skizzen aus of his father-in-law, Lord Grey, in 1830, he was der vornehmen Welt (6 vols., 1842–45). The called into the cabinet as lord privy seal. This most recent of her numerous works are Esther administration was formed upon the basis of (Breslau, 1851), and Clotilde (Berlin, 1855). making parliamentary reform a cabinet ques. She has also written poetry and songs, and transtion, and the preparation of the plan of reform.lated Bohemian national songs into German was intrusted to Lord Durham, Lord John Rus- (Böhmische Rosen, Breslau, 1851). Several of sell, Sir James Graham, and Lord Duncannon. her original songs were set to music, and her To Lord Durham fell the task of defending the Lieder aus Toscana appeared in Dresden in 1855. bill in the house of lords, a difficult labor, since DUROC, GÉRARD CHRISTOPHE MICHEL, duke he had to contend not only against the open oppo- of Friuli, a French general, born in Pont-à-Moussition of the tories, but against the secret repug- son, near Nancy, Oct. 25, 1772, killed near Marknance of many of his colleagues and political asso- ersdorf, in the vicinity of Görlitz, Prussia, May ciates. His health suffered a heavy shock at this 23, 1813. After having served in the first wars time by the death of his eldest son, and though of the revolution as adjutant of Gen.

L'Espinasse, he afterward spoke a few times upon the 2d and he joined the arıny of Italy in 1796, became 3d bills, he retired from the administration in brigadier-general in 1797, took part in the Egyp1833, and was raised to an earldom. He was tian campaign, and after Napoleon's return to sent the same year upon a special mission to France and the 18th Brumaire, in which he was Russia; but he was unsuccessful in his main a chief actor, he was made lieutenant-general object, which was to induce the Russian govern- and governor of the Tuileries. Subsequently he ment to mitigate its severity toward the Poles, was employed on diplomatic missions in Stockwho had lately made an unsuccessful attempt holm, Copenhagen, St. Petersburg, Berlin, and to recover their independence. Returning to Dresden ; took part in 1805 in the battle of England, his liberal views brought him into Austerlitz as successor of Gen. Oudinot, who collision with the existing government. His had been wounded; and accompanied Napoleon separation from his former colleagues was in his campaigns in 1806 and 1807. In 1809 clearly manifested in remarks which he made he was with the emperor in Austria, and negoat a public dinner given to Lord Grey at Edin- tiated the truce of Znaym. In 1812 he was in burgh, which caused him to be generally re- the Rassian campaign, always enthusiastically garded as the leader of the movement party. devoted to the cause of Napoleon, of whom he The insurrection in Canada in 1837 and the fol- was a great favorite. After the battle of Bantlowing years opened a new field to his activity, zen, while escorting the emperor to an adjoinand in 1838 he was sent thither as governor with ing elevation for the purpose of inspecting the extraordinary powers, the ministry hoping that battle ground, he was killed by a cannon shot. his liberality of sentiment and large political The farm house in which he died the same experience would secure the confidence of the evening was purchased by Napoleon, who cau people. Yet his administration there was brief. a monument to be erected there to Duroc's Trying at once to conciliate and to punish, memory. His remains were interred in 1845 he gained only the ill will of the Canadians; in the church of the Invalides in Paris. and surpassing his powers by transporting the DÜRRENSTEIN, a town of Lower Austria, leaders of the rebellion for an indefinite time to on the Danube, 41 m. W. by N. from Vienna, Bermuda, a disapproval of his conduct was belonging to the princely house of Starhemberg; voted by parliament. Lord Durham complained pop. 500. It is famous for its ruins of the old that he was not vigorously supported by the castle in which Richard Cæur de Lion, while ministry, resigned his office, and suddenly re- returning from his crusade in Palestine in 1193, turned to England. He prepared an elaborate was kept a prisoner during 15 months by Duke report on Canadian affairs, setting forth liberal Leopold of Austria. The castle is seen on a principles of colonial government, and proposing naked and lofty rock back of the village, on the union of the two provinces, which has had the border of the dark heights of the Wundermuch influence on British colonial administra- berg. Here on Nov. 11, 1805, the French un



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der Mortier defeated the Austrians and Russians gymnasium, a primary school, a polytechnic in. under Kutusoff.

stitute, an academy of commerce, and a good DÜSSELTHAL, formerly a convent of Trap- theatre. The celebrated picture gallery, which pists between Düsseldorf and Elberfeld; at pres- was established here in 1690, and which conent an educational institution, established in tained superb specimens of the best Flemish and 1821 by a Prussian nobleman for the benefit of Dutch masters, was transferred to Munich in helpless children, and of converted Jews who 1805. The collection of 14,000 original draw. wish to become mechanics or farmers.

ings and 24,000 engravings and casts, however, DÜSSELDORF, a district of Rhenish Prussia, which formed part of the same gallery, still rebounded N. and W. by Holland, and traversed mains in Düsseldorf, and received in 1841 an by the Rhine; area, 2,096 sq. m.; pop. in 1855, addition of 300 water-color drawings after Italian 1,017,500. The 14 circles of the district include masters. Art has flourished here more than in the circle of Düsseldorf (pop. in 1855, 85,560), any other German town, especially since 1822, and the most celebrated manufacturing towns of when Frederic William III. renovated the buildthe country, as Elberfeld, Crefeld, Solingen, Len- ing of the academy, and when at the same time nep, &c. The industrial interests absorb the best Cornelius, Schadow, and other artists of genius energies of the inhabitants, and agricultural arose to give a powerful impulse to art generally, pursuits are comparatively neglected. On the by laying the foundation of the Düsseldorf school left shore of the Rhine, however, the richness of painters. The art union for Rhenish Prussia of the soil is great, and the trade in cereals and and Westphalia was founded here in 1828. The cattle is not inconsiderable, although a more engravers' establishment of the royal academy steady attention to the resources of husbandry of Schulgen-Bettendorf was removed from Bonn might enhance its importance. The district to Düsseldorf in 1837. Beside the academy of abounds in mineral wealth, especially in coal painting, there is a school for painters and one and iron.-DÜSSELDORF, the capital of the dis- for architects. The average annual attendance trict and circle of the same name, is situated at of art students at the various institutions is the confluence of the Düssel with the Rhine, 22 about 400. There are 2 political and several litm. by railway N. from Cologne; pop. in 1855, erary and humorous papers and magazines pub45,000. As a great focus of railway and steam- lished in Düsseldorf. Among the many eminent boat communication, a fair proportion of the persons born in the town were Heine the poet, transit trade of the Rhine is carried on by the and Cornelius the painter. merchants of Düsseldorf. The manufacturing DUTCH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE. interest is not as fully represented as in Elberfeld See NETHERLANDS. and other neighboring towns, but there are DUTCHESS, a S. E. co. of N. Y., bounded many carriage, tapestry, cotton, tobacco, and W. by the Hudson river, and E. by Connecticut; mustard manufactories, tanneries, and dyeing area, 816 sq. m.; pop. in 1855, 60,635. The surestablishments. In 1288 Düsseldorf became å face is uneven and in many parts hilly. Fishkill municipality. In modern times it has been suc- river and Wappinger's creek supply it with good cessively under the dominion of Brandenburg water power, which is employed in a number and Neuburg, under French and Bavarian rule, of mills. Much of the soil is best adapted to and

was for some time the capital of the duchy grazing, but the cultivated portions are carefully of Berg, until in 1815 it passed with the whole improved and very fertile, yielding large crops duchy under the sway of Prussia. It is divided of grain and potatoes. The productions in 1855 into 4 sections, the Altstadt, the Karlstadt, the were 558,308 bushels of Indian corn, 626,347 of Friedrichsstadt, and the Neustadt. The last was oats, 34,720 of wheat, 205,498 of potatoes, 83,878 laid out by Johann Wilhelm, the elector palatine, tons of hay, and 1,681,595 lbs. of butter. There whose statue adorns the market square and the were 39 grist mills, 12 saw mills, 6 cotton and 6 palace yard. The Karlstadt is the most modern woollen factories, 9 furnaces, 132 churches, 10 part of the town, and derives its name from Karl newspaper offices, and 206 school houses. LimeTheodor, its founder, the same public-spirited stone, siate, marble, iron, and lead are the most prince who established in 1767 the academy of important minerals. The county has great fapainting. The town possesses many delightful cilities for communication with New York, Alparks or gardens, and the Hofgarten is one of the bany, and other parts of the Union, by means of finest in Prussia. New and beautiful streets have the Hudson river, navigable along its western been laid out within the last 15 years in the border, and the Hudson river and Harlem rail. southern and eastern portions of the town. The roads, which intersect it. Capital, Poughkeepsie. prominent public buildings are the governor's DUTENS, JOSEPH MICHEL, a French political palace, the town hall, the cabinet of antiquities economist, born in Tours, Oct. 15, 1765, died and that of scientific instruments, the tribunals, Aug. 6, 1848. He was educated as a civil engithe observatory, which occupies the former col- neer, and in 1800 published a topographical de legiate buildings of the Jesuits, the St. Andreas scription of the arrondissement of Louviers church, which also belonged to the Jesuits in (Eure). He first became known as an economist former times, and the church of St. Lambert. by his Analyse raisonnée des principes fondaBoth churches contain monuments of the ancient mentaux de l'économie politique (8vo. Paris, sovereign princes of Düsseldorf. There are nu- 1804). In 1818, being appointed by the French merous charitable and literary associations, a government to examine the system of interior

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