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navigation in England, he enlarged the object ar, born at Arthonnay, in Champagne, in 1695, of his mission to a careful examination of all the died in Vienna, Sept. 13, 1775. After the death great public works of that country, and pub- of his father, who was a poor peasant of the lished his learned researches during the next name of Jameray, young Valentin was charitayear. His most important work was published bly taken up by a priest, who stored his mind in 1835 with the title of Philosophie de l'économie with piety and learning. Subsequently he was politique, ou nouvelle exposition des principes de employed as cowherd by 4 ignorant hermits cette science (2 vols. 8vo.), which opened a lively near Lunéville, but took every opportunity to discussion between him and the disciples of increase his knowledge. He purchased books Adam Smith. He published another work in from the proceeds of the game which he found defence of his later principles of economy, in in the adjoining woods, and his library received which, in accordance with the school of Quesnay an unexpected addition from a present of $30 and Turgot, he maintains that commercial and given to him by an Englishman for having found manufacturing industry does not give a net pro- and restored to him a golden seal which he had duct, and that this advantage can be predicated lost. He had accumulated about 200 books, only of agricultural labor.

when one of the hermits, exasperated at his DUTROCHET, RENÉ JOAONIM HENRI, & neglecting the cows for his reading, threatened French physiologist, born in Néon, Nov. 14, to burn his library. The young man, enraged, 1776, died Feb. 4, 1847. His family was rich drove the hermit from his cell, barred the door, and noble; but their property having been con- and would not capitulate until his employers fiscated during the revolution, he studied medi- agreed to allow him two hours a day for study; cine in Paris, and served in the army as physician in consideration of which he bound himself to in the Spanish campaigns of 1808 and 1809. serve them 10 years longer, with no other wages He published researches upon the formation of than his board and clothing. One day while the egg in birds and fowls, upon the gradual keeping his cows, and surrounded as usual with unfolding of the allantois in the incubated egg, books and maps, he was found by Leopold of upon the increase of the young as the albumen Lorraine, who placed him under the instrucdiminishes, upon the structure and growth of tion of the Jesuits of Pont-à-Mousson. Here feathers, upon the envelopes of the fætus of ho made rapid progress, and Duke Leopold mammalia and of the human fætus, and upon took him to Paris in 1718. Subsequently be the growth of vegetables and insects. His most appointed him librarian and professor of hisimportant works were collected in 1837 under tory at the noblemen's academy of Lunéville. the title of Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire Among his pupils was William Pitt, afterward anatomique et physiologique des végétaux et des earl of Chatham. The income he now received animaux; and in 1842 he published Recherches soon enabled him to build a homestead upon the physiques sur la force épiploique.

spot of his early solitary haunts. When Lorraine DUUMVIRS, among the ancient Romans, two was ceded to France he accompanied Duke officers appointed temporarily and for a partic- Francis, in his old capacity of librarian, to Florular purpose. They were therefore of various Here he resided for nearly 10 years, until sorts, and were specially named from the nature Francis became emperor of Germany, and called of their functions. The duumviri juri dicundo him to preside over the collection of coins and were the highest magistrates of colonies and medals at Vienna; this post he held until his towns, where they had the rank of consuls at death. His complete works, chiefly on numisRome. The duumviri navales had charge of matics, were published in 1786, at St. Petersthe construction and equipping, and sometimes burg and Basel, by Koch. of the command of fleets. The duumviri quin- DUVAUCEL, ALFRED, a French naturalist, quennales were the censors of municipal towns. born in Paris in 1792, died in Madras, India, in The duumviri sacrorum had originally the Aug. 1824. He entered the military service at charge of the Sibylline books. The duumviri an early age, and gained some distinction at the ludorum in the Byzantine empire were function- siege of Antwerp in 1814. After the restoraaries elected to the burdensome office of exhib- tion of the Bourbons, under the influence of iting games at their own expense to the people Cuvier, who had married his mother, he turned for one year.

his attention to the study of natural history. In DUVAL, a N. E. co. of Fla., bordering on the 1818 he was sent on a scientific expedition to InAtlantic, and bounded by St. John's river on dia, where, with his colleague Diard, he formthe E. and Nassau river on the N.; area, 430 sq. ed at Chandernagore a museum of natural m.; pop. in 1850, 4,539, of whom 2,106 were history. They prosecuted their rescarches for slaves. The surface is generally level, and the several years with success, and at different times soil adapted to sugar, cotton, Indian corn, and sent to Paris 4 large collections of animals. sweet potatoes. In 1850 it produced 391 lihds. DUVERGIER DE HAURANNE, JEAN, a of sugar, 216 bales of cotton, 51,788 bushels French theologian, born in Bayonne in 1581, of Indian corn, and 27,674 of sweet potatoes. died Oct. 11, 1643. He was educated in theolThere were 5 saw mills in the county, 8 church- ogy at Louvain, where Jansenius was at the es, and 64 pupils attending public schools. Cap- same time a student, and these two young eccleital, Jacksonville.

siastics formed an intimate friendship. While DUVAL, VALENTIN JAMERAY, a French schol- Jansenius was working upon his Augustinus,

ence.

Duvergier was appointed to the abbey of St. Cyran. Preserving an ascetic exterior, a regular life, and an inflexible character, he introduced into his monastery the rules of St. Benedict in all their severity. His rigor and zeal becoming known, he was invited to Paris, where he made numerous disciples in all classes of society, and obtained great reputation and influence as the confessor of noble women who were inclined to the severity of asceticism. He refused several bishoprics. His Jansenist principles brought upon him the enmity of the Jesuits, and in 1638, complaints having been borne to Richelieu, he was by order of that minister imprisoned at Vincennes. He lived but a short time after his release upon the death of Richelieu. His most celebrated writings are those which he directed against the Jesuit Garasse. Pascal, Arnauld, and Nicole were his disciples.-PROSPER, a French politician and author, born in Rouen, Aug. 3, 1798. In 1831 he was chosen to the chamber of deputies from Sancerre, and at first gave his support to the government of Louis Philippe. Subsequently, however, he became one of the prominent champions of reform. After the revolution of 1848 he represented the department of Cher in the constituent assembly, and in Nov. 1850, became a member of the legislative assembly. After the coup d'état of Dec. 2, 1851, he was imprisoned in the fortress of Vincennes, and afterward banished from the country until Aug. 1852, when he received permission to return. Many of his writings, which originally appeared in the Revue des deux mondes, have been published; and the 3d volume of his Histoire du gouvernement parlementaire en France appeared at Paris in 1859.

DUVERNOY, GEORGES LOUIS, a French naturalist, born in Montbéliard, Aug. 6, 1777, died in París, March 1, 1855. He pursued his studies at Stuttgart, Strasbourg, and Paris, and in 1802 was invited by Cuvier, to whom he was related, to assist in editing his treatise on comparative anatomy. With the aid of the notes and counsels of his master, he prepared the last 3 volumes of this work, embracing the organs of digestion, respiration, circulation, generation, and the secretions. He returned to Montbéliard, where for 20 years he practised medicine, publishing only a few writings on fossils. In 1827 he was elected professor of the faculty of sciences at Strasbourg, where, during 10 years, he published a variety of papers on anatomical subjects; and after the death of Cuvier he was engaged in arranging his papers for publication. In 1837 he was elected professor of natural history in the college of France. He has published numerous works, which have furnished important materials to anatomists and zoologists.

DUYCKINCK, EVERT AUGUSTUs, an American author, a son of Evert Duyckinck, for many years a leading bookseller and publisher of New York, born in that city in 1816. He was graduated at Columbia College in 1835. In Dec. 1840, he commenced with Mr. Cornelius Mathews a monthly periodical entitled "Arcturus a

Magazine of Books and Opinion," which was continued until May, 1842. He was also a contributor to the early numbers of the "New York Review." In 1847 he commenced the "Literary World," a weekly critical journal; he withdrew from the editorship with the publication of the 12th number, but resumed the post on the appearance of the 88th, in connection with his brother George L. Duyckinck. The periodical remained under their joint management until its discontinuance at the close of the year 1853. In 1856 the two brothers completed the "Cyclopædia of American Literature" (2 large vols. 8vo.), a work of great research and value. In the same year Mr. Duyckinek published the "Wit and Wisdom of Sydney Smith," a selection from the works of that author, with an original memoir. He has also contributed largely to several periodicals.-George Long, brother of the preceding, born in New York in 1823, was graduated at the university of that city in 1843. In addition to his share in the "Literary World" and "Cyclopædia of American Literature," he is the author of "George Herbert of Bemerton," published in 1858, and a life of Bishop Thomas Kenn (1859).

DWARACA, or JIGAT, a town of Guzerat, Hindostan, at the western extremity of the peninsula of Catty war. It is fabled to have been the residence of Krishna, and is the seat of a celebrated temple of that divinity, with a spire 140 feet in height, consisting of a series of pyramids. It is annually resorted to by 15,000 pilgrims. It contains about 2,500 houses, and has an important trade in chalk.

DWARF (Sax. dwerg, dweorg), an animal or a plant that does not attain the ordinary size of its species. A degree of dwarfishness may be the general result of natural causes, as of exces sive cold, since both plants and animals diminish in stature toward the poles; or may be produced by artificial means, as lack of nourish ment, compression, or mutilation. The growth of young animals may be arrested by exciting aliments and alcoholic drinks and lotions. Plants may be forced by heat to a precocious inflorescence and fructification, which prevents them from ever attaining their perfect stature. The Chinese have the art of dwarfing trees by diverting the growth from the foliage to the flowers and fruit. The ancients are said even to have produced artificial dwarfs of the human race, who were highly esteemed by the Roman matrons for servants. A race of dwarfs, perhaps the pigmies of the ancients, has been said to exist in the interior of Africa. (See Dokos.) Dwarfs are the exceptions and freaks of nature, and when symmetrical are rare and remarkable phenomena. One of the most noted of those whose history is certain was the Polish gentleman, Count Borowlaski or Boruslawski (1739-1887), whose reputation was Earopean. At 1 year of age, he was 14 inches in height; at 6, 17 in.; at 10, 21 in.; at 15, 25 in.; at 20, 28 in.; at 25, 35 in., which was nearly his greatest height. He early displayed wit and

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grace, and was taken into the family of the his antagonist dead. He was afterward taken countess Humiecka, with whom he frequented prisoner by a Turkish rover, and was for a time the Prussian court. He excelled in dancing a slave in Barbary. At the beginning of the and in playing on the guitar, and so delighted civil war he was made captain in the royal army, the Parisian ladies during the year of his resi- but he closed his life in prison, into which he dence in that capital that he was once invited had been cast shortly before his death on suspito an entertainment in his honor, at which cion of being privy to the popish plot. Charles the plate, knives, forks, and spoons were all I. of England honored with his presence the of dimensions proportioned to his size. At marriage of two dwarfs, Richard Gibson and the age of 40 he married, became a father, and, Anne Shepherd, each of whom measured 3 feet after giving concerts in the principal cities of 10 inches. Waller wrote a poem on the occaGermany, visited England, where he was intro- sion, and Sir Peter Lely painted the couple at duced to the royal family, and paid a visit to a full length. Gibson rose to celebrity as a paintgiant 8 feet 4 inches high. In London he wrote In 1710 Peter, czar of Russia, celebrated a his memoirs (8vo., 1788), the undertaking being marriage of dwarfs with great parade. All the patronized by the prince of Wales and many of dwarf men and women within 200 miles were the nobility, and he afterward lived in elegant ordered to repair to the capital. He supplied retirement in Durham. He possessed superior carriages for them, and so managed that one intelligence, and was said to exhibit most pain- horse should be seen galloping into the city with fal emotions when he perceived himself regarded 12 or more of them. The whole company of only as a puppet and a toy. In contrast with him dwarfs amounted to 70, and all the furniture was the favorite dwarf of the ex-king Stanislas and other preparations for them were on a minof Poland, commonly called Bébé (1741-64). He iature scale. Gen. Tom Thumb (Charles S. was a native of Lorraine, and at 5 years of age Stratton), the celebrated American dwarf, was was 22 inches high; at 15, 29 inches; and at his born in.Bridgeport, Conn., in 1837, and at the death, 33 inches. His diminutive figure was well age of 5 years was not 2 feet in height and formed and justly proportioned, till after the weighed less than 16 pounds; and he had grown age of puberty his spine curved, and he became but very little for 3 or 4 years. He had fine decrepit. He was never either mentally or talents, and was remarkable for agility and physically active. He was once visited by the symmetry, while his lively sense of the ludicrous count Borowlaski, and having noticed the su- gave him excellent success in performances suitperiority of the latter in manners and intelli- ed to his character. In 1842 he was exhibited gence, watched for an opportunity and attempt- in New York by P. T. Barnum, his age being ed to throw his visitor into the fire. There was announced as 11 years. He visited England in a struggle between the rivals, which was ter- 1844, was several times exhibited to the queen minated by the interference of the household. and court at Buckingham Palace, gave levees, The Dutch dwarf, Wybrand Lolkes, born in and was invited to parties of the nobility. In 1730, possessed mechanical tastes and skill, had Paris he gained applause as an actor. He resuccess as a watchmaker, and when 60 years of turned to the United States in 1847, and was age was 27 inches high, and weighed 56 lbs. Mme. publicly exhibited in the principal cities of the Teresia, called the Corsican fairy, from the United States and in Havana. During the midplace of her birth (1743), was remarkable for dle ages dwarfs shared with fools the favor physical symmetry and beauty, and mental viva- of courts and of the nobility, and a salary city. She spoke several languages, was charm- for the king's dwarf was not abolished in ing in conversation, and when exhibited in Lon- France till the reign of Louis XIV. In chardon in 1773 was 34 inches high, and weighed acter they have usually manifested the faults of 26 lbs. Jeffery Hudson (1619-'82) was the fa- spoiled children, being petulant, choleric, en, vorite dwarf of Charles I. of England. He was vious, jealous, and inconstant. It was asserted a native of Oakham, and about the age of 7 years, by Lavater that no person above or below the when 18 inches high, was taken into the service ordinary standard of mankind had ever attained of the duke of Buckingham. From the age of 7 eminence for extraordinary talent.-In Scandito 30 he grew no taller, but afterward shot up navian mythology dwarfs (Dvergar) are inhabto 3 feet 9 inches. He was served up in a pie itants of the interior of the earth, and especially at a royal entertainment, from which he sud- of large isolated rocks. They were imagined to denly sprang forth in full armor. Sir William be dark in aspect like the caverns in which Davenant wrote a poem called “Jeffreidos” on they dwelt, and were often styled “ dark elves." a battle between him and a turkey cock, when A dwarf was set by the gods at the corner of a woman rescued him from his furious antago- each of the 4 quarters of the earth to bear up the nist. The courtiers teased him about the story sky; and they were named East, West, North, till he challenged a young gentleman, Mr. Crofts, and South. All the dwarfs were esteemed great who had affronted him. That gentleman ap- artists in working metals, and weapons of marpeared at the rendezvous armed only with vellous properties were said to be produced from & squirt, which so enraged the dwarf that a their subterranean workshops. Like the Jotuns, real duel ensued. The weapons were pistols, they could not endure the sunlight, and if its and both parties were on horseback to put them rays touched them they were turned into stone. more on å level. At the first fire Jeffery shot If a man met a dwarf away from his rock. and

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could throw steel between him and it, it was be- decease. In 1838 he pledged $10,000 for the lieved that thereby his habitation was closed up, purpose of establishing a system of normal and that any thing in his power could be ex. schools, provided the state would appropriate a torted from him. In the old Norse, echo is like sum for the purpose. The proposition was called the "dwarf language," probably because promptly accepted by the legislature. It apit was thought to be produced by the dwarfs peared after his death that Mr. Dwight had rewithin mountains imitating the sounds which lieved several deserving young men who were they heard without.

struggling to meet the expenses of an education, DWIGHT, EDMUND, an American merchant, without allowing the receivers of his bounty to born in Springfield, Mass., Nov. 28, 1780, died know the hand that had helped them. During in Boston, April 1, 1849. He was the 3d son of most of his business life he represented the Jonathan Dwight (born in Halifax, N. S., June, towns in which he resided in the legislature. 1743), who removed to Springfield in his early He was a member from Boston for several years. youth, and from humble beginnings became one DWIGHT, THEODORE, an American author of the most successfal merchants in New Eng- and journalist, born in Northampton, Mass., in land. He was graduated at Yale college in 1765, died in New York, June 11, 1846. He 1799, and entered the office of Fisher Ames at was a brother of Timothy Dwight, and a grandDedham, as a student of law. After completing son, on the mother's side, of Jonathan Edwards, his studies, he made the tour of Europe, and and studied law with his uncle, Judge Pierpont returned to Massachusetts in 1804, and opened Edwards, of Hartford, Conn. He became an a law office in Boston. But in 1807 he ac- eminent member of his profession, and a leading cepted an offer from his elder brother, James speaker and writer of the federal party. As a Scutt Dwight, to become a partner in an ex- senator in the Connecticut legislature, and subtensive mercantile business in Springfield, and sequently a representative in congress from that for many years he continued that connection. state in 1806–7, he showed an aptitude for the In April, 1809, he married a daughter of Samuel discussion of public affairs which induced the Eliot of Boston, and in 1815 removed with his prominent federalists of Connecticut to secure family to that city, where he established the mer- his services as editor of the “Hartford Mirror," cantile house of William H. and J. W. Dwight. the leading organ of the party in the state. DarMr. William H. Dwight was lost by shipwreck on ing the session of the Hartford convention in the coast of Ireland, in 1822, and when Mr. J. 1814 he acted as its secretary, and in 1833 pubW. Dwight retired from business the house was lished a “History of the Hartford Convention,” continued until 1853, under the name of James written from a strong federal point of view. K. Mills and co. It may be said that, with per- Between 1815 and 1817 he edited the “ Albany haps one or two exceptions, this house has laid Daily Advertiser," and in the latter year rethe foundation of more successful manufactur- moved to New York, where he established the ing enterprises than any other in New England. “New York Daily Advertiser," of which he reIn 1822 the manufacturing village of Chicopee mained the editor until 1836, when he retired Falls was commenced by it, and in the course from professional life to reside in Hartford. , of 7 years 4 large cotton mills were put in mo- Three years before his death he returned to tion, beside manufactories of other fabrics. In New York. Mr. Dwight was the author of 1831 measures were taken to develop the water some occasional orations and of several educapower at Cabotville (since Chicopee), and in a tional works. few years 7 large cotton mills were erected and 7

DWIGHT, TIMOTHY, an American divine, set in successful operation there, beside manu- president of Yale college, born in Northampton, factories of machinery, tools, hardware, brass Mass., May 14, 1752, died in New Haven, Conn., cannons, bells, &c. In 1847 measures were taken Jan. 11, 1817. From his earliest years, under to form an immense water power on the Connec- the training of his mother, he gave indications ticut river in the northerly part of West Spring- of a thirst for knowledge, and great facility of field, opposite South Hadley, and a village learning. He is said to have been able at the was laid out called Holyoke. Notwithstand- age of 4 to read the Bible correctly and fluently. ing many discouraging circumstances, this has When 6 years old he was sent to the grammar acquired a very respectable standing ainong the school, and in 1765 he entered Yale college, manufacturing towns in New England. An. where, for the first 2 years, he scarcely fulfilled other enterprise of a more public character, in the promise of his earlier days; but from that which Mr. Dwight took an early and active time to the end of his college course, he made part, was the construction of the Western rail- rapid progress in his regular studies and in other road from Worcester to Albany, of which he branches, especially in poetry and music. He was a director for many years, and one year was graduated in 1769, and soon took charge of president. But the great feature of his life was a grammar school in New Haven, where he rehis eminent services to the cause of popular ed- mained for 2 years. In 1771 he was chosen tutor ucation. Mr. Dwight was the first to propose in Yale college, and continued in that office for the establishment of normal schools in Massa- 6 years. So intense and unintermitted were his chusetts, but the extent of his liberality in the studies at this time that his health was for a seacontributions of pecuniary means for that object son seriously impaired, and his eyes so weakened was not allowed to be publicly known until his that they never regained their strength. For a

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and sensible; and as a preacher, sound, strong, impressive, and at times highly eloquent. So entirely were his mental resources under his command, that he often dictated to 2 or even 3 amanuenses at the same time, on as many distinct subjects; and so great was his influence over young men, and his success in training large numbers of them for eminence aud usefulness, that a distinguished civilian has said of him: "I have often expressed the opinion, which length of time has continually strengthened, that no man except the 'father of his country has conferred greater benefits on our nation than President Dwight." The literary labors of Dr. Dwight were very great, and his publications numerous, consisting of dissertations, poems, and occasional sermons, issued during his life, and since his death; his "Theology Explained and Defended," with a memoir (5 vols., 1818); "Travels in New England and New York" (4 vols., 1822); "Sermons on Miscellaneous Subjects" (2 vols., 1828).-SERENO EDWARDS, an American clergyman, son of the preceding, born in Greenfield, Conn., May 18, 1786, died in Philadelphia, Nov. 30, 1850. When between 9 and 10 years of age, he was removed to New Haven, his father having then become president of Yale college. Entering that institution in 1799, he was graduated in 1803; was tutor in Yale college from 1806 to 1810, during which time he studied law in New Haven, and was admitted to the bar in the latter year. In 1815, however, he experienced, as he believed, a radical change of character, and in October of the year following was licensed as a preacher of the gospel by the west association of New Haven co. Soon afterward he was chosen chaplain of the U. S. senate for the session of 1816-'17, and in September of the latter year was ordained pastor of the Park street church, Boston. Here he labored with great zeal and success for about 10 years, visiting Europe, in 1824–25, to recruit his prostrated health; but not fully gaining this end, he resigned his charge in 1826. Returning to New Haven, he now occupied himself in writing the life and editing the works of the elder President Edwards, which were published in 1829. In 1828, in connection with his brother Henry, he commenced in New Haven a large school for boys, on the plan of the German gymnasiums, which was continued for 3 years. In March, 1833, he was chosen president of Hamilton college, N. Y., in September of the same year received the degree of D.D. from Yale college, and in Sept. 1835, on account of pecuniary and other discouragements, resigned his presidency. In 1838 he was occupied for some months in an agency for the Pennsylvania colonization society, and in the same year removed to New York, where he lived for the remainder of his days. Here a distressing malady, from which he had long suffered, gained complete mastery over him, disabling him for active service, and leading him to court retirement, so that little was known of him by the public, till, visiting Philadelphia in

time he seems to have contemplated the study of law, in which he afterward temporarily engaged, though his ultimate determination was for theology. When, on account of the revolutionary troubles, the students of the college were dispersed, in 1777, he went with his class to Wethersfield, where he remained till autumn, and in the mean time was licensed to preach by an association in Hampshire co., Mass. Soon after this he was appointed chaplain to a brigade of the division under Gen. Putnam, and joined the army at West Point, remaining with them over a year, and discharging the duties of his office with scrupulous fidelity. Not only did he labor for the spiritual interests of the soldiery, but, by delivering patriotic discourses and composing patriotic songs, gave new vigor to the spirit of liberty. By the death of his father in 1778 the support of his mother with her 12 children devolved on him, the oldest of her sons; and resigning his chaplaincy, he removed with his own family to Northampton. Here his labors for a series of years would seem almost incredible. He worked with his own hands upon the farm during the week, supplied some neighboring church on the Sabbath, established and sustained a school for both sexes, which acquired high celebrity, represented the town in county conventions, and for 2 years in the state legislature, and would have been chosen to the continental congress, but that he declined the intended honor, in order to devote himself to the work of the ministry. In 1783 he was ordained as pastor of the Congregational church in Greenfield, Conn.; but as his salary was entirely insufficient for his support, he established an academy, which soon became extensively known, and to which he devoted 6 hours of each day. In 1787 he received the degree of D.D. from the college of New Jersey, and in 1810 that of LL.D. from Harvard college. On the death of Dr. Stiles he was chosen his successor in the presidency of Yale college, was inaugurated to that office in Sept. 1795, and continued in it to the end of his life, not merely, however, discharging its appropriate duties, but connecting with it a vast amount of labor that belonged to other departments. He was, in reality, professor of belles-lettres, oratory, and theology, teaching a class preparing for the ministry, and preaching in the college chapel twice every Sunday; in the discharge of which latter duty he prepared and delivered his wellknown "System of Theology," with which his reputation as a writer and preacher is chiefly identified. In 1816 his health began to give way under his labors, and though he attended to his classes and heard recitations almost to the last, he gradually declined till the hour of his death. Dr. Dwight was a man of commanding presence, of dignified but affable manners, of striking conversational powers, of superior intellectual faculties, untiring in his industry and research, of great system and wonderful memory; as a teacher, remarkable for his skill and success; as a writer always interesting

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