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navigation in England, he enlarged the object of his mission to a careful examination of all the great public works of that country, and published his learned researches during the next year. His most important work was published in 1835 with the title of Philosophie de l'économie politique, ou nouvelle exposition des principes de cette science (2 vols. 8vo.), which opened a lively discussion between him and the disciples of Adam Smith. He published another work in defence of his later principles of economy, in which, in accordance with the school of Quesnay and Turgot, he maintains that commercial and manufacturing industry does not give a net product, and that this advantage can be predicated only of agricultural labor.
DUTROCHET, RENÉ JOACHIM HENRI, a French physiologist, born in Néon, Nov. 14, 1776, died Feb. 4, 1847. His family was rich and noble; but their property having been confiscated during the revolution, he studied medicine in Paris, and served in the army as physician in the Spanish campaigns of 1808 and 1809. He published researches upon the formation of the egg in birds and fowls, upon the gradual unfolding of the allantois in the incubated egg, upon the increase of the young as the albumen diminishes, upon the structure and growth of feathers, upon the envelopes of the foetus of mammalia and of the human foetus, and upon the growth of vegetables and insects. His most important works were collected in 1837 under the title of Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire anatomique et physiologique des végétaux et des animaux; and in 1842 he published Recherches physiques sur la force épiploique.
ĎUUMVIRS, among the ancient Romans, two officers appointed temporarily and for a particular purpose. They were therefore of various sorts, and were specially named from the nature of their functions. The duumviri juri dicundo were the highest magistrates of colonies and towns, where they had the rank of consuls at Rome. The duumviri navales had charge of the construction and equipping, and sometimes of the command of fleets. The duumviri quinquennales were the censors of municipal towns. The duumviri sacrorum had originally the charge of the Sibylline books. The duumviri ludorum in the Byzantine empire were functionaries elected to the burdensome office of exhibiting games at their own expense to the people for one year.
DUVAL, a N. E. co. of Fla., bordering on the Atlantic, and bounded by St. John's river on the E. and Nassau river on the N.; area, 430 sq. m.; pop. in 1850, 4,539, of whom 2,106 were slaves. The surface is generally level, and the soil adapted to sugar, cotton, Indian corn, and sweet potatoes. In 1850 it produced 391 hhds. of sugar, 216 bales of cotton, 51,788 bushels of Indian corn, and 27,674 of sweet potatoes. There were 5 saw mills in the county, 8 churches, and 64 pupils attending public schools. Capital, Jacksonville.
DUVAL, VALENTIN JAMERAY, a French schol
ar, born at Arthonnay, in Champagne, in 1695, died in Vienna, Sept. 13, 1775. After the death of his father, who was a poor peasant of the name of Jameray, young Valentin was charitably taken up by a priest, who stored his mind with piety and learning. Subsequently he was employed as cowherd by 4 ignorant hermits near Lunéville, but took every opportunity to increase his knowledge. He purchased books from the proceeds of the game which he found in the adjoining woods, and his library received an unexpected addition from a present of $30 given to him by an Englishman for having found and restored to him a golden seal which he had lost. He had accumulated about 200 books, when one of the hermits, exasperated at his neglecting the cows for his reading, threatened to burn his library. The young man, enraged, drove the hermit from his cell, barred the door, and would not capitulate until his employers agreed to allow him two hours a day for study; in consideration of which he bound himself to serve them 10 years longer, with no other wages than his board and clothing. One day while keeping his cows, and surrounded as usual with books and maps, he was found by Leopold of Lorraine, who placed him under the instruction of the Jesuits of Pont-à-Mousson. Here he made rapid progress, and Duke Leopold took him to Paris in 1718. Subsequently he appointed him librarian and professor of history at the noblemen's academy of Lunéville. Among his pupils was William Pitt, afterward earl of Chatham. The income he now received soon enabled him to build a homestead upon the spot of his early solitary haunts. When Lorraine was ceded to France he accompanied Duke Francis, in his old capacity of librarian, to Florence. Here he resided for nearly 10 years, until Francis became emperor of Germany, and called him to preside over the collection of coins and medals at Vienna; this post he held until his death. His complete works, chiefly on numismatics, were published in 1786, at St. Petersburg and Basel, by Koch.
DUVAUCEL, ALFRED, a French naturalist, born in Paris in 1792, died in Madras, India, in Aug. 1824. He entered the military service at an early age, and gained some distinction at the siege of Antwerp in 1814. After the restoration of the Bourbons, under the influence of Cuvier, who had married his mother, he turned his attention to the study of natural history. In 1818 he was sent on a scientific expedition to India, where, with his colleague Diard, he formed at Chandernagore a museum of natural history. They prosecuted their researches for several years with success, and at different times sent to Paris 4 large collections of animals.
DUVERGIER DE HAURANNE, JEAN, a French theologian, born in Bayonne in 1581, died Oct. 11, 1643. He was educated in theology at Louvain, where Jansenius was at the same time a student, and these two young ecclesiastics formed an intimate friendship. While Jansenius was working upon his Augustinus,
Duvergier was appointed to the abbey of St. Cyran. Preserving an ascetic exterior, a regular life, and an inflexible character, he introduced into his monastery the rules of St. Benedict in all their severity. His rigor and zeal becoming known, he was invited to Paris, where he made numerous disciples in all classes of society, and obtained great reputation and influence as the confessor of noble women who were inclined to the severity of asceticism. He refused several bishoprics. His Jansenist principles brought upon him the enmity of the Jesuits, and in 1638, complaints having been borne to Richelieu, he was by order of that minister imprisoned at Vincennes. He lived but a short time after his release upon the death of Richelieu. His most celebrated writings are those which he directed against the Jesuit Garasse. Pascal, Arnauld, and Nicole were his disciples.-PROSPER, a French politician and author, born in Rouen, Aug. 3, 1798. In 1831 he was chosen to the chamber of deputies from Sancerre, and at first gave his support to the government of Louis Philippe. Subsequently, however, he became one of the prominent champions of reform. After the revolution of 1848 he represented the department of Cher in the constituent assembly, and in Nov. 1850, became a member of the legislative assembly. After the coup d'état of Dec. 2, 1851, he was imprisoned in the fortress of Vincennes, and afterward banished from the country until Aug. 1852, when he received permission to return. Many of his writings, which originally appeared in the Revue des deux mondes, have been published; and the 3d volume of his Histoire du gouvernement parlementaire en France appeared at Paris in 1859.
DUVERNOY, GEORGES LOUIS, a French naturalist, born in Montbéliard, Aug. 6, 1777, died in París, March 1, 1855. He pursued his studies at Stuttgart, Strasbourg, and Paris, and in 1802 was invited by Cuvier, to whom he was related, to assist in editing his treatise on comparative anatomy. With the aid of the notes and counsels of his master, he prepared the last 3 volumes of this work, embracing the organs of digestion, respiration, circulation, generation, and the secretions. He returned to Montbéliard, where for 20 years he practised medicine, publishing only a few writings on fossils. In 1827 he was elected professor of the faculty of sciences at Strasbourg, where, during 10 years, he published a variety of papers on anatomical subjects; and after the death of Cuvier he was engaged in arranging his papers for publication. In 1837 he was elected professor of natural history in the college of France. He has published numerous works, which have furnished important materials to anatomists and zoologists.
DUYCKINCK, EVERT AUGUSTUS, an American author, a son of Evert Duyckinck, for many years a leading bookseller and publisher of New York, born in that city in 1816. He was graduated at Columbia College in 1835. In Dec. 1840, he commenced with Mr. Cornelius Mathews a monthly periodical entitled "Arcturus a
Magazine of Books and Opinion," which was continued until May, 1842. He was also a contributor to the early numbers of the "New York Review." In 1847 he commenced the "Literary World," a weekly critical journal; he withdrew from the editorship with the publication of the 12th number, but resumed the post on the appearance of the 88th, in connection with his brother George L. Duyckinck. The periodical remained under their joint management until its discontinuance at the close of the year 1853. In 1856 the two brothers completed the "Cyclopædia of American Literature" (2 large vols. 8vo.), a work of great research and value. In the same year Mr. Duyckinck published the "Wit and Wisdom of Sydney Smith," a selection from the works of that author, with an original memoir. He has also contributed largely to several periodicals.-GEORGE LONG, brother of the preceding, born in New York in 1823, was graduated at the university of that city in 1843. In addition to his share in the "Literary World" and "Cyclopædia of American Literature," he is the author of "George Herbert of Bemerton," published in 1858, and a life of Bishop Thomas Kenn (1859).
DWARACA, or JIGAT, a town of Guzerat, Hindostan, at the western extremity of the peninsula of Catty war. It is fabled to have been the residence of Krishna, and is the seat of a celebrated temple of that divinity, with a spire 140 feet in height, consisting of a series of pyramids. It is annually resorted to by 15,000 pilgrims. It contains about 2,500 houses, and has an important trade in chalk.
DWARF (Sax. dwerg, dieorg), an animal or a plant that does not attain the ordinary size of its species. A degree of dwarfishness may be the general result of natural causes, as of excessive cold, since both plants and animals diminish in stature toward the poles; or may be produced by artificial means, as lack of nourishment, compression, or mutilation. The growth of young animals may be arrested by exeiting aliments and alcoholic drinks and lotions. Plants may be forced by heat to a precocious inflorescence and fructification, which prevents them from ever attaining their perfect stature. The Chinese have the art of dwarfing trees by diverting the growth from the foliage to the flowers and fruit. The ancients are said even to have produced artificial dwarfs of the human race, who were highly esteemed by the Roman matrons for servants. A race of dwarfs, perhaps the pigmies of the ancients, has been said to exist in the interior of Africa. (See Dokos.) Dwarfs are the exceptions and freaks of nature, and when symmetrical are rare and remarkable phenomena. One of the most noted of those whose history is certain was the Polish gentleman, Count Borowlaski or Boruslawski (1739-1837), whose reputation was European. At 1 year of age, he was 14 inches in height; at 6, 17 in.; at 10, 21 in.; at 15, 25 in.; at 20, 28 in.; at 25, 35 in., which was nearly his greatest height. He early displayed wit and
grace, and was taken into the family of the countess Humiecka, with whom he frequented the Prussian court. He excelled in dancing and in playing on the guitar, and so delighted the Parisian ladies during the year of his residence in that capital that he was once invited to an entertainment in his honor, at which the plate, knives, forks, and spoons were all of dimensions proportioned to his size. At the age of 40 he married, became a father, and, after giving concerts in the principal cities of Germany, visited England, where he was introduced to the royal family, and paid a visit to a giant 8 feet 4 inches high. In London he wrote his memoirs (8vo., 1788), the undertaking being patronized by the prince of Wales and many of the nobility, and he afterward lived in elegant retirement in Durham. He possessed superior intelligence, and was said to exhibit most painful emotions when he perceived himself regarded only as a puppet and a toy. In contrast with him was the favorite dwarf of the ex-king Stanislas of Poland, commonly called Bébé (1741-'64). He was a native of Lorraine, and at 5 years of age was 22 inches high; at 15,29 inches; and at his death, 33 inches. His diminutive figure was well formed and justly proportioned, till after the age of puberty his spine curved, and he became decrepit. He was never either mentally or physically active. He was once visited by the count Borowlaski, and having noticed the superiority of the latter in manners and intelligence, watched for an opportunity and attempt ed to throw his visitor into the fire. There was a struggle between the rivals, which was terminated by the interference of the household. The Dutch dwarf, Wybrand Lolkes, born in 1730, possessed mechanical tastes and skill, had success as a watchmaker, and when 60 years of age was 27 inches high, and weighed 56 lbs. Mme. Teresia, called the Corsican fairy, from the place of her birth (1743), was remarkable for physical symmetry and beauty, and mental vivacity. She spoke several languages, was charming in conversation, and when exhibited in London in 1773 was 34 inches high, and weighed 26 lbs. Jeffery Hudson (1619-'82) was the favorite dwarf of Charles I. of England. He was a native of Oakham, and about the age of 7 years, when 18 inches high, was taken into the service of the duke of Buckingham. From the age of 7 to 30 he grew no taller, but afterward shot up to 3 feet 9 inches. He was served up in a pie at a royal entertainment, from which he suddenly sprang forth in full armor. Sir William Davenant wrote a poem called "Jeffreidos" on a battle between him and a turkey cock, when a woman rescued him from his furious antagonist. The courtiers teased him about the story till he challenged a young gentleman, Mr. Crofts, who had affronted him. That gentleman appeared at the rendezvous armed only with a squirt, which so enraged the dwarf that a real duel ensued. The weapons were pistols, and both parties were on horseback to put them more on a level. At the first fire Jeffery shot
his antagonist dead. He was afterward taken prisoner by a Turkish rover, and was for a time a slave in Barbary. At the beginning of the civil war he was made captain in the royal army, but he closed his life in prison, into which he had been cast shortly before his death on suspicion of being privy to the popish plot. Charles I. of England honored with his presence the marriage of two dwarfs, Richard Gibson and Anne Shepherd, each of whom measured 3 feet 10 inches. Waller wrote a poem on the occasion, and Sir Peter Lely painted the couple at full length. Gibson rose to celebrity as a paint
In 1710 Peter, czar of Russia, celebrated a marriage of dwarfs with great parade. All the dwarf men and women within 200 miles were ordered to repair to the capital. He supplied carriages for them, and so managed that one horse should be seen galloping into the city with 12 or more of them. The whole company of dwarfs amounted to 70, and all the furniture and other preparations for them were on a miniature scale. Gen. Tom Thumb (Charles S. Stratton), the celebrated American dwarf, was born in Bridgeport, Conn., in 1837, and at the age of 5 years was not 2 feet in height and weighed less than 16 pounds; and he had grown but very little for 3 or 4 years. He had fine talents, and was remarkable for agility and symmetry, while his lively sense of the ludicrous gave him excellent success in performances suited to his character. In 1842 he was exhibited in New York by P. T. Barnum, his age being announced as 11 years. He visited England in 1844, was several times exhibited to the queen and court at Buckingham palace, gave levees, and was invited to parties of the nobility. In Paris he gained applause as an actor. He returned to the United States in 1847, and was publicly exhibited in the principal cities of the United States and in Havana. During the middle ages dwarfs shared with fools the favor of courts and of the nobility, and a salary for the king's dwarf was not abolished in France till the reign of Louis XIV. In character they have usually manifested the faults of spoiled children, being petulant, choleric, envious, jealous, and inconstant. It was asserted by Lavater that no person above or below the ordinary standard of mankind had ever attained eminence for extraordinary talent.-In Scandinavian mythology dwarfs (Dvergar) are inhabitants of the interior of the earth, and especially of large isolated rocks. They were imagined to be dark in aspect like the caverns in which they dwelt, and were often styled "dark elves." A dwarf was set by the gods at the corner of each of the 4 quarters of the earth to bear up the sky; and they were named East, West, North, and South. All the dwarfs were esteemed great artists in working metals, and weapons of marvellous properties were said to be produced from their subterranean workshops. Like the Jotuns, they could not endure the sunlight, and if its rays touched them they were turned into stone. If a man met a dwarf away from his rock. and
could throw steel between him and it, it was believed that thereby his habitation was closed up, and that any thing in his power could be extorted from him. In the old Norse, echo is called the "dwarf language," probably because it was thought to be produced by the dwarfs within mountains imitating the sounds which they heard without.
DWIGHT, EDMUND, an American merchant, born in Springfield, Mass., Nov. 28, 1780, died in Boston, April 1, 1849. He was the 3d son of Jonathan Dwight (born in Halifax, N. S., June, 1743), who removed to Springfield in his early youth, and from humble beginnings became one of the most successful merchants in New England. He was graduated at Yale college in 1799, and entered the office of Fisher Ames at Dedham, as a student of law. After completing his studies, he made the tour of Europe, and returned to Massachusetts in 1804, and opened a law office in Boston. But in 1807 he accepted an offer from his elder brother, James Scutt Dwight, to become a partner in an extensive mercantile business in Springfield, and for many years he continued that connection. In April, 1809, he married a daughter of Samuel Eliot of Boston, and in 1815 removed with his family to that city, where he established the mercantile house of William H. and J. W. Dwight. Mr. William H. Dwight was lost by shipwreck on the coast of Ireland, in 1822, and when Mr. J. W. Dwight retired from business the house was continued until 1853, under the name of James K. Mills and co. It may be said that, with perhaps one or two exceptions, this house has laid the foundation of more successful manufacturing enterprises than any other in New England. In 1822 the manufacturing village of Chicopee Falls was commenced by it, and in the course of 7 years 4 large cotton mills were put in motion, beside manufactories of other fabrics. In 1831 measures were taken to develop the water power at Cabotville (since Chicopee), and in a few years 7 large cotton mills were erected and set in successful operation there, beside manufactories of machinery, tools, hardware, brass cannons, bells, &c. In 1847 measures were taken to form an immense water power on the Connecticut river in the northerly part of West Spring field, opposite South Hadley, and a village was laid out called Holyoke. Notwithstanding many discouraging circumstances, this has acquired a very respectable standing among the manufacturing towns in New England. Another enterprise of a more public character, in which Mr. Dwight took an early and active part, was the construction of the Western railroad from Worcester to Albany, of which he was a director for many years, and one year president. But the great feature of his life was his eminent services to the cause of popular education. Mr. Dwight was the first to propose the establishment of normal schools in Massachusetts, but the extent of his liberality in the contributions of pecuniary means for that object was not allowed to be publicly known until his
decease. In 1838 he pledged $10,000 for the purpose of establishing a system of normal schools, provided the state would appropriate a like sum for the purpose. The proposition was promptly accepted by the legislature. It appeared after his death that Mr. Dwight had relieved several deserving young men who were struggling to meet the expenses of an education, without allowing the receivers of his bounty toknow the hand that had helped them. During most of his business life he represented the towns in which he resided in the legislature. He was a member from Boston for several years.
DWIGHT, THEODORE, an American author and journalist, born in Northampton, Mass., in 1765, died in New York, June 11, 1846. He was a brother of Timothy Dwight, and a grandson, on the mother's side, of Jonathan Edwards, and studied law with his uncle, Judge Pierpont Edwards, of Hartford, Conn. He became an eminent member of his profession, and a leading speaker and writer of the federal party. As a senator in the Connecticut legislature, and subsequently a representative in congress from that state in 1806-7, he showed an aptitude for the discussion of public affairs which induced the prominent federalists of Connecticut to secure his services as editor of the "Hartford Mirror," the leading organ of the party in the state. During the session of the Hartford convention in 1814 he acted as its secretary, and in 1833 published a History of the Hartford Convention,' written from a strong federal point of view. Between 1815 and 1817 he edited the "Albany Daily Advertiser," and in the latter year removed to New York, where he established the "New York Daily Advertiser," of which he remained the editor until 1836, when he retired from professional life to reside in Hartford. Three years before his death he returned to New York. Mr. Dwight was the author of some occasional orations and of several educational works.
DWIGHT, TIMOTHY, an American divine, president of Yale college, born in Northampton, Mass., May 14, 1752, died in New Haven, Conn., Jan. 11, 1817. From his earliest years, under the training of his mother, he gave indications of a thirst for knowledge, and great facility of learning. He is said to have been able at the age of 4 to read the Bible correctly and fluently. When 6 years old he was sent to the grammar school, and in 1765 he entered Yale college, where, for the first 2 years, he scarcely fulfilled the promise of his earlier days; but from that time to the end of his college course, he made rapid progress in his regular studies and in other branches, especially in poetry and music. He was graduated in 1769, and soon took charge of a grammar school in New Haven, where he remained for 2 years. In 1771 he was chosen tutor in Yale college, and continued in that office for 6 years. So intense and unintermitted were his studies at this time that his health was for a season seriously impaired, and his eyes so weakened that they never regained their strength. For a
and sensible; and as a preacher, sound, strong, impressive, and at times highly eloquent. So entirely were his mental resources under his command, that he often dictated to 2 or even 3 amanuenses at the same time, on as many distinct subjects; and so great was his influence over young men, and his success in training large numbers of them for eminence aud usefulness, that a distinguished civilian has said of him: "I have often expressed the opinion, which length of time has continually strengthened, that no man except the 'father of his country has conferred greater benefits on our nation than President Dwight." The literary labors of Dr. Dwight were very great, and his publications numerous, consisting of dissertations, poems, and occasional sermons, issued during his life, and since his death; his "Theology Explained and Defended," with a memoir (5 vols., 1818); "Travels in New England and New York" (4 vols., 1822); "Sermons on Miscellaneous Subjects" (2 vols., 1828).-SERENO EDWARDS, an American clergyman, son of the preceding, born in Greenfield, Conn., May 18, 1786, died in Philadelphia, Nov. 30, 1850. When between 9 and 10 years of age, he was removed to New Haven, his father having then become president of Yale college. Entering that institution in 1799, he was graduated in 1803; was tutor in Yale college from 1806 to 1810, during which time he studied law in New Haven, and was admitted to the bar in the latter year. In 1815, however, he experienced, as he believed, a radical change of character, and in October of the year following was licensed as a preacher of the gospel by the west association of New Haven co. Soon afterward he was chosen chaplain of the U. S. senate for the session of 1816-'17, and in September of the latter year was ordained pastor of the Park street church, Boston. Here he labored with great zeal and success for about 10 years, visiting Europe, in 1824–25, to recruit his prostrated health; but not fully gaining this end, he resigned his charge in 1826. Returning to New Haven, he now occupied himself in writing the life and editing the works of the elder President Edwards, which were published in 1829. In 1828, in connection with his brother Henry, he commenced in New Haven a large school for boys, on the plan of the German gymnasiums, which was continued for 3 years. In March, 1833, he was chosen president of Hamilton college, N. Y., in September of the same year received the degree of D.D. from Yale college, and in Sept. 1835, on account of pecuniary and other discouragements, resigned his presidency. In 1838 he was occupied for some months in an agency for the Pennsylvania colonization society, and in the same year removed to New York, where he lived for the remainder of his days. Here a distressing malady, from which he had long suffered, gained complete mastery over him, disabling him for active service, and leading him to court retirement, so that little was known of him by the public, till, visiting Philadelphia in
time he seems to have contemplated the study of law, in which he afterward temporarily engaged, though his ultimate determination was for theology. When, on account of the revolutionary troubles, the students of the college were dispersed, in 1777, he went with his class to Wethersfield, where he remained till autumn, and in the mean time was licensed to preach by an association in Hampshire co., Mass. Soon after this he was appointed chaplain to a brigade of the division under Gen. Putnam, and joined the army at West Point, remaining with them over a year, and discharging the duties of his office with scrupulous fidelity. Not only did he labor for the spiritual interests of the soldiery, but, by delivering patriotic discourses and composing patriotic songs, gave new vigor to the spirit of liberty. By the death of his father in 1778 the support of his mother with her 12 children devolved on him, the oldest of her sons; and resigning his chaplaincy, he removed with his own family to Northampton. Here his labors for a series of years would seem almost incredible. He worked with his own hands upon the farm during the week, supplied some neighboring church on the Sabbath, established and sustained a school for both sexes, which acquired high celebrity, represented the town in county conventions, and for 2 years in the state legislature, and would have been chosen to the continental congress, but that he declined the intended honor, in order to devote himself to the work of the ministry. In 1783 he was ordained as pastor of the Congregational church in Greenfield, Conn.; but as his salary was entirely insufficient for his support, he established an academy, which soon became extensively known, and to which he devoted 6 hours of each day. In 1787 he received the degree of D.D. from the college of New Jersey, and in 1810 that of LL.D. from Harvard college. On the death of Dr. Stiles he was chosen his successor in the presidency of Yale college, was inaugurated to that office in Sept. 1795, and continued in it to the end of his life, not merely, however, discharging its appropriate duties, but connecting with it a vast amount of labor that belonged to other departments. He was, in reality, professor of belles-lettres, oratory, and theology, teaching a class preparing for the ministry, and preaching in the college chapel twice every Sunday; in the discharge of which latter duty he prepared and delivered his wellknown "System of Theology," with which his reputation as a writer and preacher is chiefly identified. In 1816 his health began to give way under his labors, and though he attended to his classes and heard recitations almost to the last, he gradually declined till the hour of his death. Dr. Dwight was a man of commanding presence, of dignified but affable manners, of striking conversational powers, of superior intellectual faculties, untiring in his industry and research, of great system and wonderful memory; as a teacher, remarkable for his skill and success; as a writer always interesting