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vier than water is suspended in this fluid by a with false membrane, sometimes appearing as rope passing over a pulley. As power is applied if struck with gangrene. When the pain and to this rope to draw the cylinder out of the tenderness are very considerable, the treatment water, the increasing weight of this, as more is may be commenced by the application of leeches raised into the air, will at last cause the resist- over the track of the inflamed bowel; if any ance to equal the force applied, the cylinder constipation has previously existed, a dose of being sufficiently large and long. By means of castor oil, to which a few drops of landanum a scale properly arranged, the amount of the have been added, may be given; opiates and power applied may be accurately measured. astringents may be afterward administered.

DYSART, or DesarT, & parliamentary bor- From the fact that the rectum is the part of the ough and seaport town of Scotland, in the intestinal canal most affected, opiates in the county of Fife, 12 m. N. N. E. from Edinburgh, form of suppositories or enemata are found paron the N. side of the firth of Forth; pop. in ticularly useful. Calomel has been highly re1851, 8,739. The town is very old, and in former cominended in the treatment of the dysentery times was a place of much importance. Its of tropical climates, but in temperate regions it trade was then considerable, but it now exports is rarely necessary to resort to it. During the little besido coal, and has no manufactures of treatment the patient should be confined to his note except checks and ticks.

bed, and the diet should be of the mildest and DYSENTERY, a disease characterized by most unirritating character. When dysentery frequent straining efforts at stool, attended by passes into the chronic state, the tenesmus subsmall and painful mucous and bloody discharges. sides, the stools become more copious and loose, Dysentery is more common in hot climates than and are found to contain pus; the complaint is in temperate ones; in summer and autumn than apt to be tedious and intractable, and when rein winter and spring. It is subject to epidemic covery does take place the digestive organs reinfluences, being in some seasons frequent and main for a long time feeble and irritable. A fatal over an extensive region, and then almost strictly regulated diet with the use of opium, disappearing for years. It is more common and combined with a small dose of sulphate of copper severe in malarious districts. It sometimes or nitrate of silver, are the means commonly had breaks out and is excessively fatal in public recourse to in its treatment. institutions where the inmates have been sub- DYSPEPSIA, INDIGESTION. Under this head ject to the combined influence of a vitiated are commonly grouped all those functional disatmosphere and an improper and innutritious orders of the stomach which are independent diet; and under the influence of fatigue, expo- of organic disease, and are not symptomatic of sure, and improper diet, it has often proved disease of other parts of the economy. Its very destructive to armies. It is commonly characteristic symptoms, as given by Cullen, attributed to the use of irritating and indiges- are want of appetite, nausea, vomiting, flattible food, and to cold, particularly after the ulence, eructations, and pain ; more or fewer body has been debilitated by a prolonged ex- of these symptoms concurring, together someposure to heat. The milder cases of dysentery times with constipation.". Many circumstances are attended by little or no fever; but when the must concur to render digestion easy and perdisease is severe fever is always present, and may fect. The mind should be free from any harprecede though it more commonly follows the assing care or anxiety; otherwise not only the local manifestations. There is often a good deal appetite is impaired, but the food which is taken of pain and soreness in the lower part of the is digested with difficulty. The food should be abdomen or extending along the track of the thoroughly masticated and insalivated to precolon, frequent calls to stool, attended with pare it for the action of the gastric juice. Those painful and often violent straining; the stools who bolt their food half chewed, who have saliconsist chiefly of mucus more or less tinged vary fistula, or who waste their saliva by conwith blood, and sometimes mixed with mem- stant spitting, finally suffer from dyspepsia. The branous shreds, or they may consist of blood quantity of food taken must be suited to the almost pure, or they resemble the washings of wants of the system, and to the capabilities of flesh; their odor is not feculent, but faint and the stomach. After recovery from wasting dispeculiar, and sometimes horribly fetid; occa- eases, a larger quantity of food is required and sionally the neck of the bladder sympathizes will be digested than at ordinary times. It with the neighboring bowel, and there is diffi- must be suited to the digestive capacity of the culty in passing urine. While mild cases of stomach; if the quantity be too large or the dysentery are attended with no danger, when quality too rich, a sense of fulness and weight severe the disease is always serious and often in the region of the stomach, nausea, heartburn, fatal; or it may become chronic, and slowly and eructation of acid and gaseous matters folwaste the powers of the constitution. When low; with these symptoms the tongue becomes death occurs, post mortem examination reveals furred, there is some feverishness, and there is the existence of extensive ulceration in the more or less headache ; if vomiting occurs, and large intestines. The ulcers are often large, the ejecta contain bile, the sufferer in ordinary irregular in shape, laying bare the muscular and phrase is said to have had a bilious attack. The sometimes the peritoneal coat; between them food must be taken at proper intervals, and the mucous membrane is thickened, often lined these intervals are not always the same for all



persons; before a second meal is taken, the stimulating kind, and the amount of food rigidprevious meal should be completely digested, ly limited. Restricting the patient to milk, and the stomach should have a period of repose. diluted with an equal part of lime water, is The food must not only be of a character which sometimes attended by great benefit, and faripermits its easy digestion by the stomach and naceous articles are preferable to meat. In small intestines, but it must afford a residuum another and the larger class of cases, there is bulky and stimulating enough to maintain a neither inflammation nor irritation present, but regular action of the bowels. When constipa- the powers of the stomach seem enfeebled; here tion is induced by neglect, indolent babits, or stimulants relieve the distress, and cause at least too concentrated a diet, the stomach is apt to a temporary improvement. In such cases a suffer, and dyspeptic symptoms follow. To all meat diet agrees better than an exclusively farithese causes of dyspepsia must be added the naceous one, and the patient is benefited by the abuse of fermented and distilled liquors. When use of the bitter tonics, colombo, gentian, quas. dyspepsia has been induced by any one of the sia, &c. Certain remedies are adapted to the above-mentioned causes, its cure is to be sought relief of particular symptoms; acidity is re. in the removal of the cause by which it was lieved by the use of alkalies and the alkaline brought on; but this alone will often be found earths; pain, by bismuth and hydrocyanic acid; tedious or inefficient. In one class of cases a flatulence, by carminatives; and constipation, certain degree of inflammation of the gastric when it cannot be obviated by diet and attenmucous membrane seems to be produced. The tion, may call forth the use of some of the purpresence of food excites pain, which continues gative mineral waters, or of small doses of aloes so long as the food remains in the stomach ; in combination with nux vomica. It is in these carminatives or stimulants, so far from afford cases that travel, combining as it does' relaxaing relief, aggravate the distress. In such cases tion with mental excitement and exercise, is parthe diet must be of the blandest and most un- ticularly serviceable,



the 5th letter and 2d vowel of the Latin sonant; the close by Segol (grape), or 3 dots, and

alphabet, and of those derived from it. It 2 Sheva (emptiness), or 2 vertical dots, the one is both short and long, and in the Greek alphabet movable (half mute), the other quiescent (mute). has 2 corresponding forms, Eyelov (slender E), The long E is written AI in Mæso-Gothic. In the 5th letter, and Hra (long E), the 7th letter Greek the long and short E (e and n) are both (but counting 8 if the stigma be included). The either open or close, but the latter is pronounced short and long 0, Opekpov and Qeya, are analo- as I in Neo-Hellenic, Coptic, and Slavonic. In

OOμικρον , gous to them. Simonides is said to have formed German it has 3 sounds, very short in hatte, the H (nra) by doubling the E (cf.aov), thus hoffen, like the English short E in Engel, rennen, EG, the epsilon having before been both short and like the English long A in geben, predigen; and long. The H, however, was made by the in Magyar 3, as in emberiség, humanity; in Italian Latins an aspirate, and was employed to repre- and Spanish 2, the open and close ; in French sent the rough breathing, and the aspirate sound viz. : open in fête, il cède, half open in nous réin e, ®, and x, as Homerus, Thales, Philon, tons, sharp in été, parlez, nasal in bien, half mute Charon. The prototypes of the aspirated Greek in je, le, Breton, and almost mute in simple, sucre, letters in question are the Phænician and He- and is quite mute in la rue, j'avouerai. Both brew He and Chet. Indicating the most fleeting in English and French it influences preceding sylsound of the human voice, a mere breathing in lables by lengthening and changing their vowels; many cases, the letter E is the basis of the thus compare made, mete, pine, note, and tube, vowel system, and the most protean of all the with mad, met, pin, not, and tub; and il plane, vowels, as regards its shades of sound, its conver- il mène, fine, and une, with le plan, il ment, fin, tibility, the modes in which it is indicated in and un. In German it produces the metaphony writing, and the uses that are made of it in of A, O, U, into Ä, Ö, U, as in Männer, men, various graphic systems. But few of its pecu- Vögel

, birds,

, hats. It also lengthens liarities can here be pointed out. In English it vowels immediately preceding, as in Germ. See, has 5 sounds, called long, short, open, obtuse, sea, dieser, this, Eng. true, and Fr. la vie. It and obscure, respectively as in metë, met, there, is very often elided, absorbing and absorbed; her, and brier._The long English sound corre- the elision is in many languages recorded by the sponds to the French and German I, while the sign of apostrophe; thus: John's house, wishid, French nasal E in em and en sounds like the l'homme, and l'erbe. It is often a euphonic English a in swan; and the sound of the French means for facilitating the utterance of words, sharp E is represented in English by a, ai, ay, as in establish, établir, establecer, épice, espiritu, or ey, as in made, maid, say, and they. In esprit, escribir, écrire, estado, état, estrella, étoile, Hebrew, it has 2 sounds; the open is noted by Estevan, and Étienne. It is prefixed for other Tsere (break), or 2 horizontal dots under the con- reasons in EKELVOS, ecquis, and many other


words. In Slavic languages it often coalesces É = negat. On French coins it designates with I, forming a sort of consonant; thus, jest Tours; on those of Austria, Carlsburg in Tran(pronounced yest), Lat. est; nie, Lat. ne, non. sylvania; on those of Prussia, Königsberg. In È frequently occurs instead of I in ancient Ro- Greek, E has the value of 5, and with a mark man memorials, as, for instance, on the columna below it, of 5,000. According to Baronius, it Tostrata of Duilius, on the tomb of the Scipios, represented the number 250 in the period of and in the works of writers; thus, sebe, quase, the decline of classic literature.-In music, it macester, fuet, for sibi, quasi, magister, fuit

. In denotes the 3d great interval in modern musical the Slavonic it occupies, as jest, the 6th place of nomenclature, or the 5th string in the chrothe Bukvitsa as well as of the Cyrillic scheme, matic scale, and is called mi in vocal music. and has two softening forms as finals

(-er, -eri) EACHARD, JOnn, an English divine, born in toward the close of the alphabet.-We give a Suffolk in 1636, died July 7, 1697. He studied promiscuous list of the substitutions or meta- and took his degree at the university of Camphonies of E, long and short, in different lan- bridge, and became known by his satires against guages, resulting from glossic, dialectic, gram- the clergymen of his time, making the sermons matic, 'euphonic, and other exigencies: Tperw, of his own father sometimes serve to give point τραπον, τροπος ; λεγω, λογος και νεος, πουμε; πληγη, to his ridicule. After becoming a clergyman plaga; tarnp, Eupatwp; Eckehos, Siculus ; vepos, himself, he wrote upon the "Grounds and Occanubes ; kepas, cornu ; ago, egi; frango, fregi; sions of the Contempt of the Clergy and Reli

facio, feci, efficio, fingo, fungor; pars, expers ; gion,” which he attributed to the insufficient bonus, bene; velle, volo, vis, vult; castus, inces- salaries of clergymen, and the consequent necestus; 108, vester ; sero, satus, Eng. 8own, son ; verto, sity for them to eke out a living by unbecoming cortex, adversus, Eng. toroard ; vermis

, worm;

The work passed rapidly through 6 audio, obedio; arista, Germ. Aehre, Eng. ear (of editions, and drew down upon its author abuncorn); fallo, fefelli ; halo, anhelo ; tego, toga; dant criticisms. He published 2 dialogues upon

; percello, perculi ; vas, Eng. vessel, Fr. vaisseau; Mr. Hobbes's “State of Nature,” in which he pes, Eng: foot, feet, fetter, Fr. pied; Anglia, attacked the ideas of that philosopher in a England, Ital. Inghilterra; Cornelia, Ital. Cor- humorous and vigorous way. An edition of his niglia ; urbs vetus, Ital. Orvieto; decem, Ital. works, with a life, was published in 1714, and dieci ; sequitur, Span, sigue ; mecum, Span. it is remarked by Warton that his writings must conmigo; deus, Span. dios,

nego, Span. niego; have been diligently studied by Swift. brevis, Prov. brieu ; petra, Wal. peatre ; sensus,

EADMER, or EDMER, an English monk, the Portug. siso; cera, ecclesia, racemus, ego, neptis, friend and biographer of Saint Anselm, died in Fr. (respectively) cire, église, raisin, je, nièce; 1124. He was chosen in 1120 bishop of St. Anbene, mel, Fr. bien, miel; mensis, me, Fr. mois, drew's, in Scotland, but the Scottish king refusmoi; Eng. apple, Iceland. epli; aper, Germ. ing to allow his consecration by the archbishop Eber, Eng. boar; Eng. Ian, men, to mean, of Canterbury, and thus to admit the primacy of mind; sell, sale, sold; enquire, inquire ; fed, that see, he either declined the bishoprio or abfat, feed, food, shed, shut; set, sit, sat, seat, dicated it after a short possession, and died as site, sod; Fr. venir, viens, vint; Germ. werden, a monk of Canterbury. "Beside his life of Saint ward, wäre, wird, wurde, würde , geworden. -- Anselm, contained in most of the editions

of , The figure of E is supposed by the abbé Mous- Anselm's works, he wrote the lives of Wilfred, sard to be the base of the nose, n, its sound Dunstan, and other English saints, a treatise on being symbolio of breathing, and hence of life. the “Excellence of the Holy Virgin," and on the It has this or a similar shape in Phænician, He- “Four Virtues which were in Mary;" but his brew, Samaritan, the ancient Italic alphabets, most valuable work is the “History of his own Idalian (Cyprian), and in their derivative sys- Times," an account of the principal events that tems. Court de Gébelin derives its form from happened in England and in the English church the outline of the human face, which is a sym- from 1066 to 1122 (best edition by Selden, 1623).

a bol, according to him, of the idea of existence. EAGLE, a bird of prey, of the order accipiDammartin pretends to have found its prototype tres, family falconide, and subfamily aquiline. for all graphic systems, including even the Chi- The eagles have a strong bill, elevated at the nese, in the southern triangle, and the bow of culmen, straight at the base, and much arched the constellation of the archer. It is represent- to the tip, which is hooked and sharp; the sides ed by the Stungen Ies (Stung or pointed I) of the are compressed, and the lateral margins festoonrunic writing; its hieroglyphs are palm leaves ed; the nostrils are in the cere, large; the wings or long feathers; the hieratic figure of it is a are long and acute, the 3d, 4th, and 6th quills sort of tetragonal convolute, and the demotic usually the longest; the tail is long, ample, mostis sickle-like.-Barrois asserts that E signifies ly rounded at the end; the tarsi are long, either one, since it is the initial of the Greek és. As clothed with feathers to the base of the toes as an abbreviation, E. stands for Ennius, eques in the golden eagle, or naked and covered with Romanus, egregius, emeritus,

ergo, editio, east, scales as in the bald eagle; tho toes are long, electricity, and excellence. The letters d. e. r. strong, armed with large, curved, and sharp claws. stand for de re; q. e. d. for quod erat de- In the type genus aquila (Mæhr.) belongs the monstrandum; e. g. and e. c. for exempli gratia golden eagle of Europe and America (A. chryand exempli causâ. In syllogisms, A = asserit, saētos , Lion.). The length of this magnificent

VOL VI.-45

bird is about 3 feet 2 inches, the extent of wings eter at the widest part; they are laid in Febru7 feet, the bill along the back 24 inches, the tar. ary or March; the young, when able to provide Bus 44 inches, and the middle toe and claw the for themselves, are driven from the eyry by same; the bill is very robust, angular above; their parents. This bird is long-lived, individthe head is moderate, the neck short, and the uals, it is said, having been kept in captivity body full; the tarsi are feathered to the toes, for more than a century. Though the eagle holds and the feet are very stout; the middle toe has among the feathered race a position equivalent & membrane at the base connecting it with the to that of the lion among beasts, being king of others. The above dimensions are those of an birds as the latter is the monarch of mammals, adult female, the male being considerably small- he belongs to the section of the ignoble birds of er, in conformity with the rule that in birds of prey, which cannot be employed in the noble prey the females are larger than the males. The sport of falconry; in proportion to their size, the plumage is compact, imbricated, and glossy; the eagles are less courageous, and less powerful in feathers of the neck and head are narrow and beak, wings, and talons, than the falcons. The pointed, and may be erected like a short crest; noble nature of the eagle, like that of the lion, is the tail consists of 12 broad feathers. In the mostly a creation of the imagination, founded on adult the bill is black at the tip, bluish gray at external characters which have no corresponding the base, the cere and margins yellow; iris internal qualities; he follows the instinct of his chestnut; toes bright yellow, claws black; gen- carnivorous nature, without regard to surrounderal color of the plumage dark brown, glossed ing weaker animals, attacking where he is sure with purple; the hind head and neck light of victory, gorging himself like a glutton, pabrownish yellow, the feathers with dark shafts; tiently bearing forced abstinence from food, and the wing coverts light brown; primaries brown- at last soiling his royal beak with the foulness ish black; tail rounded, dark brown, lighter at of carrion; the king bird and the shrike are far the base, irregularly marked with whitish ; lower his superiors in bravery, and all the qualities tail coverts, feathers of legs and tarsi, yellowish which have been specially assumed for bim can brown. The immature bird is of a deep brown be found in greater perfection in many common color, with the tail white at the base for of birds, beside many of the softer traits of charits length, and dark at the end ; this is the ring- acter which find no place in his royal constitutailed eagle of Wilson and others; the adult, tion; like most other kings, he has his supefrom its majestic appearance, is called in Eu- riors in many of the lowest of his subjects. The rope the royal eagle; the American species is eagle is monogamous, and the mated pair are considered distinct by some, and is called A. generally not far from each other; the same Canadensis (Linn.). The golden eagle is rarely nest is used for many successive years. The seen in the eastern portion of the United States, scent of the eagle is feeble, but his sight is exthough specimens have been obtained in all the ceedingly keen; able to gaze at the sun at noonnorthern states; a few years since a young bird day, and rising toward it until beyond human was shot in Lexington, Mass.; the species is sight, he can detect in the plains below his livmost common in the north-west, on the upper ing prey. Like the condor, the eagle has been Mississippi, and in the mountainous regions of accused of carrying off little children to its nest, the country; it is also found in the cold and but such instances in both birds must be very mountainous districts of northern Europe and rare, though doubtless they may have occurred. Asia. The flight is powerful, though less rapid Another species of this genus is the spotted or than that of the bald eagle, being continued for rough-footed eagle (A. næria, Gmel.), smaller hours in majestic circles at a great elevation, than the golden, of a brownish color, with black and without apparent exertion ; its prey is not white-tipped tail, and wings yellow spotted; it seized on the wing, but is pounced upon on the is found in the mountains of central and southground from a great height with rarely failing ern Europe and northern Africa, and preys upon precision. Its food consists of young fawns, the smaller animals.-In the genus haliaetus raccoons, hares, wild turkeys, and birds and ani- (Sav.) belong the fisbing or sea eagles, the best mals of similar size, and, when hard pressed by known and largest of which is the bald or whitehunger, of carrion; capable of going several headed eagle (A. leucocephalus, Linn.); the bill days without food, it gorges itself when oppor- is 24 inches long, very robust, convex above; tunity offers. Its strength is great, and its the head is large, and flat above; neck short weight about 12 lbs.; it is able to withstand and thick; body large, wings long, and tail extreme cold, and pursues its prey in the most rounded; the tarsus only 3 inches long, bare for violent storms. The voice is harsh and scream- its lower two-thirds and covered with large ing, and very loud at the breeding season. The scales ; the feet are short and robust, and the plumage does not attain its full beauty until the toes are free, rough, and tuberculous beneath, 4th year; the American Indians are fond of with very sharp curved claws. The plumage using the tail feathers as ornaments for their is compact and imbricated; the feathers of the persons, pipes, and weapons. The nest is of head, neck, and breast are narrow and pointed, large size, consisting of a rude collection of and of the otber parts broad and rounded; there sticks, and placed on some inaccessible cliff; the is a bare space between the bill and eye with a eggs are generally 2, of a dull white color, with few bristly feathers; the eyebrows are bare and brownish shades, 34 inches long and 24 in diam- very prominent. In the adult the bill, cere, iris and feet are yellow, the first 3 being often almost has fairly put this cowardly bird to fight. white; the general color of the plumage is choc- The females are somewhat larger, braver, and olate-brown, the feathers with paler margins; fiercer than the males. When wounded, or irrithe head, greater part of neck, tail and its cov. tated in captivity, it defends itself with beak erts, white; the quills are brownish black, with and claws, striking with the latter, and beatlighter shafts. The length is about 8 feet, and ing furiously with its wings. Like the golden the extent of wings 7 feet; the female is some- eagles, these birds live to a great age. They what larger. In the young bird the bill is black are generally seen in pairs, and the union apabove, bluish gray at the end of the lower man- pears to last for life, the two hunting and feeddible ; the feathers, which are white in the ad. ing together, and driving off other birds of the ult, are dark brown like the rest of the plumage, same species. Along the southern Mississippi, margined with lighter; the head and tail become incubation commences in January; the nest is white between the 3d and 10th year, according placed on the top of a tall tree, and not on cliffs to circumstances of locality and captivity. It is like the golden eagle's; it is a rude structure, very generally distributed over North America, made of sticks, turf, weeds, and moss, measuron the sea-coast and in the interior; it has been ing 5 or 6 feet in diameter, used year after year, found breeding from the fur countries to Florida. and added to annually. The eggs are usually Its usual food is fish, which it procures easily, 2, of a dull white color. The attachment of the and for seizing and retaining which its sharp old birds to their young is great. The weight curved claws and rough feet are admirably of the adult male is from 6 to 8 lbs., that of the adapted; but it eats the flesh of animals when female from 8 to 12. The flesh of the young it can get it, and often seizes small quadrupeds is said to be palatable, having the taste of veal. and birds of inferior flight; it has been accused Audubon laments that this bird should have of attacking children, and when pressed by hun- been selected as the emblem of the United ger will feed on decaying carcasses. Strong, States, and quotes the following from one of powerful in flight, free and independent in its Benjamin Franklin's letters: "For my part, I habits, and noble in aspect, the bald eagle has wish the bald eagle had not been chosen as the been adopted as the emblem of the United representative of our country. He is a bird of States. Audubon, in his “Ornithological Biog- bad moral character; he does not get his living raphy" (vol. i. p. 161), gives a graphic descrip- honestly." After alluding to his tyranny over the tion of the capture of a wild swan by the bald fish hawk, Franklin continues : * With all this eagle; water fowl of smaller size are also taken injustice, he is never in good case, but like those by these birds hunting in company, and alter- among men who live by sharping and robbing, he nately pouncing upon the prey as it emerges is generally poor. Beside, he is a rank coward; from the water; young pigs, lambs, fawns, and the little king-bird, not bigger than a sparrow, poultry are greedily devoured ; and the disgust- attacks him boldly, and drives him out of the ing food of the vultures and carrion crows is district. He is, therefore, by no means a proper often shared with this eagle. This representa- emblem for the brave and honest Cincinnati of tive of American prowess, though occasionally America, who have driven all the king-birds catching fish for himself, forces the fish hawk to from our country, though exactly fit for that obtain his favorite food for him in the follow- order of knights which the French call chevaing manner: when the fish hawk follows the liers d'industrie.” The writer, having had under shoals of fish in the rivers in spring, the eagle his care for several months a large pair of these sits watching from the top of a tall tree; as soon eagles, has had ample opportunity to observe their as the former rises with a fish, and bends his babits; the female not only attacks and abuses course for the shore to devour it, the latter the male, but stretches her wings to the utmost mounts above him, and by most unmistakable extent, attempting to cover with them every signs forces him to give up his prey to save his piece of food placed in the cage. The name of own life; the eagle closes his wings, drops down bald eagle is really a misnomer, as the head is as with great quickness, and seizes the fish before thickly feathered as in any species; the proper it reaches the water; and this marauding and name is white-headed eagle.- The bird of Washmean career the eagle pursues till the migrations ington (H. Washingtonii, Aud.) was first deof the fish cease, and the fish hawks depart. scribed by Audubon (“Ornithological BiograThe flight of this bird is very majestic, accom- phy," vol. i. p. 58), and seems not to have been plished by easy flappings; it sails along with seen by any other ornithologist; he first saw it extended wings, and, according to Audubon, on the upper Mississippi in Feb. 1814; a few can ascend until it disappears from view, with- years after he met with a pair near the Ohio river out any apparent motion of the wings or tail; in Kentucky, which had built their nest on a and from the greatest heights it descends with range of high cliffs ; 2 years after the discovery a rapidity which cannot be followed by the eye. of the nest he killed a male which was the subAll authors are agreed as to the cowardice of the ject of his description; after this he saw two eagle when it is suddenly surprised or meets other pairs near the Ohio river. His reason for with unexpected resistance; a game cock put giving the name to the bird is thus stated by into a cage with a full-grown male at once himself: “Washington was brave, so is the attacked the eagle and beat him in the most eagle; like it, too, he was the terror of his foes; approved manner, and even the common cock and his fame, extending from pole to pole, resem

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