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vier than water is suspended in this fluid by a rope passing over a pulley. As power is applied to this rope to draw the cylinder out of the water, the increasing weight of this, as more is raised into the air, will at last cause the resistance to equal the force applied, the cylinder being sufficiently large and long. By means of a scale properly arranged, the amount of the power applied may be accurately measured.
DYSART, or DESART, a parliamentary borough and seaport town of Scotland, in the county of Fife, 12 m. N. N. E. from Edinburgh, on the N. side of the firth of Forth; pop. in 1851, 8,739. The town is very old, and in former times was a place of much importance. Its trade was then considerable, but it now exports little beside coal, and has no manufactures of note except checks and ticks.
with false membrane, sometimes appearing as if struck with gangrene. When the pain and tenderness are very considerable, the treatment may be commenced by the application of leeches over the track of the inflamed bowel; if any constipation has previously existed, a dose of castor oil, to which a few drops of laudanum have been added, may be given; opiates and astringents may be afterward administered. From the fact that the rectum is the part of the intestinal canal most affected, opiates in the form of suppositories or enemata are found particularly useful. Calomel has been highly recommended in the treatment of the dysentery of tropical climates, but in temperate regions it is rarely necessary to resort to it. During the treatment the patient should be confined to his bed, and the diet should be of the mildest and most unirritating character. When dysentery passes into the chronic state, the tenesmus subsides, the stools become more copious and loose, and are found to contain pus; the complaint is apt to be tedious and intractable, and when recovery does take place the digestive organs remain for a long time feeble and irritable. A strictly regulated diet with the use of opium, combined with a small dose of sulphate of copper or nitrate of silver, are the means commonly had recourse to in its treatment.
DYSPEPSIA, INDIGESTION. Under this head are commonly grouped all those functional disorders of the stomach which are independent of organic disease, and are not symptomatic of disease of other parts of the economy. Its characteristic symptoms, as given by Cullen,
DYSENTERY, a disease characterized by frequent straining efforts at stool, attended by small and painful mucous and bloody discharges. Dysentery is more common in hot climates than in temperate ones; in summer and autumn than in winter and spring. It is subject to epidemic influences, being in some seasons frequent and fatal over an extensive region, and then almost disappearing for years. It is more common and severe in malarious districts. It sometimes breaks out and is excessively fatal in public institutions where the inmates have been subject to the combined influence of a vitiated atmosphere and an improper and innutritious diet; and under the influence of fatigue, exposure, and improper diet, it has often proved very destructive to armies. It is commonly attributed to the use of irritating and indiges-"are want of appetite, nausea, vomiting, flattible food, and to cold, particularly after the body has been debilitated by a prolonged exposure to heat. The milder cases of dysentery are attended by little or no fever; but when the disease is severe fever is always present, and may precede though it more commonly follows the local manifestations. There is often a good deal of pain and soreness in the lower part of the abdomen or extending along the track of the colon, frequent calls to stool, attended with painful and often violent straining; the stools consist chiefly of mucus more or less tinged with blood, and sometimes mixed with membranous shreds, or they may consist of blood almost pure, or they resemble the washings of flesh; their odor is not feculent, but faint and peculiar, and sometimes horribly fetid; occasionally the neck of the bladder sympathizes with the neighboring bowel, and there is difficulty in passing urine. While mild cases of dysentery are attended with no danger, when severe the disease is always serious and often fatal; or it may become chronic, and slowly waste the powers of the constitution. When death occurs, post mortem examination reveals the existence of extensive ulceration in the large intestines. The ulcers are often large, irregular in shape, laying bare the muscular and sometimes the peritoneal coat; between them the mucous membrane is thickened, often lined
ulence, eructations, and pain; more or fewer of these symptoms concurring, together sometimes with constipation." Many circumstances must concur to render digestion easy and perfect. The mind should be free from any harassing care or anxiety; otherwise not only the appetite is impaired, but the food which is taken is digested with difficulty. The food should be thoroughly masticated and insalivated to prepare it for the action of the gastric juice. Those who bolt their food half chewed, who have salivary fistula, or who waste their saliva by constant spitting, finally suffer from dyspepsia. The quantity of food taken must be suited to the wants of the system, and to the capabilities of the stomach. After recovery from wasting diseases, a larger quantity of food is required and will be digested than at ordinary times. It must be suited to the digestive capacity of the stomach; if the quantity be too large or the quality too rich, a sense of fulness and weight in the region of the stomach, nausea, heartburn, and eructation of acid and gaseous matters follow; with these symptoms the tongue becomes furred, there is some feverishness, and there is more or less headache; if vomiting occurs, and the ejecta contain bile, the sufferer in ordinary phrase is said to have had a bilious attack. The food must be taken at proper intervals, and these intervals are not always the same for all
persons; before a second meal is taken, the previous meal should be completely digested, and the stomach should have a period of repose. The food must not only be of a character which permits its easy digestion by the stomach and small intestines, but it must afford a residuum bulky and stimulating enough to maintain a regular action of the bowels. When constipation is induced by neglect, indolent habits, or too concentrated a diet, the stomach is apt to suffer, and dyspeptic symptoms follow. To all these causes of dyspepsia must be added the abuse of fermented and distilled liquors. When dyspepsia has been induced by any one of the above-mentioned causes, its cure is to be sought in the removal of the cause by which it was brought on; but this alone will often be found tedious or inefficient. In one class of cases a certain degree of inflammation of the gastric mucous membrane seems to be produced. The presence of food excites pain, which continues so long as the food remains in the stomach; carminatives or stimulants, so far from affording relief, aggravate the distress. In such cases the diet must be of the blandest and most un
the 5th letter and 2d vowel of the Latin is both short and long, and in the Greek alphabet has 2 corresponding forms, Evov (slender E), the 5th letter, and Hra (long E), the 7th letter (but counting 8 if the stigma be included). The short and long O, Όμικρον and Ωμέγα, are analogous to them. Simonides is said to have formed the H (nra) by doubling the E (eviλov), thus Ea, the epsilon having before been both short and long. The H, however, was made by the Latins an aspirate, and was employed to represent the rough breathing, and the aspirate sound in e, , and X, as Homerus, Thales, Philon, Charon. The prototypes of the aspirated Greek letters in question are the Phoenician and Hebrew He and Chet. Indicating the most fleeting sound of the human voice, a mere breathing in many cases, the letter E is the basis of the vowel system, and the most protean of all the vowels, as regards its shades of sound, its convertibility, the modes in which it is indicated in writing, and the uses that are made of it in various graphic systems. But few of its peculiarities can here be pointed out. In English it has 5 sounds, called long, short, open, obtuse, and obscure, respectively as in mete, met, there, her, and brier. The long English sound corresponds to the French and German I, while the French nasal E in em and en sounds like the English a in swan; and the sound of the French sharp E is represented in English by a, ai, ay, or ey, as in made, maid, say, and they. In Hebrew, it has 2 sounds; the open is noted by Tsere (break), or 2 horizontal dots under the con
stimulating kind, and the amount of food rigidly limited. Restricting the patient to milk, diluted with an equal part of lime water, is sometimes attended by great benefit, and farinaceous articles are preferable to meat. In another and the larger class of cases, there is neither inflammation nor irritation present, but the powers of the stomach seem enfeebled; here stimulants relieve the distress, and cause at least a temporary improvement. In such cases a meat diet agrees better than an exclusively farinaceous one, and the patient is benefited by the use of the bitter tonics, colombo, gentian, quassia, &c. Certain remedies are adapted to the relief of particular symptoms; acidity is relieved by the use of alkalies and the alkaline earths; pain, by bismuth and hydrocyanic acid; flatulence, by carminatives; and constipation, when it cannot be obviated by diet and attention, may call forth the use of some of the purgative mineral waters, or of small doses of aloes in combination with nux vomica. It is in these cases that travel, combining as it does relaxation with mental excitement and exercise, is particularly serviceable.
sonant; the close by Segol (grape), or 3 dots, and movable (half mute), the other quiescent (mute). The long E is written AI in Meso-Gothic. In Greek the long and short E (e and n) are both either open or close, but the latter is pronounced as I in Neo-Hellenic, Coptic, and Slavonic. In German it has 3 sounds, very short in hatte, hoffen, like the English short E in Engel, rennen, and like the English long A in geben, predigen; in Magyar 3, as in emberiség, humanity; in Italian and Spanish 2, the open and close; in French 6, viz.: open in fete, il cède, half open in nous fetons, sharp in été, parlez, nasal in bien, half mute in je, le, Breton, and almost mute in simple, sucre, and is quite mute in la rue, j'avouerai. Both in English and French it influences preceding syllables by lengthening and changing their vowels; thus compare made, mete, pine, note, and tube, with mad, met, pin, not, and tub; and il plane, il mène, fine, and une, with le plan, il ment, fin, and un. In German it produces the metaphony of A, O, U, into Ä, Ö, Ü, as in Männer, men, Vögel, birds, Hüte, hats. It also lengthens vowels immediately preceding, as in Germ. See, sea, dieser, this, Eng. true, and Fr. la vie. It is very often elided, absorbing and absorbed; the elision is in many languages recorded by the sign of apostrophe; thus: John's house, wish'd, l'homme, and Terbe. It is often a euphonic means for facilitating the utterance of words, as in establish, établir, establecer, épice, espiritu, esprit, escribir, écrire, estado, état, estrella, étoile, Estevan, and Étienne. It is prefixed for other reasons in Exelvos, ecquis, and many other
words. In Slavic languages it often coalesces
= negat. On French coins it designates Tours; on those of Austria, Carlsburg in Transylvania; on those of Prussia, Königsberg. In Greek, E has the value of 5, and with a mark below it, of 5,000. According to Baronius, it represented the number 250 in the period of the decline of classic literature.-In music, it denotes the 3d great interval in modern musical nomenclature, or the 5th string in the chromatic scale, and is called mi in vocal music.
EACHARD, JOHN, an English divine, born in Suffolk in 1636, died July 7, 1697. He studied and took his degree at the university of Cambridge, and became known by his satires against the clergymen of his time, making the sermons of his own father sometimes serve to give point to his ridicule. After becoming a clergyman himself, he wrote upon the "Grounds and Occasions of the Contempt of the Clergy and Religion," which he attributed to the insufficient salaries of clergymen, and the consequent necessity for them to eke out a living by unbecoming means. The work passed rapidly through 6 editions, and drew down upon its author abundant criticisms. He published 2 dialogues upon Mr. Hobbes's "State of Nature," in which he attacked the ideas of that philosopher in a humorous and vigorous way. An edition of his works, with a life, was published in 1714, and it is remarked by Warton that his writings must have been diligently studied by Swift.
EADMER, or EDMER, an English monk, the friend and biographer of Saint Anselm, died in 1124. He was chosen in 1120 bishop of St. Andrew's, in Scotland, but the Scottish king refusing to allow his consecration by the archbishop of Canterbury, and thus to admit the primacy of that see, he either declined the bishopric or abdicated it after a short possession, and died as a monk of Canterbury. Beside his life of Saint Anselm, contained in most of the editions of Anselm's works, he wrote the lives of Wilfred, Dunstan, and other English saints, a treatise on the "Excellence of the Holy Virgin," and on the "Four Virtues which were in Mary;" but his most valuable work is the "History of his own Times," an account of the principal events that happened in England and in the English church from 1066 to 1122 (best edition by Selden, 1623).
EAGLE, a bird of prey, of the order accipitres, family falconida, and subfamily aquilina. The eagles have a strong bill, elevated at the culmen, straight at the base, and much arched to the tip, which is hooked and sharp; the sides are compressed, and the lateral margins festooned; the nostrils are in the cere, large; the wings are long and acute, the 3d, 4th, and 5th quills usually the longest; the tail is long, ample, mostly rounded at the end; the tarsi are long, either clothed with feathers to the base of the toes as in the golden eagle, or naked and covered with scales as in the bald eagle; the toes are long, strong, armed with large, curved, and sharp claws. In the type genus aquila (Mohr.) belongs the golden eagle of Europe and America (A. chrysaetos, Linn.). The length of this magnificent
bird is about 3 feet 2 inches, the extent of wings eter at the widest part; they are laid in Febru7 feet, the bill along the back 24 inches, the tar- ary or March; the young, when able to provide sus 41 inches, and the middle toe and claw the for themselves, are driven from the eyry by same; the bill is very robust, angular above; their parents. This bird is long-lived, individthe head is moderate, the neck short, and the uals, it is said, having been kept in captivity body full; the tarsi are feathered to the toes, for more than a century. Though the eagle holds and the feet are very stout; the middle toe has among the feathered race a position equivalent a membrane at the base connecting it with the to that of the lion among beasts, being king of others. The above dimensions are those of an birds as the latter is the monarch of mammals, adult female, the male being considerably small- he belongs to the section of the ignoble birds of er, in conformity with the rule that in birds of prey, which cannot be employed in the noble prey the females are larger than the males. The sport of falconry; in proportion to their size, the plumage is compact, imbricated, and glossy; the eagles are less courageous, and less powerful in feathers of the neck and head are narrow and beak, wings, and talons, than the falcons. The pointed, and may be erected like a short crest; noble nature of the eagle, like that of the lion, is the tail consists of 12 broad feathers. In the mostly a creation of the imagination, founded on adult the bill is black at the tip, bluish gray at external characters which have no corresponding the base, the cere and margins yellow; iris internal qualities; he follows the instinct of his chestnut; toes bright yellow, claws black; gen- carnivorous nature, without regard to surrounderal color of the plumage dark brown, glossed ing weaker animals, attacking where he is sure with purple; the hind head and neck light of victory, gorging himself like a glutton, pabrownish yellow, the feathers with dark shafts; tiently bearing forced abstinence from food, and the wing coverts light brown; primaries brown- at last soiling his royal beak with the foulness ish black; tail rounded, dark brown, lighter at of carrion; the king-bird and the shrike are far the base, irregularly marked with whitish; lower his superiors in bravery, and all the qualities tail coverts, feathers of legs and tarsi, yellowish which have been specially assumed for him can brown. The immature bird is of a deep brown be found in greater perfection in many common color, with the tail white at the base for of birds, beside many of the softer traits of charits length, and dark at the end; this is the ring- acter which find no place in his royal constitutailed eagle of Wilson and others; the adult, tion; like most other kings, he has his supefrom its majestic appearance, is called in Eu- riors in many of the lowest of his subjects. The rope the royal eagle; the American species is eagle is monogamous, and the mated pair are considered distinct by some, and is called A. generally not far from each other; the same Canadensis (Linn.). The golden eagle is rarely nest is used for many successive years. The seen in the eastern portion of the United States, scent of the eagle is feeble, but his sight is exthough specimens have been obtained in all the ceedingly keen; able to gaze at the sun at noonnorthern states; a few years since a young bird day, and rising toward it until beyond human was shot in Lexington, Mass.; the species is sight, he can detect in the plains below his livmost common in the north-west, on the upper ing prey. Like the condor, the eagle has been Mississippi, and in the mountainous regions of accused of carrying off little children to its nest, the country; it is also found in the cold and but such instances in both birds must be very mountainous districts of northern Europe and rare, though doubtless they may have occurred. Asia. The flight is powerful, though less rapid Another species of this genus is the spotted or than that of the bald eagle, being continued for rough-footed eagle (A. nævia, Gmel.), smaller hours in majestic circles at a great elevation, than the golden, of a brownish color, with black and without apparent exertion; its prey is not white-tipped tail, and wings yellow spotted; it seized on the wing, but is pounced upon on the is found in the mountains of central and southground from a great height with rarely failing ern Europe and northern Africa, and preys upon precision. Its food consists of young fawns, the smaller animals. In the genus haliaetus raccoons, hares, wild turkeys, and birds and ani- (Sav.) belong the fishing or sea eagles, the best mals of similar size, and, when hard pressed by known and largest of which is the bald or whitehunger, of carrion; capable of going several headed eagle (H. leucocephalus, Linn.); the bill days without food, it gorges itself when oppor- is 24 inches long, very robust, convex above; tunity offers. Its strength is great, and its the head is large, and flat above; neck short weight about 12 lbs.; it is able to withstand and thick; body large, wings long, and tail extreme cold, and pursues its prey in the most rounded; the tarsus only 3 inches long, bare for violent storms. The voice is harsh and scream- its lower two-thirds and covered with large ing, and very loud at the breeding season. The scales; the feet are short and robust, and the plumage does not attain its full beauty until the toes are free, rough, and tuberculous beneath, 4th year; the American Indians are fond of with very sharp curved claws. The plumage using the tail feathers as ornaments for their is compact and imbricated; the feathers of the persons, pipes, and weapons. The nest is of head, neck, and breast are narrow and pointed," large size, consisting of a rude collection of and of the other parts broad and rounded; there sticks, and placed on some inaccessible cliff; the is a bare space between the bill and eye with a eggs are generally 2, of a dull white color, with few bristly feathers; the eyebrows are bare and brownish shades, 3 inches long and 2 in diam- very prominent. In the adult the bill, cere, iris,
and feet are yellow, the first 3 being often almost white; the general color of the plumage is chocolate-brown, the feathers with paler margins; the head, greater part of neck, tail and its coverts, white; the quills are brownish black, with lighter shafts. The length is about 3 feet, and the extent of wings 7 feet; the female is somewhat larger. In the young bird the bill is black above, bluish gray at the end of the lower mandible; the feathers, which are white in the adult, are dark brown like the rest of the plumage, margined with lighter; the head and tail become white between the 3d and 10th year, according to circumstances of locality and captivity. It is very generally distributed over North America, on the sea-coast and in the interior; it has been found breeding from the fur countries to Florida. Its usual food is fish, which it procures easily, and for seizing and retaining which its sharp curved claws and rough feet are admirably adapted; but it eats the flesh of animals when it can get it, and often seizes small quadrupeds and birds of inferior flight; it has been accused of attacking children, and when pressed by hunger will feed on decaying carcasses. Strong, powerful in flight, free and independent in its habits, and noble in aspect, the bald eagle has been adopted as the emblem of the United States. Audubon, in his "Ornithological Biography" (vol. i. p. 161), gives a graphic description of the capture of a wild swan by the bald eagle; water fowl of smaller size are also taken by these birds hunting in company, and alternately pouncing upon the prey as it emerges from the water; young pigs, lambs, fawns, and poultry are greedily devoured; and the disgusting food of the vultures and carrion crows is often shared with this eagle, This representative of American prowess, though occasionally catching fish for himself, forces the fish hawk to obtain his favorite food for him in the following manner when the fish hawk follows the shoals of fish in the rivers in spring, the eagle sits watching from the top of a tall tree; as soon as the former rises with a fish, and bends his course for the shore to devour it, the latter mounts above him, and by most unmistakable signs forces him to give up his prey to save his own life; the eagle closes his wings, drops down with great quickness, and seizes the fish before it reaches the water; and this marauding and mean career the eagle pursues till the migrations of the fish cease, and the fish hawks depart. The flight of this bird is very majestic, accomplished by easy flappings; it sails along with extended wings, and, according to Audubon, can ascend until it disappears from view, without any apparent motion of the wings or tail; and from the greatest heights it descends with a rapidity which cannot be followed by the eye. All authors are agreed as to the cowardice of the eagle when it is suddenly surprised or meets with unexpected resistance; a game cock put into a cage with a full-grown male at once attacked the eagle and beat him in the most approved manner, and even the common cock
has fairly put this cowardly bird to flight. The females are somewhat larger, braver, and fiercer than the males. When wounded, or irritated in captivity, it defends itself with beak and claws, striking with the latter, and beating furiously with its wings. Like the golden eagles, these birds live to a great age. They are generally seen in pairs, and the union appears to last for life, the two hunting and feeding together, and driving off other birds of the same species. Along the southern Mississippi, incubation commences in January; the nest is placed on the top of a tall tree, and not on cliffs like the golden eagle's; it is a rude structure, made of sticks, turf, weeds, and moss, measuring 5 or 6 feet in diameter, used year after year, and added to annually. The eggs are usually 2, of a dull white color. The attachment of the old birds to their young is great. The weight of the adult male is from 6 to 8 lbs., that of the female from 8 to 12. The flesh of the young is said to be palatable, having the taste of veal. Audubon laments that this bird should have been selected as the emblem of the United States, and quotes the following from one of Benjamin Franklin's letters: "For my part, I wish the bald eagle had not been chosen as the representative of our country. He is a bird of bad moral character; he does not get his living honestly." After alluding to his tyranny over the fish hawk, Franklin continues: "With all this injustice, he is never in good case, but like those among men who live by sharping and robbing, he is generally poor. Beside, he is a rank coward; the little king-bird, not bigger than a sparrow, attacks him boldly, and drives him out of the district. He is, therefore, by no means a proper emblem for the brave and honest Cincinnati of America, who have driven all the king-birds from our country, though exactly fit for that order of knights which the French call chevaliers d'industrie." The writer, having had under his care for several months a large pair of these eagles, has had ample opportunity to observe their habits; the female not only attacks and abuses the male, but stretches her wings to the utmost extent, attempting to cover with them every piece of food placed in the cage. The name of bald eagle is really a misnomer, as the head is as thickly feathered as in any species; the proper name is white-headed eagle. The bird of Washington (H. Washingtonii, Aud.) was first described by Audubon ("Ornithological Biography," vol. i. p. 58), and seems not to have been seen by any other ornithologist; he first saw it on the upper Mississippi in Feb. 1814; a few years after he met with a pair near the Ohio river in Kentucky, which had built their nest on a range of high cliffs; 2 years after the discovery of the nest he killed a male which was the subject of his description; after this he saw two other pairs near the Ohio river. His reason for giving the name to the bird is thus stated by himself: "Washington was brave, so is the eagle; like it, too, he was the terror of his foes; and his fame, extending from pole to pole, resem