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bles the majestic soarings of the mightiest of light brown, with a dark streak on the middle the feathered tribe. If America has reason to of each feather. In the old bird the bill bebe proud of her Washington, so has she to be comes yellow, the general plumage grayish proud of her great eagle.” The flight of this brown, palest on the head and neck, and the is said to be different from that of the white- tail white; the length is 3 feet, and the extent headed eagle, the former encircling a greater of wings 6 feet 9 inches. This species, called space, sailing nearer the surface of the earth, and also osprey, ossifrage, and pygargus, is distribdarting upon its prey in a spiral manner. The uted over the northern portions of the old bill was bluish black, with pale edges; the iris world; it feeds principally on fish, like our chestnut-brown; upper part of the head, hind white-headed eagle, forcing the fish hawk to neck, back, scapulars, rump, tail coverts, and provide for him on the principle that " might posterior tibial feathers, blackish brown, with a makes right.” It prefers cold climates, and coppery gloss; the throat, fore neck, breast, the vicinity of the sea, though it visits the and abdomen light brownish yellow, each feath- interior rivers and lakes; when unable to ober blackish brown in the centre; wing coverts tain fish, it feeds upon sea birds, young seals, light grayish brown, those next the body ap- and any small animals which it can surprise. proaching the color of the back; primaries and Its flight is neither so elevated nor so rapid tail dark brown; anterior tibial feathers grayish as that of the previously described species. brown. The length is given at 3 feet 7 inches, The nest is placed on cliffs near the sea, and extent of wings 10 feet 2 inches, bill 37 inches, the eggs are 2, of a dirty white color; incu. tarsus 41 inches, and the weight 141 lbs.; this bation takes place in April.—The northern sea was a male, and of course the female would eagle (H. pelagicus, Pallas) is the largest of the have been considerably larger. Though this family, and inhabits the Russian American islbird is generally admitted as a species on the ands and northeastern Asia. The total length authority of Audubon, many ornithologists do of the female is 34 feet; the wings are shorter not regard it as such. The characters of the than usual, and the tail is wedge-shaped. In bill and color of the plumage are very like those the adult the bill and the legs are yellow; the of the young white-headed eagle; the increase general plumage brownish black, with a large in length is only 3 or 4 inches, while the in- frontal space, greater wing coverts, abdomen, crease in extent of wings is about 3 feet, which and tail, white. In the young the tail is white, proportions throw some doubt on the accuracy with brownish black marks, the quills black, of the measurements, as such a relative extent the secondaries and tertiaries white at their
a of wings belongs rather to the vultures than the bases; other parts dull brownish black. It is eagles. It is very strange, too, that no other a fishing eagle, though it occasionally captures ornithologist should have been able to see or birds and quadrupeds. According to Pallas, procure this bird, and that no specimen should it breeds in northeastern Asia.—There are sev. exist in any cabinet. It does not appear that eral genera of smaller eagles, as the crested Audubon came very near the eagles which he eagles (spizaëtus, Vieill.). The black-tufted eagle calls“ birds of Washington,” except in the in- (S. ornatus, Daud.) is as large as a raven, black, stance in which he shot one, which from his with a long tuft hanging from the occiput, and drawing and description might very well be a the edge of the wings and bands under the young white-headed eagle; in the other cases tail whitish; the crest is mixed with white; the they were flying over obim, except when he thighs and tarsal feathers banded with black watched them from a nest at a distance of 100 and white; tarsus feathered to the toes; it inyards, which certainly is not near enough to habits South America. Other species of the form a sufficiently accărate idea even of so large genus are found in Africa and the Indian archia bird as an eagle. The fact of the nest being pelago, where they live in jungles and woods, on a cliff is in favor of their having been golden pouncing on pheasants, hares, and similar anieagles, as the white-headed species builds in lofty mals passing underneath; they also seize prey trees. There seems, therefore, sufficient ground on the wing. The reptile eagles (morphnus, for doubting the validity of this species, which Ouv.) are peculiar to South America; they live ought not to be acknowledged until further in the forests, feeding on reptiles, small animals, proof is given of its non-identity with the gold- and birds. A well-known species is the 11. uruen, the white-headed, or perhaps the white- bitinga (Gmel.); this is black, without a crest, tailed sea eagle of Europe ; it seems to have rump and lower part of the tail white; the long some of the characters of all these, united to tarsi are bare of feathers. The harpy eagles the wings of a vulture, which would place it, if (genus thrasaētus, Gray, or harpyia, Vieill.) are & reality, in a genus distinct from aquila' or peculiar to South America; they will be dehaliaëtus.—The white-tailed or cinereous sea scribed in the article Harpy. The genus paneagle of Europe (II. albicilla, Linn.), the young dion (Sav.) will be described under Fish Kawe, of which Audubon thinks bears the greatest re- the common name of the best known species. semblance to his bird of Washington, has at this The caracara, or Brazilian eagle, does not beage a blackish bill; head and hind neck dark long to the aquiline, but to the polyborino, a brown, with white markings, disappearing with subfamily coming nearest to the vultures; this age; fore neck and breast brown, with brown- bird (polyborus tharus, Molina) is of various ish white marks; general color of the plumage shades of brown, with streaks and mottlings of
brownish black; wings barred with white, and 15 of silver in Earope, our gold coins continued the tail coverts dull white barred with dusky; to be exported until the act of June 28, 1834, tail grayish white, with 16 narrow bars and a substituted the ratio of 16 to 1 by reducing the terminal band of blackish brown; the length is fineness of the eagle to 899% thousandths, and about 2 feet, and the extent of wings 4 feet, the its weight to 258 grains, being 232 grains pure bill 24 inches. It is found from Florida to Bra- gold. By the act of Jan. 18, 1837, the fineness zil, and it feeds with the turkey buzzards and of the eagle, as of all the other coins, was raised carrion crows on carcasses; it has the habits to 900 thousandths, its weight remaining as beof the vultures, with the additional power of fore 258 grains, of which 23 10% were pure gold; carrying prey in its talons; beside carrion, it and at these rates it continues to be coined. devours small reptiles and birds; it walks like There are also a half eagle, first coined in 1795, the turkey buzzard. Its flight is rapid and grace- a quarter eagle, first coined in 1796, and a ful.—The eagle, in mythology, is the sacred bird double eagle, first coined in 1849. of the Hindoo Vishnu and of the Greek Zeus. EAR, the organ of hearing. Anatomists In the Roman ceremony of apotheosis an eagle divide it into the external, the middle, and the ascended from the burning catafalco, and was internal ear. The first consists of the visible believed to bear the soul of the deceased to external organ, a cartilaginous and fleshy strucOlympus. In the Scandinavian mythology, it ture, of the form best adapted to collect the atis the bird of wisdom, and sits in the boughs of mospheric vibrations, and the meatus or tubular the tree yggdrasill.—The Etruscans were the opening leading to the tympanum. The tymfirst who adopted the eagle as the symbol of royal panum is a firm fibrous membrane stretched power, and bore its image as a standard at the across this opening, whose office, as its name head of their armies. From the time of Marius implies, is to communicate vibrations like the it was the principal emblem of the Roman re- head of a drum. The middle ear is a cavity public, and the only standard of the legions. It about the form and size of a kidney bean; was represented with outspread wings, and was from its lower point a tubular opening descends usually of silver till the reign of Hadrian, who to the posterior part of the mouth, and termimade it of gold. The double-headed eagle was pates in a trumpet-like expansion ; this is usually in use among the Byzantine emperors, to indi- called the Eustachian tube, and sometimes medcate, it is said, their claim to the empire both tus auditorius internus. Across the middle ear is of the East and the West; was adopted in the stretched a chain of 4 minute bones, connected 14th century by the German emperors, and with each other by cartilage and tendon. These afterward appeared on the arms of Russia. The are the malleus or mallet, the incus or anvil, the arms of Prussia were distinguished by the black orbicularis or round bone, and the stapes or stireagle, and those of Poland by the white. The rup, each named from some fancied resemblance. eagle is the emblematic device of the United The office of this chain, which is attached to States of America, is the badge of the order of the the tympanum at one end, and to the memCincinnati, and is figured on coins. Napoleon brané covering the foramen orale at the other, adopted it for the emblem of imperial France; it is to transmit the vibrations of the air; to aid was not, however, represented in heraldic style, in this, they are controlled by 2 minute muscles, but in its natural form, with the thunderbolts of which render the 2 tympani tense. The whole Jupiter. It was disused under the Bourbons, but of the middle ear, with these minute bones, is was restored by a decree of Louis Napoleon covered with mucous membrane, and when ir(Jan. 1, 1852). The order of the white eagle ritated, as by a cold, it secretes mucus very was created in Poland by Ladislas the Short, in freely, and thus often induces temporary and 1325, was renewed in 1706, and since 1831 has partial deafness. The internal ear, also called been united with the imperial orders of Russia. the labyrinth, to which the external and middle The order of the black eagle was founded in ear are but the ante-rooms, consists of the ves1701 by Frederic I., the first king of Prussia, tibule, the 3 semicircular canals, and the cochand is conferred upon princes of the royal fam- lea. The vestibule is an irregular cavity shut ily, members of foreign sovereign houses, and a out from the middle ear by the membrane coyfew officers of state, to whom it gives personal ering the foramen ovale, and communicating nobility. The order of the red eagle, the second with the semicircular canals by 5 openings, 2 of Prussian order in dignity, was founded in 1712 these canals being joined at one end. The cochby the margrave George William of Baireuth, lea, as its name implies, is a bony structure reand was transferred with that principality to sembling in form å snail shell; internally it is Prussia in 1792.
divided by a lamina, bony, ligamentous, and EAGLE, a gold coin of the United States, muscular, into 2 cavities called the scala vestiof the value of $10, first coined in 1795, as buli and the scala tympani, which communicate provided by the act of congress of April 2, 1792, at the top of the cochlea, in a curved channel of the fineness of 22 carats (916thousandths), called the modiolus. This modiolus has numerand weighing 270 grains, thus containing 247ous orifices, through which pass the filaments grains of pure gold. The silver dollar contained of the auditory nerve. The whole internal ear at the same time 3717 grains pure silver, the is lined with a delicate serous membrane, which ratio of valuation of silver to gold being as 15 to secretes a fluid called perilymph. Within the 1. An ounce of pure gold being worth more than vestibule and the semicircular canals, we find the membranous labyrinth; in the vestibule it con- a distance at which ordinary persons cannot sists of 2 membranous sacs, one called the utri- distinguish a sound. The Indian, too, possesses culus, and the other the sacculus, communicat- extraordinary powers in this respect ; applying ing with each other and extending in slender his ear to the earth, he will discover the aptubes through the semicircular canals, of which proach of an enemy, and obtain some idea of they only occupy about one-third; in the vesti- his numbers, long before the eye can detect his bule and modiolus, these sacs receive the ner- coming. In almost all brain affections, there vous filaments, and are thus connected with the is more or less morbid sensitiveness of hearserous membrane lining the labyrinth; but every- ing; and in that condition of the nervous syswhere else they are free, and separated from it tem brought on by long continued and intense by the perilymph, while their internal surfaces excitement, and which often terminates in insecrete a similar fluid called endolymph. In sanity, the same phenomenon is observed. The the vestibular portion is found a crystalline form of the external ear varies materially in powder, proved by chemical experiment to be different races of men, and still more in the are carbonate of lime, and denominated otolithes; imal tribes. In the Caucasian race it is of mod. the office of this is supposed to be to commu- erate size, well formed, and neither very promnicate the vibrations to the nervous surfaces. inent nor pressed closely to the head. In the The filaments of the auditory nerve terminate Malay and Mongolian it is large, ill proportionby loops, or minute points, in the sacculus, the ed, the lobe naturally long, and the whole ear utriculus, the ampullæ (the little membranous standing out prominently; in the Indian race tubes which pass through the semicircular ca- the conformation is similar to the Mongolian, nals), and the lamina which divides the cochlea. though less prominent; in the negro the ear is In the process of hearing, the vibrations of the flat, broad, and adheres so closely to the head as atmosphere, caused, we will say, by touching to give the idea of having been fastened there one of the keys of a piano, pass toward the ear, by a bandage. Of the inferior animals, the where they are collected and concentrated by mammalia only have an external ear; in birds its peculiar form and structure; thus concen- it is merely a small orifice; in fishes, when it trated, they pass along the canal to the tym- exists, it is covered by the skin, as it is also in panum, where they produce a vibration; this reptiles. The variety in its form in mammals vibration is communicated by the little chain of extends even to different varieties of the same bones we have described to the membrane coy- animal. The drooping ear of the King Charles ering the foramen ovale, by which it is passed and other spaniels contrasts forcibly with the to the fluid contents of the vestibule and to the ereot prominent ear of the foxhound and the sacs, and by the agitation of the otolithes it is Esquimaux dog; and both differ greatly from transmitted to the nervous surface, which is ex- the short open
ear of the bull-dog. The horse panded over the whole labyrinth, and produces has a sensitive and well formed ear, though the sensation of sound. The internal and mid- of small size; while the ass, with no better dle ear are situated wholly within the temporal powers of hearing, is supplied with long aural bone, which is here much thicker and harder appendages which seem most adapted for fans. than elsewhere, in order to protect the delicate The elephant has a small ear as compared with and complicated structure from injury.-Under his great size, though the flap of skin which the head of DEAF AND DUMB we have spoken in protects it is of considerable dimensions. The general terms of the causes which induce deaf- carnivora generally have small but very quick ness; but we may say here that while congenital ears, and they usually possess erectile power deafness is usually the result of deficiency or which enables them to throw them into shapes malformation of some portion of the organ, thus in which they will most readily catch the sound preventing the transmission of the vibration or wave. The mole, though his ear is hardly dissound wave, accidental deafness usually arises cernible in the fine fur which covers it, is yet from perforation of the tympanum by ulcera- very quick of hearing. Of all the mammals, the tion or otherwise; mucous secretion, the result bat tribe possess the largest ears in proportion of inflammation, clogging or thickening the to the size of their bodies, the phyllostonus and membranes of the middle
ear, or ulceration at the megadenus in particular being provided with tacking the little bones and causing their dis- these appendages so large as to form nearly 1 of charge ; inflammation of the serous membrane the superficial extent of their bodies. Among of the labyrinth, or paralysis of the auditory savage and half-civilized tribes the idea prevails nerve. As may be supposed, the cure of com- that the lengthening of the lobe of the ear by plete deafness is exceedingly rare, and most of heavy ornaments, and the enlargement of the the cases reported will be found on examination perforations made for attaching them, both add either not to have been cured, or not to have greatly to the beauty of the wearer. In the been of persons entirely deaf.—The sense of Burmese statues of Gaudama, he is represented hearing, like most of the senses, is capable of in a sitting posture, and the lobes of his ears a much higher cultivation than is generally extend to the level of his lap. Among the Af given to it. The blind, to whom touch and rican tribes the perforation in the ear is enlarged hearing make up in part' for the loss of vision, so that a stick an inch or more in diameter may acquire remarkable powers of hearing. They be thrust through it, and some of them use the will hear a footstep or the opening of a door, at ear instead of a pocket to carry small articles.
EAR RINGS, a kind of ornament common the property of a Polish lady, and consisted of both among savage and civilized peoples. They a series of diamonds, arranged so as to represent are alluded to in the earliest literature of both an acacia blossom, the setting being made to Asia and Europe, and are found represented resemble a leaf of the same tree. The lotus upon remnants of sculpture older than any liter blossom and the Bengal rose were sometimes ature. They have been discovered amid the copied in Egyptian and Indian ear rings, and the ruins of Thebes, in the tombs of Egyptian Chinese women wear ear rings resembling the kings, and have been dug from Herculaneum, fantastic flora of their country. Roman ladies Pompeii, and Nineveh. Abraham, the father of of the highest rank sometimes wore this ornathe Hebrews, sent them as a present to his son's ment in the shape of an asp, whose body was of wife; Alexander, when he marched to the East, gold set with precious stones ; and among the met with them in Babylon, and on the banks women of South America it is often made to of the Indus; Cortes found them in use among resemble a humming bird. Both among the the wealthy Mexicans; among the Greeks and ancients and moderns ear rings have sometimes Romans they were equally worn by noble ladies borne miniature likenesses of friends. In recent and serving maids; and in the later Christian times they have very generally been supposed civilization they have enjoyed a nearly univer- to be beneficial to the health, and especially to sal prevalence. They are termed rings in the be a protection against weakness of the eyes, Hebrew and other ancient as well as the English and in this belief they are still frequently worn and other modern languages, and their original by men in France and Italy, and sometimes also form was doubtless a simple circlet. Among in the United States, and are common among the oriental nations, the Hebrews excepted, they boys in Germany. were worn by both sexes, and though at first EAR TRUMPET. Under this title may be of gold or silver, were subsequently made with included all those contrivances intended to aid agate, chalcedony, onyx, coral, and pearls. They the hearing of persons partially deaf. We have were sometimes single hoops of gold from 14 to no means of ascertaining at what period or by 3 inches in diameter, but were more frequently whom ear trumpets were invented. The pracjewelled drops or pendants of various styles, tice of putting the hand to the ear in a trumpet hung from a small ring inserted in the ear. shape probably first suggested it, and from occaEven at the present day the finest ear rings in sional allusions to the use of the trumpet in old the world are in the harems of the East, and writers it would seem to have been of very European princesses in devising this ornament early origin. The earliest form of which we have been unable to excel the taste of Persian have any knowledge was a rude imitation on maidens and of the slaves of the sultan. The an exaggerated scale of the form of the external use of ear rings among the Greeks and Romans ear; but as this was found inconvenient from was confined chiefly to women. The favorite the difficulty of retaining it in place, a form style was a pendant, framed of gold and set more nearly resembling a speaking trumpet was with precious stones. Pearls were valued for substituted. As this again was found inconbeing exactly spherical and for their delicate venient from the space it occupied and the diffiwhiteness; and 2 or 3 of them were generally culty of supporting it in position, a curved form joined together to elongate a single drop, and was substituted, descending from the ear close 2 or 3 such drops were often suspended from to the side of the face and presenting the truma single ring. In the lliad, Juno, adorning her- pet-shaped mouth upward. Another modificaself in her richest and most captivating attire, tion was a flat tube passing over the head and puts on ear rings made with 3 drops resembling applied to each ear, while in front and immemulberries; and in the Odyssey the splendid diately over the forehead was an opening to present which Eurydamus sends to Penelope is receive the sound. Another inventor, having a set of ear rings of a similar style. The Venus observed that in listening intently people opened de' Medici has the ears pierced, and probably their mouths, contrived a sort of plectrum or there were once ear rings in them. At Rome the vibrating body to be held between the teeth, precious stones came especially into use for this and thus to convey sounds by the Eustachian ornament, and in the progress of luxury under tube. After the introduction of caoutchouc and the emperors the Roman matrons, according to gutta percha into the arts, a long tube of one Seneca, often carried suspended from their ears or other of these materials
, with a bell-shaped the worth of 2 or 3 rich patrimonies. The pen- trumpet at the end, took the place of the metaldants were sometimes made to resemble a series lic trumpet, and for many purposes is very conof nuts, or were adorned with figures of centaurs venient." In England in some of the churches or horses, or marine animals, and were so ar- pews are constructed with tubes to conduct the ranged as to vibrate against each other upon sound, opening in convenient positions for the every motion of the head, and thus to produce a ear of the listener. Among the more recent constant gentle tinkling. Instead of a ring, & inventions for facilitating hearing are the auricle, hook was often used to attach the ornament to a small tube of silver with a semiglobular exthe ear, and the women of Italy still continue pansion, intended to be inserted into the meatus this practice, passing the hook through the lobe of the ear; and the tympanum, a small thin disk of the ear without any other fastening. One of rubber, having a silver wire passing through of the most famous of modern ear rings was it to transmit the sound wave. In a few cases the latter has been of considerable service. In After the barons the earls are also the most cases of total deafness, no such means are of numerous of any order, numbering (in 1859) any advantage.
234, of whom 47 have Scottish and 68 Irish EARL, the most ancient title of nobility used titles. They are styled by the sovereign right in Great Britain. Under the early Saxon kings trusty and well beloved cousin,” an appellation the powerful nobles to whose charge shires or attributed to Henry IV., who had his own reaterritories had been committed were called eal- sons for flattering the powerful earls, with nearly dormen, literally elder men (whence the mod- all of whom he is said to have been allied by birth ern alderinan), a term equivalent to the Latin or marriage, by frequent allusions to the relationsenior or senator, and given in Latin documents ship. They are now created by letters patent, as princeps, dux, or comes. The Danes subse- in place of the old practice by which the sover quently applied the term eorle, which signified eign girded on the sword of the new earl and originally a man of noble birth, as opposed to invested him with mantle and coronet. the ceori or churl, to the same men who had EARL MARSHAL, an officer of state in Engborne the title of ealdormen. The Saxon earl land, who directs important ceremonies, takes derived his title solely from his office, which cognizance of matters relating to honor, arms, was originally in the gift of the crown, and in and pedigree, and proclaims the declaration of recompense for his services received a part of war or of peace. The office was established in the revenues of his province to his own use. the reign of Richard II., who conferred it upon Toward the close of the Saxon dynasty these Thomas Mowbray, earl of Nottingham, and is provincial governors not only greatly enlarged now hereditary in the family of Howard, the their authority, but claimed the dignity as he head of which, the duke of Norfolk, is the presreditary; and in the time of Edward the Con- ent earl marshal of England. fessor the whole kingdom was divided between EARLE, Pliny, an American inventor, born in 5 powerful earls, including Godwin and his sons Leicester, Mass., Dec. 17, 1762, died there, Nov. Harold and Tosti, of whom Harold subsequent- 19, 1832. In 1785 he became connected with ly usurped the throne. After the Norman con- Mr. Edmu Snow in the manufacture of maquest the territorial possessions of the Saxon chine and hand cards for carding cotton and nobility were declared forfeited, and with many wool; and in 1790, when Mr. Samuel Slater, the newly created fiefs were distributed among the originator of cotton factories in this country, chief followers of William the Conqueror, who was establishing his first factory at Pawtucket, thereupon assumed the name of counts, from the he applied to Mr. Earle to furnish him with Latin comes. But this title was very soon re- what are technically termed twilled cards, all placed by the old one of earl, while the terri- the cards then manufactured in this country tory from which the new dignitary received his being plain. Mr. Earle at first made these by name or over which he exercised jurisdiction hand, but soon invented the machine still in was thenceforth called a county, instead of a use for their manufacture, by which the labor of shire as previously under the Saxons, and the a man for 15 hours could be performed in as many consort of the earl became a countess. Accord- minutes. Aside from his inventive genius, Mr. ing to Cruise, there were 3 sorts of earldoms Earle deserves a record for his extensive attainunder the early Norman kings: the first and ments in science and literature. -Pliny, an highest, where the dignity was annexed to the American physician, son of the preceding, born possession of a whole county, with the jura re- in Leicester, Mass., Dec. 31, 1809. He was edugalia, in which case the county became a county cated at the Friends' yearly meeting boarding palatine, and the person created earl of it exer- school at Providence, R. I., where he was subsecised all the authority of a sovereign ; the next, quently employed as a teacher. He received bis where the earl was entitled to the third part diploma of M.V. in 1837, after which he spent 3 of the revenues of the county court; and the months in London and a year in Paris, and some third, where a tract of land was erected into a 10 months more in travel, returning to Philadel. county and granted with civil and criminal phia in 1839. In 1840 he was appointed resident jurisdiction to be held per servitium unius comi- physician of the insane hospital at Frankford, tatus. This statement, however, is open to con- Penn., under the care of the Friends, where he troversy, and Sir Harris Nicolas is of opinion remained a little more than 2 years. In 1844 that the Norman earls
, excepting in the coun- he was appointed physician to the asylum for the ties palatine, possessed no jurisdiction over the insane at Bloomingdale, N. Y., where he recounties from which they were denominated, mained till April, 1849, when he visited the inthe dignity being of a nature altogether personal. sane hospitals of England, Belgium, Germany, At present the title conveys no local jurisdic- Austria, Poland, and a part of those of France. tion or revenue, and is no longer confined to the In 1847 he declined an appoinment of visiting names of counties, but may be derived from physician to the New York city lunatic asylum, those of towns or villages, or of families. It but accepted it when again offered in 1853. remained the highest hereditary dignity in Eng- He has been a somewhat voluminous writer, land until the reign of Edward III., when the principally in the medical and scientific jour. first dukedom was created, and is now the 3d nals and the “ Journal of Insanity.” In 1841 order of the British nobility, being next below he published a small volume of poems entithat of marquis, and above that of viscount. tled "Marathon and other Poems;" but fear