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bles the majestic soarings of the mightiest of the feathered tribe. If America has reason to be proud of her Washington, so has she to be proud of her great eagle." The flight of this is said to be different from that of the whiteheaded eagle, the former encircling a greater space, sailing nearer the surface of the earth, and darting upon its prey in a spiral manner. The bill was bluish black, with pale edges; the iris chestnut-brown; upper part of the head, hind neck, back, scapulars, rump, tail coverts, and posterior tibial feathers, blackish brown, with a coppery gloss; the throat, fore neck, breast, and abdomen light brownish yellow, each feather blackish brown in the centre; wing coverts light grayish brown, those next the body approaching the color of the back; primaries and tail dark brown; anterior tibial feathers grayish brown. The length is given at 3 feet 7 inches, extent of wings 10 feet 2 inches, bill 3 inches, tarsus 4 inches, and the weight 143 lbs.; this was a male, and of course the female would have been considerably larger. Though this bird is generally admitted as a species on the authority of Audubon, many ornithologists do not regard it as such. The characters of the bill and color of the plumage are very like those of the young white-headed eagle; the increase in length is only 3 or 4 inches, while the increase in extent of wings is about 3 feet, which proportions throw some doubt on the accuracy of the measurements, as such a relative extent of wings belongs rather to the vultures than the eagles. It is very strange, too, that no other ornithologist should have been able to see or procure this bird, and that no specimen should exist in any cabinet. It does not appear that Audubon came very near the eagles which he calls "birds of Washington," except in the instance in which he shot one, which from his drawing and description might very well be a young white-headed eagle; in the other cases they were flying over him, except when he watched them from a nest at a distance of 100 yards, which certainly is not near enough to form a sufficiently accurate idea even of so large a bird as an eagle. The fact of the nest being on a cliff is in favor of their having been golden eagles, as the white-headed species builds in lofty trees. There seems, therefore, sufficient ground for doubting the validity of this species, which ought not to be acknowledged until further proof is given of its non-identity with the golden, the white-headed, or perhaps the whitetailed sea eagle of Europe; it seems to have some of the characters of all these, united to the wings of a vulture, which would place it, if a reality, in a genus distinct from aquila or haliaëtus.-The white-tailed or cinereous sea eagle of Europe (H. albicilla, Linn.), the young of which Audubon thinks bears the greatest resemblance to his bird of Washington, has at this age a blackish bill; head and hind neck dark brown, with white markings, disappearing with age; fore neck and breast brown, with brownish white marks; general color of the plumage

light brown, with a dark streak on the middle of each feather. In the old bird the bill becomes yellow, the general plumage grayish brown, palest on the head and neck, and the tail white; the length is 3 feet, and the extent of wings 6 feet 9 inches. This species, called also osprey, ossifrage, and pygargus, is distributed over the northern portions of the old world; it feeds principally on fish, like our white-headed eagle, forcing the fish hawk to provide for him on the principle that "might makes right." It prefers cold climates, and the vicinity of the sea, though it visits the interior rivers and lakes; when unable to obtain fish, it feeds upon sea birds, young seals, and any small animals which it can surprise. Its flight is neither so elevated nor so rapid as that of the previously described species. The nest is placed on cliffs near the sea, and the eggs are 2, of a dirty white color; incubation takes place in April.-The northern sea eagle (H. pelagicus, Pallas) is the largest of the family, and inhabits the Russian American isands and northeastern Asia. The total length of the female is 34 feet; the wings are shorter than usual, and the tail is wedge-shaped. In the adult the bill and the legs are yellow; the general plumage brownish black, with a large frontal space, greater wing coverts, abdomen, and tail, white. In the young the tail is white, with brownish black marks, the quills black, the secondaries and tertiaries white at their bases; other parts dull brownish black. It is a fishing eagle, though it occasionally captures birds and quadrupeds. According to Pallas, it breeds in northeastern Asia.-There are several genera of smaller eagles, as the crested eagles (spizaëtus, Vieill.). The black-tufted eagle (S. ornatus, Daud.) is as large as a raven, black, with a long tuft hanging from the occiput, and the edge of the wings and bands under the tail whitish; the crest is mixed with white; the thighs and tarsal feathers banded with black and white; tarsus feathered to the toes; it inhabits South America. Other species of the genus are found in Africa and the Indian archipelago, where they live in jungles and woods, pouncing on pheasants, hares, and similar animals passing underneath; they also seize prey on the wing. The reptile eagles (morphaus, Cuv.) are peculiar to South America; they live in the forests, feeding on reptiles, small animals, and birds. A well-known species is the M. ursbitinga (Gmel.); this is black, without a crest, rump and lower part of the tail white; the long tarsi are bare of feathers. The harpy eagles (genus thrasaëtus, Gray, or harpyia, Vieill.) are peculiar to South America; they will be described in the article HARPY. The genus pandion (Sav.) will be described under FISH HAWK, the common name of the best known species. The caracara, or Brazilian eagle, does not belong to the aquilina, but to the polyborina, s subfamily coming nearest to the vultures; this bird (polyborus tharus, Molina) is of various shades of brown, with streaks and mottlings of




brownish black; wings barred with white, and 15 of silver in Earope, our gold coins continued the tail coverts dull white barred with dusky; to be exported until the act of June 28, 1834, tail grayish white, with 16 narrow bars and a substituted the ratio of 16 to 1 by reducing the terminal band of blackish brown; the length is fineness of the eagle to 899% thousandths, and about 2 feet, and the extent of wings 4 feet, the its weight to 258 grains, being 232 grains pure bill 24 inches. It is found from Florida to Bra- gold. By the act of Jan. 18, 1837, the fineness zil, and it feeds with the turkey buzzards and of the eagle, as of all the other coins, was raised carrion crows on carcasses; it has the habits to 900 thousandths, its weight remaining as beof the vultures, with the additional power of fore 258 grains, of which 23 10% were pure gold; carrying prey in its talons; beside carrion, it and at these rates it continues to be coined. devours small reptiles and birds; it walks like There are also a half eagle, first coined in 1795, the turkey buzzard. Its flight is rapid and grace- a quarter eagle, first coined in 1796, and a ful.—The eagle, in mythology, is the sacred bird double eagle, first coined in 1849. of the Hindoo Vishnu and of the Greek Zeus. EAR, the organ of hearing. Anatomists In the Roman ceremony of apotheosis an eagle divide it into the external, the middle, and the ascended from the burning catafalco, and was internal ear. The first consists of the visible believed to bear the soul of the deceased to external organ, a cartilaginous and fleshy strucOlympus. In the Scandinavian mythology, it ture, of the form best adapted to collect the atis the bird of wisdom, and sits in the boughs of mospheric vibrations, and the meatus or tubular the tree yggdrasill.—The Etruscans were the opening leading to the tympanum. The tymfirst who adopted the eagle as the symbol of royal panum is a firm fibrous membrane stretched power, and bore its image as a standard at the across this opening, whose office, as its name head of their armies. From the time of Marius implies, is to communicate vibrations like the it was the principal emblem of the Roman re- head of a drum. The middle ear is a cavity public, and the only standard of the legions. It about the form and size of a kidney bean; was represented with outspread wings, and was from its lower point a tubular opening descends usually of silver till the reign of Hadrian, who to the posterior part of the mouth, and termimade it of gold. The double-headed eagle was pates in a trumpet-like expansion ; this is usually in use among the Byzantine emperors, to indi- called the Eustachian tube, and sometimes medcate, it is said, their claim to the empire both tus auditorius internus. Across the middle ear is of the East and the West; was adopted in the stretched a chain of 4 minute bones, connected 14th century by the German emperors, and with each other by cartilage and tendon. These afterward appeared on the arms of Russia. The are the malleus or mallet, the incus or anvil, the arms of Prussia were distinguished by the black orbicularis or round bone, and the stapes or stireagle, and those of Poland by the white. The rup, each named from some fancied resemblance. eagle is the emblematic device of the United The office of this chain, which is attached to States of America, is the badge of the order of the the tympanum at one end, and to the memCincinnati, and is figured on coins. Napoleon brané covering the foramen orale at the other, adopted it for the emblem of imperial France; it is to transmit the vibrations of the air; to aid was not, however, represented in heraldic style, in this, they are controlled by 2 minute muscles, but in its natural form, with the thunderbolts of which render the 2 tympani tense. The whole Jupiter. It was disused under the Bourbons, but of the middle ear, with these minute bones, is was restored by a decree of Louis Napoleon covered with mucous membrane, and when ir(Jan. 1, 1852). The order of the white eagle ritated, as by a cold, it secretes mucus very was created in Poland by Ladislas the Short, in freely, and thus often induces temporary and 1325, was renewed in 1706, and since 1831 has partial deafness. The internal ear, also called been united with the imperial orders of Russia. the labyrinth, to which the external and middle The order of the black eagle was founded in ear are but the ante-rooms, consists of the ves1701 by Frederic I., the first king of Prussia, tibule, the 3 semicircular canals, and the cochand is conferred upon princes of the royal fam- lea. The vestibule is an irregular cavity shut ily, members of foreign sovereign houses, and a out from the middle ear by the membrane coyfew officers of state, to whom it gives personal ering the foramen ovale, and communicating nobility. The order of the red eagle, the second with the semicircular canals by 5 openings, 2 of Prussian order in dignity, was founded in 1712 these canals being joined at one end. The cochby the margrave George William of Baireuth, lea, as its name implies, is a bony structure reand was transferred with that principality to sembling in form å snail shell; internally it is Prussia in 1792.

divided by a lamina, bony, ligamentous, and EAGLE, a gold coin of the United States, muscular, into 2 cavities called the scala vestiof the value of $10, first coined in 1795, as buli and the scala tympani, which communicate provided by the act of congress of April 2, 1792, at the top of the cochlea, in a curved channel of the fineness of 22 carats (916thousandths), called the modiolus. This modiolus has numerand weighing 270 grains, thus containing 247ous orifices, through which pass the filaments grains of pure gold. The silver dollar contained of the auditory nerve. The whole internal ear at the same time 3717 grains pure silver, the is lined with a delicate serous membrane, which ratio of valuation of silver to gold being as 15 to secretes a fluid called perilymph. Within the 1. An ounce of pure gold being worth more than vestibule and the semicircular canals, we find the

a distance at which ordinary persons cannot distinguish a sound. The Indian, too, possesses extraordinary powers in this respect; applying his ear to the earth, he will discover the ap proach of an enemy, and obtain some idea of his numbers, long before the eye can detect his coming. In almost all brain affections, there is more or less morbid sensitiveness of hearing; and in that condition of the nervous system brought on by long continued and intense excitement, and which often terminates in insanity, the same phenomenon is observed.-The form of the external ear varies materially in different races of men, and still more in the animal tribes. In the Caucasian race it is of moderate size, well formed, and neither very prominent nor pressed closely to the head. In the Malay and Mongolian it is large, ill proportioned, the lobe naturally long, and the whole ear standing out prominently; in the Indian race the conformation is similar to the Mongolian, though less prominent; in the negro the ear is flat, broad, and adheres so closely to the head as to give the idea of having been fastened there by a bandage. Of the inferior animals, the mammalia only have an external ear; in birds it is merely a small orifice; in fishes, when it exists, it is covered by the skin, as it is also in reptiles. The variety in its form in mammals extends even to different varieties of the same animal. The drooping ear of the King Charles and other spaniels contrasts forcibly with the erect prominent ear of the foxhound and the Esquimaux dog; and both differ greatly from the short open ear of the bull-dog. The horse has a sensitive and well formed ear, though of small size; while the ass, with no better powers of hearing, is supplied with long aural appendages which seem most adapted for fans. The elephant has a small ear as compared with his great size, though the flap of skin which protects it is of considerable dimensions. The carnivora generally have small but very quick ears, and they usually possess erectile power which enables them to throw them into shapes in which they will most readily catch the sound wave. The mole, though his ear is hardly discernible in the fine fur which covers it, is yet very quick of hearing. Of all the mammals, the bat tribe possess the largest ears in proportion to the size of their bodies, the phyllostonus and the megadenus in particular being provided with these appendages so large as to form nearly of the superficial extent of their bodies. Among savage and half-civilized tribes the idea prevails that the lengthening of the lobe of the ear by heavy ornaments, and the enlargement of the perforations made for attaching them, both add greatly to the beauty of the wearer. In the Burmese statues of Gaudama, he is represented in a sitting posture, and the lobes of his ears extend to the level of his lap. Among the African tribes the perforation in the ear is enlarged so that a stick an inch or more in diameter may be thrust through it, and some of them use the ear instead of a pocket to carry small articles.

membranous labyrinth; in the vestibule it consists of 2 membranous sacs, one called the utriculus, and the other the sacculus, communicating with each other and extending in slender tubes through the semicircular canals, of which they only occupy about one-third; in the vestibule and modiolus, these sacs receive the nervous filaments, and are thus connected with the serous membrane lining the labyrinth; but everywhere else they are free, and separated from it by the perilymph, while their internal surfaces secrete a similar fluid called endolymph. In the vestibular portion is found a crystalline powder, proved by chemical experiment to be carbonate of lime, and denominated otolithes; the office of this is supposed to be to communicate the vibrations to the nervous surfaces. The filaments of the auditory nerve terminate by loops, or minute points, in the sacculus, the utriculus, the ampulla (the little membranous tubes which pass through the semicircular canals), and the lamina which divides the cochlea. In the process of hearing, the vibrations of the atmosphere, caused, we will say, by touching one of the keys of a piano, pass toward the ear, where they are collected and concentrated by its peculiar form and structure; thus concentrated, they pass along the canal to the tympanum, where they produce a vibration; this vibration is communicated by the little chain of bones we have described to the membrane covering the foramen ovale, by which it is passed to the fluid contents of the vestibule and to the sacs, and by the agitation of the otolithes it is transmitted to the nervous surface, which is expanded over the whole labyrinth, and produces the sensation of sound. The internal and middle ear are situated wholly within the temporal bone, which is here much thicker and harder than elsewhere, in order to protect the delicate and complicated structure from injury.-Under the head of DEAF AND DUMB we have spoken in general terms of the causes which induce deafness; but we may say here that while congenital deafness is usually the result of deficiency or malformation of some portion of the organ, thus preventing the transmission of the vibration or sound wave, accidental deafness usually arises from perforation of the tympanum by ulceration or otherwise; mucous secretion, the result of inflammation, clogging or thickening the membranes of the middle ear, or ulceration at tacking the little bones and causing their discharge; inflammation of the serous membrane of the labyrinth, or paralysis of the auditory nerve. As may be supposed, the cure of complete deafness is exceedingly rare, and most of the cases reported will be found on examination either not to have been cured, or not to have been of persons entirely deaf.-The sense of hearing, like most of the senses, is capable of a much higher cultivation than is generally given to it. The blind, to whom touch and hearing make up in part for the loss of vision, acquire remarkable powers of hearing. They will hear a footstep or the opening of a door, at




EAR RINGS, a kind of ornament common the property of a Polish lady, and consisted of both among savage and civilized peoples. They & series of diamonds, arranged so as to represent are alluded to in the earliest literature of both an acacia blossom, the setting being made to Asia and Europe, and are found represented resemble a leaf of the same tree. The lotus upon remnants of sculpture older than any liter- blossom and the Bengal rose were sometimes ature. They have been discovered amid the copied in Egyptian and Indian ear rings, and the ruins of Thebes, in the tombs of Egyptian Chinese women wear ear rings resembling the kings, and have been dug from Herculaneum, fantastic flora of their country. Roman ladies Pompeii, and Nineveh. Abraham, the father of of the highest rank sometimes wore this ornathe Hebrews, sent them as a present to his son's ment in the shape of an asp, whose body was of wife ; Alexander, when he marched to the East, gold set with precious stones; and among the met with them in Babylon, and on the banks women of South America it is often made to of the Indus; Cortes found them in use among resemble a humming bird. Both among the the wealthy Mexicans; among the Greeks and ancients and moderns ear rings have sometimes Romans they were equally worn by noble ladies borne miniature likenesses of friends. In recent and serving maids; and in the later Christian times they have very generally been supposed civilization they have enjoyed a nearly univer- to be beneficial to the health, and especially to sal prevalence. They are termed rings in the be a protection against weakness of the eyes, Hebrew and other ancient as well as the English and in this belief they are still frequently worn and other modern languages, and their original by men in France and Italy, and sometimes also form was doubtless a simple circlet. Among in the United States, and are common among the oriental nations, the Hebrews excepted, they boys in Germany. were worn by both sexes, and though at first EAR TRUMPET. Under this title may be of gold or silver, were subsequently made with included all those contrivances intended to aid agate, chalcedony, onyx, coral, and pearls. They the hearing of persons partially deaf. We have were sometimes single hoops of gold from 11 to no means of ascertaining at what period or by 3 inches in diameter, but were more frequently whom ear trumpets were invented. The pracjewelled drops or pendants of various styles, tice of putting the hand to the ear in a trumpet hung from a small ring inserted in the ear. shape probably first suggested it, and from occaEven at the present day the finest ear rings in sional allusions to the use of thé trumpet in old the world are in the harems of the East, and writers it would seem to have been of very European princesses in devising this ornament early origin. The earliest form of which we have been unable to excel the taste of Persian have any knowledge was a rude imitation on maidens and of the slaves of the sultan. The an exaggerated scale of the form of the external use of ear rings among the Greeks and Romans ear; but as this was found inconvenient from was confined chiefly to women. The favorite the difficulty of retaining it in place, a form style was a pendant, framed of gold and set more nearly resembling a speaking trumpet was with precious stones. Pearls were valued for substituted. As this again was found inconbeing exactly spherical and for their delicate venient from the space it occupied and the diffiwhiteness; and 2 or 3 of them were generally culty of supporting it in position, a curved form joined together to elongate a single drop, and was substituted, descending from the ear close 2 or 3 such drops were often suspended from to the side of the face and presenting the truma single ring. In the Iliad, Juno, adorning her- pet-shaped mouth upward. Another modificaself in her richest and most captivating attire, tion was a flat tube passing over the head and puts on ear rings made with 3 drops resembling applied to each ear, while in front and immemulberries; and in the Odyssey the splendid diately over the forehead was an opening to present which Eurydamus sends to Penelope is receive the sound. Another inventor, having a set of ear rings of a similar style. The Venus observed that in listening intently people opened de' Medici has the ears pierced, and probably their mouths, contrived a sort of plectrum or there were once ear rings in them. At Rome the vibrating body to be held between the teeth, precious stones came especially into use for this and thus to convey sounds by the Eustachian ornament, and in the progress of luxury under tube. After the introduction of caoutchouc and the emperors the Roman matrons, according to gutta percha into the arts, a long tube of one Seneca, often carried suspended from their ears or other of these materials, with a bell-shaped the worth of 2 or 3 rich patrimonies. The pen. trumpet at the end, took the place of the metaldants were sometimes made to resemble a series lic trumpet, and for many purposes is very conof nuts, or were adorned with figures of centaurs venient." In England in some of the churches or horses, or marine animals, and were so ar- pews are constructed with tubes to conduct the ranged as to vibrate against each other upon sound, opening in convenient positions for the every motion of the head, and thus to produce a ear of the listener. Among the more recent constant gentle tipkling. Instead of a ring, a inventions for facilitating hearing are the auricle, book was often used to attach the ornament to a small tube of silver with a semiglobular exthe ear, and the women of Italy still continue pansion, intended to be inserted into the meatus this practice, passing the hook through the lobe of the ear; and the tympanum, a small thin disk of the ear without any other fastening. One of rubber, having a silver wire passing through of the most famous of modern ear rings was it to transmit the sound wave. In a few cases the latter has been of considerable service. In After the barons the earls are also the most cases of total deafness, no such means are of numerous of any order, numbering (in 1859) any advantage.

234, of whom 47 have Scottish and 68 Irish EARL, the most ancient title of nobility used titles. They are styled by the sovereign right in Great Britain. Under the early Saxon kings trusty and well beloved cousin,” an appellation the powerful nobles to whose charge shires or attributed to Henry IV., who had his own reaterritories had been committed were called eal- sons for flattering the powerful earls, with nearly dormen, literally elder men (whence the mod- all of whom he is said to have been allied by birth ern alderinan), a term equivalent to the Latin or marriage, by frequent allusions to the relationsenior or senator, and given in Latin documents ship. They are now created by letters patent, as princeps, dux, or comes. The Danes subse- in place of the old practice by which the sover quently applied the term eorle, which signified eign girded on the sword of the new earl and originally a man of noble birth, as opposed to invested him with mantle and coronet. the ceori or churl, to the same men who had EARL MARSHAL, an officer of state in Engborne the title of ealdormen. The Saxon earl land, who directs important ceremonies, takes derived his title solely from his office, which cognizance of matters relating to honor, arms, was originally in the gift of the crown, and in and pedigree, and proclaims the declaration of recompense for his services received a part of war or of peace. The office was established in the revenues of his province to his own use. the reign of Richard II., who conferred it upon Toward the close of the Saxon dynasty these Thomas Mowbray, earl of Nottingham, and is provincial governors not only greatly enlarged now hereditary in the family of Howard, the their authority, but claimed the dignity as he head of which, the duke of Norfolk, is the presreditary; and in the time of Edward the Con- ent earl marshal of England. fessor the whole kingdom was divided between EARLE, Pliny, an American inventor, born in 5 powerful earls, including Godwin and his sons Leicester, Mass., Dec. 17, 1762, died there, Nov. Harold and Tosti, of whom Harold subsequent- 19, 1832. In 1785 he became connected with ly usurped the throne. After the Norman con- Mr. Edmu Snow in the manufacture of maquest the territorial possessions of the Saxon chine and hand cards for carding cotton and nobility were declared forfeited, and with many wool; and in 1790, when Mr. Samuel Slater, the newly created fiefs were distributed among the originator of cotton factories in this country, chief followers of William the Conqueror, who was establishing his first factory at Pawtucket, thereupon assumed the name of counts, from the he applied to Mr. Earle to furnish him with Latin comes. But this title was very soon re- what are technically termed twilled cards, all placed by the old one of earl, while the terri- the cards then manufactured in this country tory from which the new dignitary received his being plain. Mr. Earle at first made these by name or over which he exercised jurisdiction hand, but soon invented the machine still in was thenceforth called a county, instead of a use for their manufacture, by which the labor of shire as previously under the Saxons, and the a man for 15 hours could be performed in as many consort of the earl became a countess. Accord- minutes. Aside from his inventive genius, Mr. ing to Cruise, there were 3 sorts of earldoms Earle deserves a record for his extensive attainunder the early Norman kings: the first and ments in science and literature. -Pliny, an highest, where the dignity was annexed to the American physician, son of the preceding, born possession of a whole county, with the jura re- in Leicester, Mass., Dec. 31, 1809. He was edugalia, in which case the county became a county cated at the Friends' yearly meeting boarding palatine, and the person created earl of it exer- school at Providence, R. I., where he was subsecised all the authority of a sovereign ; the next, quently employed as a teacher. He received bis where the earl was entitled to the third part diploma of M.V. in 1837, after which he spent 3 of the revenues of the county court; and the months in London and a year in Paris, and some third, where a tract of land was erected into a 10 months more in travel, returning to Philadel. county and granted with civil and criminal phia in 1839. In 1840 he was appointed resident jurisdiction to be held per servitium unius comi- physician of the insane hospital at Frankford, tatus. This statement, however, is open to con- Penn., under the care of the Friends, where he troversy, and Sir Harris Nicolas is of opinion remained a little more than 2 years. In 1844 that the Norman earls

, excepting in the coun- he was appointed physician to the asylum for the ties palatine, possessed no jurisdiction over the insane at Bloomingdale, N. Y., where he recounties from which they were denominated, mained till April, 1849, when he visited the inthe dignity being of a nature altogether personal. sane hospitals of England, Belgium, Germany, At present the title conveys no local jurisdic- Austria, Poland, and a part of those of France. tion or revenue, and is no longer confined to the In 1847 he declined an appoinment of visiting names of counties, but may be derived from physician to the New York city lunatic asylum, those of towns or villages, or of families. It but accepted it when again offered in 1853. remained the highest hereditary dignity in Eng- He has been a somewhat voluminous writer, land until the reign of Edward III., when the principally in the medical and scientific jour. first dukedom was created, and is now the 3d nals and the “ Journal of Insanity.” In 1841 order of the British nobility, being next below he published a small volume of poems entithat of marquis, and above that of viscount. tled "Marathon and other Poems;" but fear




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