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from the western base of the Shawangunk impulses sometimes produce perceptible movemountain at Ellenville, in Ulster co., N. Y., forments in what appears to be solid and fixed. about a mile to the summit. At the foot one Thus at Greenwich observatory the shutting may easily step across the fissure, but higher up of the outer gate has so jarred the transit it becomes wider till the hard vertical walls of telescope as to throw the star to which it sandstone are separated by a gorge several feet pointed out of the field of view. The effect of wide and of great depth. At the top the strata the jarring of dams by the fall of water is also which sloped nearly with the mountain have felt miles off. Various agents are well known curved over and assumed a horizontal position. to be at work in the interior of the earth, proAn area of a hundred acres or more is here rent ducing chemical changes, which are often atin every direction; the continuity of the surface tended with violent movements. By such forces is interrupted by sudden steps of rock, present- immense columns of lava are lifted up in the ing abrupt walls, while the gorge traced up the craters of volcanoes, and stones of vast size are mountain has spread out into a frightful abyss, ejected. One mass of rock thrown from Cotomore than a hundred feet wide. Among the loose paxi, a distance of 8 or 9 m., was estimated to rocks which lie upon the bottom, trees are seen contain about 100 cubic yards of matter, consegrowing, the tops of which hardly reach half way quently weighing over 200 tons. It has been sugto the edge of the precipice.-Earthquakes of es- gested that many of the gases which are evolved pecial interest, from their late occurrence and from volcanoes may, under the immense pressure destructive effects, are those of 1857 and 1858 to which they are subjected in the interior, exist of the kingdom of Naples, and of Mexico. The in a liquid or solid form, and that by a considerformer commenced Dec. 16, 1857, and continued able increase of heat these are made to assume at intervals through the early part of January. the gaseous form, and in doing this display an In the city of Naples repeated shocks were felt, elastic power which no superincumbent mass can alarming the inhabitants, who often rushed from resist. " It has been found that when powder is their houses into the streets, many fleeing from exploded in rocks a shock is communicated to the city altogether. But as in former catastro- distances varying with the quantity fired and phes of this nature, which laid waste the sur- the quality of the rock as to elasticity; and the rounding country, the city itself, though more rate of progress of this impulse has been obor less injured, was singularly protected. This served to be from about 1,000 to 1,700 feet per is supposed to be owing to the proximity of second. Many instances have been recorded of Vesuvius, which continued in eruption, dis- the velocity of the earthquake shock, ascertained charging clouds of smoke, accompanied with by noting the time at which chronometers at difterrific explosions. Resina at different times ferent localities have been stopped by it, and this was in a continual state of vibration for hours has been found to vary from 1,000 to 5,000 feet together, the shocks appearing to procceed from per second. The movement in both these cases is the mountain. But the chief scene of destruc- no doubt of analogous character, though accomtion was in the provinces, particularly those of panied in the earthquake by a vastly increased Principato Superiore and Basilicata. Potenza, display of force. Mr. R. Mallet, who has rethe capital of the latter, was left without a sin- counted these and other observations in his valugle house inhabitable. Tito, Marsico Nuovo, able essay on the dynamics of earthquakes, defines Laurenzana, Porienza, Pollo, and other places, their efficient cause to be "a wave of elastic comwere reduced to heaps of ruins. The loss of pression, produced either by the sudden flexure lives was estimated by thousands; according to and constraint of the elastic materials forming a some statements made at the time, from 22,000 portion of the earth's crust, or by the sudden reto 40,000. The late earthquake in Mexico oc- lief of this constraint by withdrawal of the force, curred June 19, 1858. It extended throughout or by their giving way and becoming fractured.” the valley of Mexico, demolishing many houses When, as frequently is the case, the shock in the city, and also the aqueduct which supplies originates beneath the ocean, its effect is transthe city with water, and destroying property to mitted first in the wave of sound, which, rushthe value of several millions of dollars. It was ing forward through the rocky crust of the felt with more or less destructive effects in Gua- earth at the rate of 8,000 to 10,000 feet per secdalajara, Jalapa, San Luis Potosi, Toluca, &c. In cond, gives notice by its rumbling of the vibratthe city of Morelis, the shock was the greatest ing motion that is following behind. The great ever experienced there, lasting 14 ininutes; and sea wave generated by the same movement, in Patzacuaro, 15 leagues further west, it was advances still more slowly than the vibration still more severe, levelling 4 churches, and many transmitted through the rocky strata, but at last private houses. The city of Quito in Ecuador pours in upon the land, its effects modified by was almost entirely destroyed by an earthquake, the contour of the coasts and the depth of the March 22, 1859, and many thousand lives are waters through which it has passed. Lastly said to have been lost. Several small towns may come the atmospheric agitation and the north of the capital were destroyed at the sound of the outbreak, transmitted through same time.—The cause which produces the the air. The vibrating movement imparted earthquake shock, and the manner in which it to the solid strata is the chief agency in the is communicated over vast distances in short diasastrous effects of earthquakes. Its rate of time, have been variously explained. Slight progress must vary with the varying elasticity of the rocks, and a greatly increased shock pare earths are rarely seen; they are insolable must consequently be experienced in the passage in water, and when taken up by acid solvents of the wave from soft alluvial strata into the are precipitated white by ammonia or soda. hard crystalline rocks, or vice versa. It was on EARWIG, an orthopterous insect, of the this line of junction of the 2 formations that family cursoria or runners, which also includes the most disastrous effects were experienced in the cockroach; it belongs to the genus forficula the great earthquake in Calabria in 1783. It is (Linn.). All the 6 feet are formed for running; by such an elastic wave, moving forward and the wings are 4, the upper pair very short, corisuddenly back again, that Mr. Mallet explains aceous like the elytra of coleoptera, without the carious effects which have been observed in veins, enclosing the under wings, which are the twisting movement given to the blocks folded both longitudinally and transversely; the which form portions of columns, as if the upper mouth is formed for mastication; the body is stones had been partially turned around on the long and somewhat flattened, and armed at the lower. Such effects were noticed by Darwin hinder end with a pair of curved blades shutting in the cathedral at Concepcion, and others of like scissors or nippers; there are 3 joints to the the same nature are described as having occur- tarsus ; the antennæ are filiform. These insects red to 2 obelisks in a convent in Calabria. The undergo a partial metamorphosis. They seem to effect has also been referred to a vorticose or form the connecting link between coleoptera and whirling motion, and by others to a rotary orthoptera, resembling the former in their elytra, movement caused by the crossing of 2 waves and the latter in the shape of the wings and of horizontal vibration. The Profs. Rogers mouth, and the metamorphosis; for these reasons "attribute the movement to an actual pulsation most English entomologists adopt for them the engendered in the molten matter itself by a lin- order dermaptera of Mr Kirby and Dr. Leach, ear disruption under enormous tension, giving considering them coleoptera with the metamorvent explosively to elastic vapors, escaping phosis and caudal appendages of orthoptera. either to the surface or into cavernous spaces They are common in moist earth, under stones, beneath.” By others the movement had previ- in decayed wood, and in similar damp and dark ously been ascribed to elastic vapors, passing places; they are considered in Europe injurious between the strata or between the crust and the to peaches, pears, apples, to greenhouse plants, fluid lava beneath it.--For further details the and to pinks, dablias, and other favorites of the reader is referred to the work of Robert Mallet, flower garden. The full-grown insect, including C.E., and John W. Mallet, professor of chem- its caudal forceps, is not quite an inch long, and istry in the university of Alabama, published in its width is f of an inch ; the color is light brown. an octavo volume in 1858. It contains the Being nocturnal insects, they creep in the dayable papers published from 1852 to 1858 in the time into any crevice or hole which can conceal “Transactions" of the British association for the them, and this has given rise to the popular advancement of science; that of 1858 reviewing belief that they enter the human ear; they the facts and theories of earthquakes, and illus- might attempt this, but the waxy bitter secretrated by several fine maps. "Mr. Mallet has tion of the ear would probably prevent their also collected some interesting data respecting entrance; there are no well authenticated inthe distribution of earthquakes, having compiled stances of their doing this, and no harm could a catalogue embracing nearly 6,000. In Guinea result if they did, as the drum of the ear would and southern Africa no earthquakes are record- arrest them, and a drop or two of oil would soon ed. The same may probably be said of Green- destroy them by stopping up their respiratory land. One spot in the Atlantic ocean, near the trachea. The common way of catching them in equator and about midway between Guinea and England is by hanging up any convenient vessel Brazil, appears to be peculiarly subject to them. or tube for them to crawl into in the morning, Vessels passing over this tract almost always from which they are shaken and killed. In the experience shocks, and the soundings are found larvæ there are no wings nor elytra, but the skin to be subject to sudden and extreme variations, is changed several times; the nymph differs little a depth of 400 fathoms being often directly suc- from the perfect insect; in both these conditions ceeded by one beyond the reach of the sound- they are voracious, even devouring each other. ing line. It is naturally inferred that this may In this country there are several species, rather be a submarine volcanic region.

uncommon, and never injurious to vegetation.EARTHS, in chemistry, a class of certain The many-footed creeping animal erroneously compounds of metallic bases and oxygen, which called earwig in America (genus iulus), is not before the decomposition of some of them by an insect, but a myriapodous crustacean, equally Sir Humphry Davy were regarded as elementary innocent of entering the human ear. bodies. The earths proper are alumina, glucina, EASDALE, or EISDALE, an island of the Hezirconia, thoria, didymia, lantana, ceria, yttria, brides group, about 1} m. long, and of nearly terbia, erbia. "Silica, formerly regarded as an the same width, and noted for its slate quarries, earth, is a combination of silicon with oxygen, which have been worked 150 years. The island and possesses the properties of an acid. The consists entirely of slate stone, and has been so following possess alkaline properties, and are much cnt away that a large part of it is now classed as alkaline earths: baryta,' strontia, even with or below the level of the sea. lime, magnesia, lithia. Excepting alumina, the EAST (Anglo-Saxon, East; the corresponding word in many other languages having a similar colonized the new world, the Portuguese estabetymological significance), the quarter in which lished themselves in India, and for nearly a centhe heavenly bodies rise. Due east is the direc- tury, with the help of the papal bulls in their tion toward the east, precisely at right angles to favor, monopolized the trade, supplying all Eua horizontal meridian line; the reverse direction rope with spices, silks, and Indian produce, and is due west. An object is said to bear due east raising their country to the pinnacle of its when it is seen exactly in this direction; but it wealth and power. When in 1580 Philip II. is said to be due east when it is on the same united Portugal to Spain, and presently began his parallel of latitude as the observer, i. e., when war upon England, he closed the ports of his it may be connected with the observer by a line empire against British vessels. This was the first overy point of which runs dae east and west. blow at the supremacy of Portuguese commerce An object that is due east will in N. latitudes in the East. The British were forced to get their bear Ñ. of E., unless it be very near the ob- supplies of Indian produce from the Dutch, who server, or he be very near the equator, for in immediately raised the price of pepper by 200 per other cases the parallel of latitude curves to the cent. The revolt of the Netherlands, and connorth, keeping at the same distance from the sequent exclusion of Dutch vessels also from LisN. pole. A column of smoke, for example, over bon, till then the great European depot for InNew York city, could it be seen at Nauvoo, dian wares, at once compelled the Dutch to seek would bear 54° N. of E., and smoke rising from a direct passage to India. The English were not Nauvoo would bear from New York 66° N. of slow to follow

their example, and thus during the W. The bearing is the direction in which a last 10 years of the 16th century was laid the great circle from the observer through the ob- foundation in Holland and England for the great ject starts from the observer; while the course commercial corporations known to history as or actual direction is the direction of a line to East India companies. After the union of Spain the object cutting every meridian at the same and Portugal, the Portuguese East India comangle. Madagascar is in a S. E. direction from merce, founded in 1498 and conducted on govNew York, but bears due east. “Bearing” is ernment account, was managed with laxity; all sometimes used in the sense of course or actual kinds of corruption grew up among officers and direction instead of in the sense here given. servants, and it was presently found that the East is a different direction for every spot on trade was a losing business for the government. the earth's surface; at the poles there is no east Hereupon the exclusive privilege of commerce or west; nor among the stars, except by refer- with India was in 1587 granted to a company once to the nearest part of the earth's surface. of Portuguese merchants, in consideration of

EAST FELICIANA, a N. E. parish of Loui- the annual payment of a stated sum. Attemptsiana, bordering on the Mississippi and Amite ing to enforce its rights in India, the agents of rivers; area, about 480 sq. m.; pop. in 1856, this company found themselves in collision with 14,101, of whom 10,266 were slaves. It has a the Portuguese government there, which was moderately uneven surface, and the soil is well engaged in smuggling; they found the Portuwatered, fertile, and easily tilled. There are guese hated by the natives, and their designs forests of pine, oak, and bay, and extensive thwarted wherever possible by the Arabs. On plantations of sugar and cotton. In 1855 the the breaking out of the war between England, productions were 16,970 bales of cotton, 2,464 Holland, and Spain, which struck a disastrous hogsheads of sugar, 448,475 bushels of Indian blow at the India trade, the Portuguese company corn, and 3,857 barrels of molasses. Value of became unable to pay its annual tribute; and real estate, $2,079,785. The parish contains a thenceforth it gradually declined, untilin 1640 the lunatic asylum and a college. Capital, Clinton. company was finally abolished. Since that time

EAST INDIA COMPANIES. The estab- the unimportant commerce of Portugal with Inlishment of direct trade with the Indies was dia has been carried on by the crown; though an the aim of all the most enterprising cities and unsuccessful attempt was made in 1731 to estabgovernments of early Europe. The Italian re- lish another coinpany.--The Dutch, driven from publics were long foremost in the trade, but the southern passage, monopolized by the Porthey never entirely overcame the obstacles in tuguese, made three unsuccessful attempts at the the way of secure overland passage; and when

pening of way by the ocean which bounds the Turks were established in Europe and Afri- Europe on the north. A north-east passage was ca by the conquest of Constantinople and Egypt, never discovered, and the wars turned southIndia became almost a closed land to the mer- ward the attention of the Dutch. A“Company chants of western Europe. Thus arose the ne- for Remote Parts" was formed at Amsterdam, and cessity for a new channel of communication, on April 2, 1595, 8 years after the establishment less liable to interruption. Prince John of Por- of the new Portuguese company, 4 small vessels, tugal was foremost among the rulers who en- equipped with a capital of 70,000 guilders, sailed couraged the then growing spirit of maritime from the Texel ander the command of Cornelius exploration. A new way to the Indies was the Houtmann, bound around the cape of Good dream of the day, under which Columbus discov- Hope. Houtmann had been a prisoner, whether ered America, while Vasco da Gama first round, among the Turks or the Portuguese is uncered the cape of Good Hope in 1497 and reached tain, and was acquainted with the Portuguese the Malabar coast in 1498. While the Spaniards East India trade. Several other companies, start

ed in others of the United Provinces, finally Europeans, and the forced production of some joined that of Amsterdam, and in March, 1602, spices with prohibition of the cultivation of they received a charter from the states-general others, to rule the markets of the world and conferring on them the exclusive privilege of to extend and consolidate their dominion and trade to the East Indies for 21 years, with the wealth, the company was yet so exhausted by necessary civil and military powers. They war with England and political expenses, that in began with a capital of 6,500,000 guilders; 6 1781 the states-general were obliged to assist it towus were interested ; 65 directors, chosen in with a loan. In the first French revolution it lost stated numbers from each, equipped the vessels; nearly all its possessions. The establishment of 15 others had the general direction of affairs. the Batavian republic, Sept. 15, 1795, terminated They were so successful that in 20 years they its existence, and the affairs of the company divided

among the stockholders the large sum passed into the hands of the government. A new of 30,000,000 guilders, more than 4 times the company was established in 1824, called the Hanamount of the capital, beside owning vast del Maatschapijor trading association. This comamounts of property in colonies, fortifications, pany is the

agent for the sale of the government and vessels. The charter was extended to 1644; produce in Europe, the carrier of this produce, Batavia was founded; the commerce with Japan, and farms some branches of the public revenue which returned silver and copper for commodi- of Java and the other Dutch East India colonies. ties, was extended; in 1641 Malacca, capital of In 1851 this company sent to Europe about $20,the then neglected Portuguese East India pos. 000,000 worth of produce, while the amount sent sessions, fell into the hands of the Dutch by from the same colonies by private merchants the treachery of the governor; and from 34 to was only about $10,000,000. The Dutch are 41 freighted vessels were sent out annually, of still noted throughout the East for their narrow which from 25 to 34 returned loaded. Yet so policy, and their extreme severity toward the rapidly did the English and French commerce natives whom they have reduced to their yoke. increase during these years, that in 1644 the A French East India company, founded in 1740, Dutch East India company could scarce com- was broken up in 1770. A Danish East India mand the 1,600,000 guilders required as a sub- company was founded in 1618, dissolved in 1634, sidy to the government, on again renewing its reconstituted in 1670, and again dissolved in charter for 21 years. The peace of Westphalia, 1729. A new company, formed in 1732 under which secured the independence of the republic the name of the Danish Asiatic company, was of the United Provinces, once more gave the prosperous during the 18th century, but has company life. Between 1650 and 1670 they since declined, especially since 1845, when Dencolonized the cape of Good Hope, at an expense mark ceded Tranquebar and Serampore to Great of 20,000,000 guilders. In 1658 they succeeded Britain. A Swedish India company, established in wresting Ceylon from the Portuguese; and in Gottenburg toward the middle of the 18th the island of Formosa, which they then held, century, and renewed in 1806, is still in existreceived a valuable colony of 30,000 expatriated ence; its operations, however, are inconsiderable. Chinese, who brought industry and wealth with -The English endeavored to open commercial them. In 1661 they lost Formosa-Koxinga, a intercourse with India as early as 1553, during Chinese adventurer, expelling them from it. In the reign of Edward VI.; but their expeditions 1663 they took possession of the most valuable sent out overland failed of reaching their des. Portuguese settlements on the Malabar coast. tination, from want of geographical knowledge. In 1666, after a prolonged struggle, they gained The next attempts were made by sea, the belief Macassar, and

with it the monopoly of the spice being that a north-west passage about the upper trade. In 1665 the charter was with much op- part of the newly discovered American contiposition renewed till 1700, on condition of the nent was practicable, and that this would give payment of a large sum. At this time the civil to England a channel to the Indies, over which and military expenses of the company, exclu- the pope (who, in his capacity of chief of Chrissive of those of the Macassar war, amounted to tendom, had granted to the Portuguese the ex3,500,000 guilders. Their report showed a pro- clusive right to pass round the cape of Good digious extension of commerce and of territory. Hope, a right which was long respected) would They held the principal seats of commerce in Cey. have no control, and which would enable them lon, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and in fact through- to compete successfully with the Portuguese. out the Indian archipelago. They command- John Cabot, looking for India in 1497, had dised the trade with Pegu, Siam, Tonquin, Japan, covered Newfoundland. In 1553 his son Sebasthe Banda and Molucca isles, Amboyna, &c. tian took charge of 3 vessels, to discover a northBatavia was then in all its glory, and the straits east passage to India. This was sent out by a of Sunda on wbich it is situated had become, company chartered by Edward VI. with a capinstead of those of Malacca, the channel to thé ital ‘of £6,000. In 1581 the English Turkish further Indies. The charter was renewed in company endeavored, but without success, to 1701, in 1741, and in 1776, the last time for 30 pass overland to India. Meantime the desire for years, and on condition of paying down 2,000,- Indian wealth, the arbitrary closing of tho 000 guilders

, with 360,000 annually. Turning Portuguese markets against British and Dutch, their hands against every one in the East, and and the impossibility of going to India by the seeking by oppression of natives, exclusion of north, all conspired to make the British merchants lose respect for the pope's bull and its prize—a richly laden Portuguese carrack of 980 prescribed boundaries, and to set out for India tons burden, taken with the aid of a Dutch vesby the forbidden route. On Sept. 22, 1599, a sel. For several years the expeditions were not company of London merchants was formed, increased in size or value, but were generally representing a capital of £30,133, which re- fortunate in their results. The profits for the ceived a charter from Queen Elizabeth, Dec. 31, first 8 years were stated at 171 per cent. ; but 1600, under the title of the Governor and when it is remembered that a voyage lasted from Company of Merchants of London trading with 24 to 4 years, that long credits were given for the East Indies.” The charter was for 15 years, goods sold, and that consequently it was often and granted the exclusive right of trading to all 6 to 8 years from the beginning of a voyage ere countries from the cape of Good Hope east- its accounts were settled, the profits were not so ward to the straits of Magellan, excepting those enormous as they look; and taking into considwhich were possessed by friendly European eration the real and the fancied risks, it is not powers. The first Englishman who sailed to surprising that the business of the company did India by way of the cape of Good Hope was not more rapidly enlarge. The profits of the trade a Capt. Stephens, in 1582. Sir Francis Drake with the islands were never very satisfactory, and Thomas Cavendish followed by way of Cape however. In 1607 Capt. Hawkins was sent out Horn. The latter sailed from England in July, to endeavor to establish commercial intercourse 1586, in a small squadron fitted at his own ex- with the dominions of the Great Mogul. His pense, explored all the Indian ocean as far as mission proved of no avail, the Portuguese ins the Philippines, and returned with a valuable triguing successfully against him. In 1612 Capt. stock of information in Sept. 1588. Two large Beal obtained from the court at Delhi several Portuguese carracks laden with all the riches of considerable. privileges, among which was that the Indies fell into the hands of the English of establishing a factory at Surat, which city about 1593, and, beside rousing the cupidity and became at once the chief British station in Inenterprise of their captors, were found to pos- dia, until the organization of Bombay. Facsess documents and charts of the greatest im- tories were depots for goods, fortified, in order portance to the merchants shortly to adventure to protect the lives and property of resident a trading expedition into unknown parts. These representatives of the company. They invaricircumstances facilitated the formation of the ably proved the entering wedges for territorial company, of which Thomas Smythe, Esq., was aggrandizement on the part of the Europeans. the first governor, assisted by 24 directors in 1613 the capital of the company was united; named in the charter. The charter empowered the largest stockholders took the management. them to elect a governor and directors and other of affairs, and these were so prosperous that in office-bearers; to make by-laws for their gov- the course of 4 years the shares of the company ernment; to inflict punishments, corporal or rose to the value of 203 per cent., while its facpecuniary, on those in their employ, provided tories were extended to Java, Sumatra, Borsuch punishments be within the laws of Great neo, the Banda islands, Celebes, Malacca, Siam, Britain; to export all goods duty free for 4 years, the Coromandel and Malabar coasts, but chiefly and to export foreign coins as bullion to the to the dominions of the Great Mogul, whose amount of £30,000 a year, £6,000 of the same favor the company had secured, after divers being previously recoined at the mint; with the fruitless attempts. From the beginning of the proviso, however, that they must import within company's trade to July, 1620, they had sent 6 months from the conclusion of every voyage 79 ships to India, of which 34 had come safely after the first an amount of specie equal to that home richly laden, 4 had been worn out in In. before exported. It was also provided that dia, and 20 had been lost—2 by careening, 6 by should the company not be found to the pub- sea perils, and 12 captured by the Dutch. At lic advantage, its charter might be cancelled that time (1620) the capital of the company in after 2 years' notice given. There does not ships, goods in India, &c., amounted to £400,seem, after all, to have been very great zeal in 000; they had exported from England to India fitting out vessels. Many of the stockholders the value of £840,376; had imported what cost did not pay up, and until 1613 but a small part £356,288 in India, which brought no less than of them united at all in the speculation, and £1,914,600 in England; and finally quarrels these each on his own account, only using the with the Dutch, their most energetic rivals, had ships of the company, and conforming to cer- occasioned losses to the amount of £84,088. In tain other regulations. The first expedition to 1616 a new stock subscription had been opened, India sailed under command of Capt. Lancaster, and £1,629,040 was raised. But in 1627 comFeb. 15, 1601, from Torbay. It consisted of 5 plaints were made of abuses and bad manageships, varying in size from 130 to 600 tons, hay- ment in the company; during the reign of the ing a cargo of bullion, iron, tin, broadcloths, Stuarts there was much murmuring against the cutlery, glass, &c. The entire venture, ships monopoly, and Charles I. in 1635 gave to Sir and all, was valued at £69,091. It arrived at William Courten and several private individuals Acheen, Sumatra, June 5, 1602. Lancaster made the right to trade to India. In 1645 permission treaties with the kings of Acheen and Bantam, was given by the natives to the company to and returned to the Downs, Sept. 11, 1603, with build Fort St. George at Madras. In 1655 a cargo of pepper and other produce, and a Cromwell attempted, but vainly to make the

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