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the most celebrated scholars, among whom were ing how little knowledge the troubadour poems Plegmund, Werfrith, Ethelstan, Werwulf, Asser presuppose; there is scarcely an allusion to hisof St. David's, Grimbald of St. Omer, John Scotus tory or mythology; and no references to forErigena, and John of Old Saxony, who left the eign manners, or reminiscences of the sciences monastery of Corbie for that of Ethelingey; he which had been taught in schools, are mingled made translations with his own hand into Anglo- with the simple effusions of sentiment. The Saxon from Bede, Boëthius, and Orosius; estab- fantastic solemnities styled courts of love and lished schools in different parts of his kingdom; floral games, the serious discussion of ridiculous and ordained that the children of every free questions of metaphysical gallantry, the elaboman whose circumstances would allow it should rately frivolous directions concerning the manacquire the arts of reading and writing, and ners of either sex, are illustrations of a society that those designed for civil or ecclesiastical without intellectual development, but highly offices should be instructed in the Latin lan- and peculiarly disciplined in respect of the senguage. Yet his efforts in behalf of learning timents. From the 12th and 13th centuries, were as unfruitful after his death as those of the era of the schoolmen, date 23 universities, Charlemagne had been in France, and were including those of Paris, Montpellier, Oxford, succeeded by the mental torpor of the 10th Cambridge, Bologna, Salerno, Padus Rome, century, in which, it has been remarked, no Salamanca, and Lisbon. That of Bologna was heresies appeared. Yet Germany at that time especially famous for its revival of the civil law, possessed many learned and virtuous church- and drew lawyers and students in large nummen. In the school of Paderborn not only the bers to Lombardy from remote parts of Europe. 7 liberal arts were taught, but also Homer and Paris was unrivalled in the department of theVirgil were read, and the arts of painting and ology, and Montpellier in that of medicine. versifying practised; and in that of Fulda, the Roscellin and William of Champeaux were the pupils of Hrabanus Maurus, himself the most first scholastic teachers who enjoyed brilliant accomplished pupil of Alcuin, gave instruction success ; and Abelard, the disciple of them with zeal and care to noble youth. But as both, attracted students by thousands to his learning was chiefly contained in a dead lan- lectures in Paris, fascinated the intellect of guage in all the countries of Europe, it hardly Christendom by a dialectic method, and awak. reached the mass of the people; the art of writ- ened mankind to a sympathy with intellectual ing was so rare among laymen that it was called excellence. Though he was involved in a the clerical art; paper was excessively dear, and controversy with Saint Bernard, and though ink was so scarce even two centuries later that some of his opinions were condemned by an Petrarch only after great difficulty succeeded in ecclesiastical council, and he was therefore finding some in Liège.—The rise of the scholas- ordered to be confined in a cloister, yet his tic philosophy and of the troubadour poetry, the scholars followed him to his hermitage in the institution of universities, and the return to a wilderness, and enlarged his little oratory to a profound study of the Greek and Latin classics, cosmopolitan and studious monastery called the were the literary steps during and after the 11th Paraclete. One of his pupils was Peter Lomcentury which preceded the revival of learning bard, the author of the “ Book of Sentences," in the 14th and 15th centuries. Intercourse which obtained the highest authority. The inwith the flourishing Arabian academies of Spain genious subtleties of scholasticism were proshould also be mentioned, since many scholars, moted by the schools of the mendicant orders, following the example of Gerbert, studied in and the two greatest masters of the method, them, and imported the sciences thence into the champions of distinct systems, were the France and England. It was through the Ara- Dominican Thomas Aquinas and the Franciscan bic mind that western philosophers first became Duns Scotus. The most determined opponents of acquainted with the complete works of Aristo- the scholastics were the mystics, the promoters tle, and learned to prefer his dialectics to those of piety rather than learning, the principal repof Augustine; and some suppose that the lit- resentatives of whom were St. Bernard of erary culture of Provence proceeded from con- Clairvaux, Thomas à Kempis, Tauler, and in tact with Arabic poets beyond the Pyrénées. his later years Gerson. The university students, Knighthood demanded a moral and physical notwithstanding the enthusiasm and attainrather than intellectual culture. The sons of ments of some of them, were often subjects of gentlemen who were trained to this profession satire. It was complained that they frequented were brought up in the castles of great lords, eating and dancing houses, and strolled through instructed in exercises of strength and activity the streets by night shouting and singing; that and in the management of arms, accustomed to they went from university to university, not to obedience and a courteous demeanor to their increase their knowledge, but to be able to boast lord and lady, and trained to enthusiastic and that they had studied at Paris, Bologna, or romantic views of valor, honor, love, and mu- Pavia; and that they surrounded themselves nificence. Many of the noblest knights could with large libraries and paraded doctors' caps neither read nor write. The Provençal litera, in order to win admiration for learning which ture and society, founded on the principles and they did not possess. The minor schools were customs of chivalry, were a remarkable exam- said often to be badly conducted; the master ple of culture without learning. It is surpris- was not sufficiently under the surveillance of

the bishop, and might be one of the numerous Germany, Valla in Italy, and above all Ramus secular ecclesiastics, scholastici, scholares vagan- in France, wrote against scholasticism. It was tes, bacchantes, or goliardi, who traversed Eu- assailed by the reformers and defended by the rope as adventurers, becoming curates, teachers, Jesuits, and is still in honor in some of the Spanor sorcerers, according to occasion, foretelling ish universities. Purbach, Regiomontanus, and eclipses, selling calendars and false relics, and de- Nicholas Casanus were the first to promote the frauding the people in manifold ways. It was study of the higher mathematics. Nicholas de not uncommon for children to imitate the older Clemengis and Gregorius Tifernas revived the students, passing from school to school in groups, classical taste in France, Vitelli and Coilet in begging, stealing, and singing before houses. England, Lebrixa in Spain, and Reuchlin in GerYet the rod played a prominent part in schools, many. The pious“ Brethren of the Common and a vignette found in most of the mediæval Life," whose first school was founded by Gerard classical books represents a master holding it in de Groot at Deventer in 1340, also exerted a hand. A festival of the rod was one of the wide influence. Their schools were extended holidays, when the boys and girls went together throughout the Netherlands and Germany, were to the nearest forest for a bundle of birchen twigs, distinguished alike for piety and solid acquireand returned singing a chant relative to the use ments, and attracted students even from Italy. which the master would make of them. Dur- From them proceeded Thomas à Kempis, and ing the period preceding the revival of learning many who were afterward celebrated as refemale education declined. Only a few schools formers. In 1483 a severe and almost barbarous were maintained in the large cities for the in- discipline was ordained in the college of Monstruction of girls in reading, and the inmates taigu, combining labor, fasting, and pitiless punof convents were taught hardly more than to ishments. Yet among the students who in a repeat their prayers and to practise embroidery few years proceeded from this school were and other needlework. A writer of the 13th Erasmus, Loyola, and Calvin. Erasmus, with century defines the proper education of woman polished jests admirable for their esprit and as “knowing how to pray to God, to love man, learning, seemed to revive the ancient Attic wit, to knit, and to sew." From the time when the and exerted a refreshing influence on letters. ill-fated Heloise taught the sciences and the The golden age of the literature of Belgium Greek and Latin classics to her nuns, till the was that of Albert and Isabella in the first quarlatter part of the 15th century, western Europe ter of the 17th century, in which the triumph furnishes no female name renowned for learning of the renaissance was completed. The univerexcept that of Christina of Pisa.- When the sity of Louvain was the centre of a wide intelByzantine empire approached its fall, the Greek lectual culture, and the alma mater of many scholars who had there preserved some acquaint- celebrities. Its European reputation increased ance with ancient learning took refuge in Italy, till in 1570 it had 8,000 students.-Education where the love of letters had been already and the doctrines concerning it played an imawakened by the genius of Dante, Petrarch, and portant part in the movements of the Protestant Boccaccio, and where industrious scholars under reformers, and also in the reaction in favor of the patronage of princes were devoting their the papacy under the Jesuits. The revival of lives to the recovery of manuscripts and the intellectual culture among the people was assorevival of philology. Among those who at ciated in the mind of Luther with religious this period of the renaissance specially distin- reform, and in 1528 with the aid of Melanchguished themselves as teachers, the most emi- thon he drew up

the plan of studies which was nent was Victorino Rambaldoni (born in 1378), followed in the Protestant common schools of who conducted schools successively at Padua, Germany till the close of the century. The first Venice, and Mantua, attracting pupils from class learned to read, to repeat from memory a France, Germany, and Greece, but admitting few distichs, to write, and to sing, and began the only those of distinguished talents. He wrote study of Latin. The second class studied Latin, nothing, but his sagacity and success in forming grammar, and music for an hour daily, read and the character of students and in producing a interpreted the fables of Æsop, the pædologia of harmonious and complete development made Mosellanus, and the colloquies of Erasmus, and his name famous for centuries as an instructor. committed to memory parts of Terence and The right study of the classics he believed to be Plautus, and some of the psalms and other poramply sufficient for all the purposes of educa- tions of Scripture. A Latin and a German tion. Among Italian writers on education in sentence were repeated to the students on their the 15th century were Vergeri, Poggio Brac- departure at night, which they were to know ciolini, Vegi, and Æneas Sylvius, afterward by heart on the following day. The third class Pope Pius II. From Italy the more profound advanced to the Latin poets, and to exercises study of classical authors passed to the other in dialectics and rhetoric, and were required to countries of Europe, and a contest was long speak in Latin, and to write an exercise in that maintained between the scholastic and the anti- language weekly. Luther also assailed the Arisscholastic studies ; between the Aristotelians, totelianism and scholastic methods which prewho included the most learned ecclesiastics, and vailed in the universities, and recommended the the Platonists, to whom were attached most of establishment of libraries in every town. Eduthe cultivators of polite literature, Agricola in cation was in like manner encouraged by Zwin

VOL. VI.-49

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gli and Calvin, the latter of whom caused the many. Opposed in France by the Sorbonne, the erection of a splendid edifice for.the gymnasium university, and the parliaments; they did not esof Geneva, to which 8 distinguished professors tablish their first school in Paris till 1665, but in of Hebrew, Greek, philosophy, and theology 1750 they had won from the ancient Benedictines were invited. About this time the gymnasium their pedagogic laurels, and possessed in France of Strasbourg under Johann Sturm became the 669 schools, which were attended by the chilmost flourishing of the age, and in 1578 it had dren of the princes and nobles. Yet the edamore than 1,000 students, 300 of whom were cation of females was much less cared for by of noble or princely birth. Its best influence them than by their opponents the Jansenists. was in improving the taste, for Sturm taught The girls belonging to the upper classes conthe classical languages for their own merits, and nected with the society were educated religiousnot as auxiliaries to theology. He therefore ly rather than learnedly in the numerous houses banished from the school all writings in barba- of the sisters of St. Ursula, or by the nuns of St. rous Latin, and urged children from the age of Angelica or St. Elizabeth.-Between the latter 7 years to speak with each other and their pro- part of the 17th and the close of the 18th cenfessors in choice Ciceronian phrases. He made tury, 4 distinct theories and methods of the pethem commit to memory select passages from dagogic art arose, which are usually named the the classics as they were translated to them, be- pietistic school, the humanistic school, the phifore the details of grammar had been mastered. lanthropic school, and the eclectic school. JanSturm was the friend and correspondent of Roger senius in France, the Wesleys in England, and Ascham of England, one of the most learned especially Spener and Francke in Germany, men of the age, and the author of a treatise on were the first representatives of the pietistic tenthe “Schoolmaster.” The school of Trotzen- dency. The writings of Fénélon, the anthor of dorf, at Goldberg, was distinguished for the or- "Telemachus" and of a treatise on the education ganization of its discipline, the forms of which of girls, which still remains a standard work in were borrowed from the old Roman republic. France, exerted perhaps a similar iufluence. He was the perpetual dictator, and beneath him Spener was the teacher of Francke, who estabwere a censor, 2 consuls, and a senate of the 12 lished a school at Halle for children of both most advanced pupils. Every grave question sexes, and another for teachers, on the principle was discussed before this senate, and was de- that religious and moral instruction should be cided by it. The ancient crowns were revived made more prominent than intellectual acquirefor prizes, the best orator being rewarded in the ments, that the end of education should be a liv. manner of a victor at the Olympic games. Bu- ing knowledge of God and of pure Christianity. genhagen at Hamburg, Spalatin at Altenburg, It was succeeded by similar schools in many other Neander at Nordhausen, and Heyden at Nu- cities, and one of its early graduates was Count remberg, were also among the most successful Zinzendorf. In Greek the New Testament was Protestant teachers of this period.—The Prot- the only text book. Hebrew was one of the stuestants having awakened a zeal for learning, dies of the regular course, and a change of heart the Jesuits determined to avail themselves of this was declared essential to successful scholarship. zeal in the interest of the Catholic church, and to Among the collaborators of Francke were Ramcombat the reformation with its own weapon. bach, Freyer, Hoffmann, Büsching, and SteinThey cultivated to the highest possible degree metz. The humanistic school maintained the all departments of science, and employed the principle that the ancient languages and litersauthority of learning in favor of the pontifical ture, especially the Greek and Latin (which were power. The principle of their method was to termed the humanities), should be the foundation train the memory, the imagination, and the rea- of education, and should be exclusively studied soning faculty, but to check all discursive men- till the pupil went to the university. Among the tal habits. Latin and logic furnished most of more eminent humanists were Cellarius, Gesner, the exercises by which the sentiments and tenets Ernesti, Morus, Reiske, Hermann, Schaefer, of Catholicism were instilled into the minds of Schneider, Heyne, Wolf, Voss, Creuzer, Bockh, youth. Of the classical Latin authors only and Jacobs, many of whom prepared admiCicero and Virgil were used, the other Latin rable editions of the classics and works on clastext books being mediæval writers

. Greek was sical archæology; and their principles have taught only from the works of Chrysostom and been most nearly followed in the schools of other Christian fathers. Philosophy formed a Saxony and the Netherlands, in the seminary part of the higher course, and was taught from of St. Thomas in Leipsic, and in the gymAristotle as interpreted by Aquinas. The polish- nasium of Strasbourg. New ideas upon edued and pleasing exterior of masters and students, cation were developed by Comenius, Locke, and the kindness apparent in the treatment of young Jean Jacques Rousseau. Some of the educapersons, the tender care bestowed upon sick tional works of Comenius were translated into pupils, the pompous occasional celebrations, and several languages, and his Orbis Pictus long the theatrical performances which were often remained a popular household book, and the made a school exercise, all contributed to the model of picture books. His aim was to make extraordinary success of the Jesuits as teachers. education more simple and conformable to naFrom Cologne, Ingolstadt, and Vienna, they ture, to have more regard for diversities of chaspread between 1550 and 1560 throughout Ger- racter, to teach nothing which could not be

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understood by the pupil, and to render the pro- hitherto neglected. Such was the origin of the cess of learning easy and agreeable. Locke efforts for the instruction of deaf mutes by applied to education the principles of the Baco- Heinicke, Braidwood, the abbé de l'Épée, and nian philosophy by which a scientific realism Sicard; the instruction of the blind by Valentin was substituted for the old logical verbalism, Haüy, Klein, and Lenné; the institution of and things rather than books made the sources Sunday schools by Robert Raikes, Oberlin, of knowledge, and urged the union of a due re- and others; the organization of reformatories gard to spositive and practical science with the by Odisculchi and Fata Giovanni in Rome, and culture of the intellect through the medium of by the philanthropic society in London; and language. The Émile of Rousseau contains a many of the special schools of commerce, agrisystem of education founded on the ideas but culture, mines, the arts of design, and other denot the experience of its author, and presents partments.-In Germany since the latter part an ideal and joyous view of domestic culture of the last century the principles of education most strongly in contrast with the circumstances have been actively discussed, the most prominent of his own life. The early education of the writers on the subject being Sulzer, Miller, child is, according to him, of the greatest im- Weisse, Ehlers, Büsch, Feder, Reewitz, Gurlitt, portance, and the charge of it can properly belong Funk, Roetger, Heusinger, Niemeyer, Schwartz, only to the mother and the father. In the long and Beneke. But the man who for the last hunprocession of things to be learned, nothing ap- dred years has exerted the greatest influence on pears till the student is prepared to grasp it education is the Swiss Pestalozzi. According without difficulty, and the attainments in know- to the principles developed by him in various ledge come almost unconsciously by a series of writings, education must begin early, under the easy steps. The child, too, should be educated discipline of home and the direction of parental not for å trade or profession, but for the com- wisdom and power. It must proceed accordmon and absolute state of man; should not ing to the laws of nature, slowly and unintertherefore subject himself to any thraldom of ruptedly, the teacher exciting the child to achabit, but be independent of every thing about tivity and rendering him but a limited amount him, and master of himself. Shielded from the of assistance. Individuality must be held sacorruptions of society and the trammels of con- cred, and carefully studied and encouraged. ventionalism, and left open to the influences of Verbal teaching is futile unless it be implanted nature and of conscience, the character should on previous mental experiences and verified by perfect itself intellectually, socially, and morally. the senses. A development by merely mental Parents were allured to study a system which operations, which the Socratic method favors, seemed to remove all trouble, labor, and care is vain and harmful, for the child can only utfrom the concerns of life. Education was to ter a judgment concerning an object when he become an amusement, and man a reasonable has examined it experimentally, and learned precreature, without annoyance, without perverted cisely to distinguish its qualities and attributes inclinations, without even a futile effort. To by words. Form, number, and language are realize the theories of Rousseau was the task of the elements of knowledge, the principles by Basedow, and he succeeded in effecting great which the mind must be developed; and a thorchanges in the nature of education in Germany. ough acquaintance with them in the various He announced an immense institution to be departments of learning constitutes an educafounded at Dessau, and to be called the Philan- tion. Therefore mental arithmetic, geometry, thropinum, in which the child was to remain and the arts of drawing and modelling objects till he was a man and a citizen. The Elemen- of beauty, are as important exercises as the tarwerk, in which he exhibited his plan, received study of languages. The school should be a subscriptions from princes, magistrates, minis- place of liveliness and activity, and the scholar ters of state, and the most distinguished learned should have opportunity to exercise and reveal men of Germany and Switzerland, all entertain- his power. The system of Pestalozzi has been ing an exaggerated enthusiasm for the new hu- adopted in the Prussian schools with slight modman culture, in which nature was to take the ifications, and has exerted a greater influence place of discipline. An ideal was conceived in than any other on teachers in England, Ameristriking contrast with the reigning severity of ca, and the north of Europe. His system was masters, primness of pupils, perruques and modified by Fellenberg in his institution at swords of little boys, and hoop petticoats of Hofwyl, by Jacotot in the university of Loulittle girls. The Philanthropinum was estab- vain, and by Felbiger, bishop of Sagan, in the lished in 1774, under the care of Basedow schools which he organized. There were comand Wolke, but declined after a momentary bined at Hofwyl an agricultural institute, theosplendor. It was continued with better suc- retical and practical, a rural school for the poor, cess by Simon and Schweighäuser, and sim- a superior school for the sons of the nobility, an ilar institutions were founded at various places intermediate school for those of the middle in Germany, only one of which, at Schnepfen- classes, and a normal school for the instruction thal in Gotha, still continues. Under the name of the teachers of the canton. The system of of eclectics are classed those who were the dis- Fellenberg varied from that of Pestalozzi only ciples of no exclusive school, but from truly by communicating more practical and positive philanthropic motives sought to instruct classes knowledge. The

method of Jacotot, which has been generally adopted in Belgium, gives greater ity. Permission is however given to any teacher exercise to the faculty of memory; he required under certain conditions to open a private his pupils to recite by heart all their lessons, school; and denominational schools may be rewhether in the languages or the sciences. The gistered on the government list of educational method of Sagan, so named from the see of its institutions. But in England no schools (except author, is a combination of the methods of those connected with pauper, naval, military, Basedow and Pestalozzi, was propagated in Bo- and penal establishments) are initiated by the hemia by command of Maria Theresa, and was civil government, or to any considerable extent in vogue throughout Austria till 1842. It re- managed by it. The education of the people is garded education only from a utilitarian point under the care of the established church and of view, and aimed to amuse the scholar while of the other religious organizations, and the gove instructing him, and to make the lessons as ernment comes to their aid by bestowing grants clear as possible, passing to the unknown from on certain conditions when its assistance is rethe known, It rapidly traversed numerous quired. The system is entirely different in the branches of study. Joseph Lancaster (died in United States, where, though the state govern1839), a member of the society of Friends in Eng- ments take the initiative, they only go so far as land, was the founder of the monitorial system, to ordain that schools of a certain character must by which the most intelligent pupils in a school exist among a given population. All the queswere required to teach their fellows what they tions concerning the buildings, teachers, and had learned in advance of them. This plan methods of instruction are determined by the doubtless developed the intellect of the monitor, people in their capacity of free citizens. The and was at one time adopted in many schools in government provides for education, but makes large towns in England and America, but has the people its agent in accomplishing the probeen abandoned from the fact that the incom- vision. Consequently, there is much diversity plete and confused knowledge of the premature in the educational condition of different parts of teachers often made their instructions rather the country, the school system being generally akin to error than to truth.-Germany, with most most complete in the most compactly settled of the other continental countries, England, and states, especially those of New England. The the United States present three different methods efforts of Henry Barnard, Horace Mann, Daniel of administering the national elementary educa- P. Page, Alonzo Potter, Barnas Sears, and tion. The Prussian educational system is pure- others, during the last 20 years, have been in. ly governmental, emanating solely from a min- fluential in introducing large and well-directed ister of instruction immediately dependent on measures and plans for the improvement of the crown. The universities, the gymnasia, and public education in America. Among the most the primary schools are all under laws and reg- valuable treatises on the subject are: Schwarz, ulations which proceed respectively from the Erziehungslehre (Leipsic, 1829); Cramer, Gecrown, from the provincial government, and schichte der Erziehung und des Unterrichts in from the communes. Every child in the king- welthistorischer Entwickelung (Leipsic, 1832dom is obliged under pains and penalties to at- '38); Von Raumer, Geschichte der Pädagogik tend school at least from the age of 7 to that of seit dem Wiederaufblühen classischer Studien 14, and the result is that the Prussian people (Stuttgart, 1843–52); Fritz, Esquisse d'un sysare efficiently educated throughout the entire ième complet d'instruction et d'éducation (Strascommunity, and that the universities send forth bourg, 1841–43); Théry, Histoire de l'éducation a large body of highly educated men. Yet with en France (Paris, 1858); educational reports their vast and powerful machinery for popular of the Canadian school system, and of the suinstruction, the Prussians have not taken a lead- perintendents and boards of education of the ing part in civilization, and the reason is stated different states of the American Union; Henry by Horace Mann to be, that when the children Barnard, “National Education in Europe" once leave school they have few opportapities (Hartford, 1854), "Journal of Education" (6 of applying the knowledge or exercising the fac- vols., Hartford, 1856-'59), also educational ulties which have been acquired and devel- tracts, and reports on the public schools of Conoped there. The national education of all the necticut and Rhode Island ; and Horace Mann, German states closely resembles that of Prussia. “Annual Reports of the Massachusetts Board The universities, colleges, and primary schools of Education" (Boston, 1837–48), and "Lectures of France (the latter of which were organized in on Education" (Boston, 1855).- The educational 1833 under the administration of Guizot, from systems and statistics of different states and reports on the German system of popular edu- countries are given under their respective titles. cation made by Cousin), are in like manner es- See also COLLEGE, COMMON SCHOOLS, NORMAL tablished and directed by governmental author- Schools, SOHOOLS, UNIVERSITY,


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