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classes of intellectual property for a term of years ex-
tending beyond life, with the least possible formali-
ties compatible with the necessities of legal procedure.
Unfortunately in the United States of America the
forward movement which produced the "interna-
tional copyright amendment" of 1891 and the code
of 1909, conspicuously excellent despite defects of
detail, was in some measure offset by retrogression, as
in the manufacturing restrictions. Until this policy,
which still remains a blot on the 'scutcheon, is aban-
doned, as the friends of copyright hope may ulti-
mately be the case, the United States of America
cannot enter on even terms the family of nations and
become part of the United States of the world.

R. R. BOWKER.
December, 1911.

POSTSCRIPT. Since this book has been passing through
the press, Cuba has been added to the countries in recipro-
cal relations with the United States with respect to mechan-
ical music by the President's proclamation of November
27, 1911; Russia has made with France its first copyright
treaty, in conformity with the new Russian code of 1911;
and the new British code, referred to on p. 33, having
passed the House of Commons August 17, passed the
House of Lords December 6, and after concurrence by the
House of Commons in minor amendments, mostly verbal,
became law by Crown approval, December 16, 1911, as
noted on p. 374. The text of the act in the appendix fol-
lows the official text as it now stands on the English statute
books; the summary (pp. 374-80) describes the act as it
became law-and the earlier references are in accordance
therewith, with a few exceptions. These exceptions mostly
concern immaterial changes, made in the House of Lords.
Within January, 1912, Brazil has adopted a new measure
for international copyright, and a treaty has been signed
between the United States and Hungary, the twenty-fifth
nation in reciprocal relations with this country.

OF COPYRIGHT

CONSPECTUS

BY COUNTRIES
Under the names of countries are given dates of the basic and latest amendatory laws.
International relations are shown by the name in SMALL CAPS of the convention city where
a country is a party to the International Copyright Union or the Pan American conventions,
and by the names of countries with which there are specific treaties, excepting those within
the union or conventions. The general term of duration is entered, without specification
of special terms for specific classes. Places of registration and deposit are indicated by R
and D when these are not the same. The number of copies required and in some cases
period after publication within which deposit is required are given in parentheses. Notice
of copyright or of reservation is indicated. Special exceptions or conditions are noted so far
as practicable under remarks. An asterisk indicates that specific exceptions exist.

The International Copyright Union includes (A) under the Berlin convention, 1908 (a)
without reservation Germany, Belgium, Luxemburg, Switzerland, Spain, Monaco, Liberia,
Haiti, Portugal, and (b) with reservation France, Norway, Tunis, Japan; (B) under the Berne
convention, 1886, and the Paris additional act and interpretative declaration, 1896, Denmark,
Italy; (C) under the Berne convention, 1886, and the Paris additional act, 1896, Great
Britain; (D) under the Berne convention, 1886, and the Paris interpretative declaration,
1896, Sweden. The Pan American conventions agreed on at Mexico City, 1902, Rio de
Janeiro, 1906, and Buenos Aires, 1910, have not been ratified except that of Mexico by the
United States and by Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Salvador, and doubt.
fully by Cuba and Dominican Republic; that of Rio by a few states insufficient to make it
anywhere operative; and that of Buenos Aires by the United States. The South American
convention of Montevideo, 1889, has been accepted by Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay,
Peru and Bolivia, and has the adherence (in relation with Argentina and Paraguay only)
of Belgium, France, Italy and Spain. The five Central American states have a mutual con.
vention through their Washington treaty of peace of 1907.
Countries International

Duration

Registration
Dates of laws relations

and Deposit

Notice Remarks

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Isle of Man

1907 Channel Isles France

1793-1910

French

Belgium

1886

50 or life

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None

None

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None

Denmark

1865-1911 Iceland (Den.)

1905 Norway

1877-1910

See Gt. Brit.
BERLIN*MONTV.* Life + soo D Ministry None
U.S., Aus.-Hung.,

of Interior
Hol., Port.,

or prefecMont., Roum.,

ture (a beLat. Amer.

fore suit)
BERLIN, MONTV.* Life + 50 None

None
U. S., Aus., Hol.,
Port., Roum.,
Mex.
BERLIN
Life + 50 None

None
U.S.

(res.playr.)
U. S., Belg.,

Dept. of

None Printing Fr.

Justice (2 (res. trans., within

within mo.) playr.) Holland BERLIN

Life + 30

None

None
U. S., Aus.-Hung.
Hung., U. S. Life + 30

None
Gt. Brit., Belg.,

(res. trans.
Den., Fr., Ger.

photos,
It., Roum., Swed.

mus.)
Aust., Gt. Brit.,* Life + 50 None
Fr., Ger., It.

(res. trans.

photos) BERLIN

Life +30°

R Office of None
U.S.

Intel. Prop. (res. playr.)

optional
BERNE-PARIS Life + 50

None
U.S., Aus.

(photos,

res. music) See Denmark

As in Den

mark BERLIN

Life + 50

Nope None
U.S.

(photos,

res. music)
BERNE-PARIS D Life + 50 None None
U. S., Aus.

(photos,

res. playr.
France
Life + 50

None
(photos,res.

trans mus.)
None Life + 50

None
BERLIN, MONTV." Life + 80 Register of

None •

Special U. S., Port.,

Intel. Prop.

provisions Lat. Amer.

(3 within

one year ? BERLIN

Life + 50

Pub. Lib. None
U. S., It., Sp.,

(2 before
Bra.

pub.)
BERNE-PARIS
• Prefecture

Added
Montv.

+ 40 (3 within (res. 40 yrs. OD U.S., Aus.

3 months) trans.) royalty of
Hung.,
Mont.,

SP.C.
Port., Roum.,
San. Mar.,
Lat. Amer.

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None

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Life or 40

None

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America,
Latin:

Mexico
Central
America

West
Indies

South
America

Latin America
Mexico

U. S., Dom.

Perpetu

R. Min. None *
1871, 1884 Rep., Ecu., Belg., ity

Pub. Instruc. tres. trans.)
Fr., It., Sp.

D (2)
Costa Rica
MEXICO

Life + 50

Office of None
1880-1896 U. S., Sp., Fr.

Pub. Libs.
Guat., Sal., Hon.

(3)*

within yr.)
Guatemala
MEXICO

Perpetuity Min. of Pub. (res. trans.)
1879
Sp., Fr., Costa R.

Educ.

(4)
Honduras
MEXICO
Indefinite

No specific 1894, 1898 Costa R.

law
Nicaragua
MEXICO

Perpetu Min. of (res. trans.)
1904
It.

ity

Agric. (6)
Salvador
MEXICO

Life + 25 D Min. of None Publication 1886, 1900 Sp., Fr., Costa R.

Agric.

within (1 before

country

pub.)
Panama
None Life +80

As in 1904

Colombia Cuba

Mexico? Life + 80 * Dept. of None
1879-1909 U. S., It.

State (3)
Haiti
BERLIN

Life+

D Dept of None 1885

Int., (5

within yr.)
Dominican Rep. MEXICO ? Mex. Uncertain

1896
Brazil
Portugal
50 from Nat. Lib. (1

None
1891-1901

the 1st Jan. within 2 yrs.) (res. playr.)

of yr.of pub.
Argentina
MONTEVIDEO Life + 1o Nat. Lib.

None
I910 Belg., Sp., Fr., It.

(2 within 15

or 30 days) Uruguay

MONTEVIDEO Indefinite 1868

cific law Paraguay MONTEVIDEO

Public

Under 1870, 1881, 1910 Belg., Sp., Fr., It.

registries

penal code Chile U. S.

Life + 5* D Nat. Pub. None
1833-1874

Lib. (3)
Peru

MONTEVIDEO Life + 20 * D Pub. Lib. None
1849, 1860

(1) + Dept.

Pref. (1)
Bolivia
MONTEVIDEO

Life + 30

R Min. of
1834, 1909
Fr.

Pub. Instruc.
D Pub. Lib.

(1 within yr.)
Ecuador
Sp., Fr., Mex.

Life+ 50* Min. of None
1884, 1887

Pub. Educ. (res.
(3 within 6 playr.)

mos.)
Colombia
Sp., It.

Life + 80 Min. of None
1886, 1890

Pub. Educ.
(3 within

yr.)
Venezuela

None.

Perpetuity Registry (6) Notice of
1894, 1897

patent
Australasia
Australia (Br.) See Gt. Brit.

Common Reserv.
1905
Aus.-Hung.

wealth perform-
excepted

Copyr. Of

fice D (2)
New Zealand (Br.) See Gt. Brit. 28 or life * R Registrar
1842-1903

of Coprs.* D
libr. of Gen.
Assem. (for

plays only)
Hawaii (U. S.) See U.S.

No spe

Australasia

Life +7
or 42

ing right

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