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esteemed greatness, will you hear the dialogue that the two learned men have compiled, in praise of the owl and the cuckow it ihould have follow'd in the end of our show.

King. Call them forth quickly, we will do so.
Arm. Holla! approach.-

Enter all, for the song.
This side is Hiems, winter.
This Ver, the spring: the one maintained by the owi,
The other by the cuckow.
Ver, begin.

The S O N G.

Wben daizies pied, and violets blue,

And lady Smocks all filver white,
And cuckow.buds + of yellow bue,

Do paint ibe meadows with delight;
The cuckowe then, on every tree,
Mocks married men, for tbus fings be,
Cuckow !

Cuckorv! cuckow !-0 word of fear,
Unpleasing to a married car.

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3 Whet, &c.] The first lines of this song that were transposed, have been replaced by Mr. Theobald. JOHNSON.

+ -cuckow-buds---] Miller says, that lady-fmocks and cuckooflowers are only different names of the same plant. STEEVENS.

s Do paint the meadows with delight;} This is a pretty rural song, in which the images are drawn with great force from nature, But this senseless expletive of.puinting with dilight, I would read thus,

Do paint the meadows much-bedight, i. e. much bedecked or adorned as they are in spring-time. The epithet is proper, and the compound not inelegant. WARBURTON: Much less elegant than the present reading. Johnson.


When shepherds pipe on oaten straws,

And merry larks are plowmens'clocks:
Wben turtles tread, and rooks, and daws,

And maidens bleach their summer smocks;
The cuckow then, on every tree,
Mocks married men; for thus fings be,
Cuckow !

Cuckow ! cackow ! O word of fear,
Unpleasing to a married ear!

W I N T E R.

Wben ificles hang by the wall,

And Dick the Shepherd blows his nail;
And Tom bears logs into the ball,

And milk comes frozen bome in pail;
When blood is nipt, and ways be foul,
Then nightly fings the staring owl,
Tu-whit! 10-wboo!

A merry note,
Wbile greasy Joan doth keel the pot.
When all aloud the wind doth blow,

And coughing drowns the parson's faw;
And birds fit trocding in the jnow,

Aud Marian's nose looks red and race;
When roasted crabs biss in i be boul,
Then nightly sings the staring owl,
Tu- bit ! ta-boo!-

-A merry nose,
While greasy Joan doth keel the pot.

dorh keel the por.] This word is yet used in Ireland, and fignifies to scum ibe por. Dr. GOLDSMITH.

So in Marston's Dumb Knight, 1607.—" Faith, Doricus, thy “ brain boils, keel it, koelit, or all the fat's in the fire." STEVENS.

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Arm. The words of Mercury are harsh after the fongs of Apollo: You that way; we this way.

[Exeunt omnes."

7 In this play, which all the editors have concurred to çensure, and some have rejected as unworthy of our poet, it must be confessed, that there are many passages mean, childish, and vulgar ; and some which ought not to have been exhibited, as we are told they were, to a maiden queen. But there are scattered through the whole many sparks of genius ; nor is there any play that has more evident marks of the hand of Shakespeare. JOHNSON.

ACT I. SCENE I. Page 350.

THIS child of fancy, that Armado bight, &c.] This, as I have shewn in the note in its place, relates to the tories in the boks of chivalry. A few words, therefore, concerning their origin and nature, may not be unacceptable to the reader. As I don't know of any writer, who has given any tolerable account of this matter : and especially as monfieur Huet, the bishop of Avranches, who wrote a formal treatise of the Origin of Romances, has faid little or nothing of these in that superficial work. For having brought down the account of romances to the later Greeks, and entered upon those composed by the barbarous western writers, which have now the name of Romances almost appropriated to them, he puts the change upon his reader, and instead of giving us an account of these books of chivalry, one of the most curious and interesting parts of the subject he promised to treat of, he contents bimself with a long account of the poems of the provincial writers, called likewise romances: and so, under the equivoque of a common term, drops his proper subject, and entertains us with another, that had no relation to it more than in the name.

The Spaniards were of all others the fondest of these fables, as suiting beft their extravagant turn to gallantry and bravery i which in time grew fo excellive, as to need all the efficacy of Ceryantes's incomparable satire to bring them back to their senses. The French suffered an easier cure from their doctor Rabelais, who enough discredited the books of chivalry, by only using the extravagant stories of rs giants, &c. as a cover for another kind of satire against the refined politicks of his countrymen ; of which they were as much poßeffed as the Spaniards of their romantic bra. very. A bravery our Shakespeare makes their chara&eristic, in this description of a Spanish gentleman ;

A man of compliments, whom right and wrong
Have chose as umpire of their muting :
Tbis child of fancy, that Armado hight,
For interime to our si udies shall relate,
In high-born words, tbe wor!b of many a knight,

From tawny Spain, lost in the world's debate. The sense of which is to this effect : This gentleman, says the {peaker, jball relate to us the celebrated stories recorded in the old romances, and in their very file. Why he says, from lawny Spain, is because these romances, being of the Spanish original, che heroes and the scene were generally of that country. He says, loft in the world's debate, because the subject of those romances were the cru. Sades of the European Christians against the Saracens of Afia and Africa.

Indeed, the wars of the Christians against the Pagans were the general subje&t of the romances of chivalry. They all seem to have had their ground-work in two fabulous monkith historians : the one, who, under the name of Turpin, archbishop of Rheims, wrote the History and Atchievements of Charlemagne and his Ewelve Peers ; to whom, instead of his father, they assigned the talk of driving the Saracens out of France and the south parts of Spain : the other, our Geoffry of Monmouth.

Two of those peers, whom the old romances have rendered most famous, were Oliver and Rowland. Hence Shakespeare makes Alenson, in the first part of Henry VI. say; “ Froyfard, a coun" tryman of ours, records, England all Olivers and Rowlands " bred, during the time Edward the third did reign.” In the Spanish romance of Bernardo del Carpio, and in that of Roncef. valles, the feats of Roland are recorded under the name of Roldan el encantador; and in that of Palmerin dıl Oliva,* or simply Oliva, those of Oliver : for Oliva is the same in Spanish as Olivier is in French. The account of their exploits is in the highest degree monstrous and extravagant, as appears from the judgment passed upon them by the prielt in Don Quixote, when he delivers the knight's library to the secular arm of the house-keeper, “Eccetu“ando à un Bernardo del Carpio que anda por ay, y à otro Ilmado Roncesvalles ; que estos en llegando a mis manos, an de “estar en las de la ama, y dellas en las del fuego fin remission al

* Dr, Warburton is quite mistaken in deriving Oliver from (Palmerin de) Oliva, which is utterly incompatible with the genius of the Spanish languages The old roinance, of which Oliver was the hero, is entitled in Spanish, “ Hiftorias de los nobles Cavalleros de Castilla, y Arrus de Algarbe, in fol, en Valladolid, 1501, in fol. en Sevilla, 1507;” and in French thus, “ Histoire d'Olivier de Caftille, & Arius d'Algarbe lon loyal compagnon, & de Heleine Fille au Roy d'Angleterre, &c. tranflaiée du Latin par Phil. Camus, in fol. Gothique." It has also appeared in English. See Ames's Typograph. p. 94, 47. PERCY.


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"guna.”+ And of Oliver he says, “effa Oliva se haga luego ta
jas, y se queme, que aun no queden della las cenizas."I The
reasonableness of this sentence may be partly seen from one story is
the Bernardo del Carpio, which telis us, that the cleft called Rol.
dan, to be seen on the summit of an high mountain in the kingdom
of Valencia, near the town of Alicant, was made with a lingle
back-stroke of that hero's broad sword. Hence came the proverbial
expression of our plain and sensible ancestors,who were much cooler
readers of these extravagances than the Spaniards, of giving one
a Rowland for his Oliver, that is, of matching one impoffible lye
with another : as, in French, faire le Roland means, to swagger.
This driving the Saracens out of France and Spain, was, as we
fay, the subject of the elder romances. And the forft that was
printed in Spain was the famous Amadis de Gaula, of which the
inquisitor prieft says: “ segun he oydo dezir, este libro fué el
· primero de Cavallerias que se imprimiò en Espana, y todos los
« demás an tomado principio y origen defte ;" || and for which
he humourously condemns it to the fire, coma à Dogmatazader
de una feta tan mala. When this subject was well exhaufted, the
affairs of Europe afforded them another of the same nature. For
after that the western parts had pretty well cleared themselves of
these in hospitable guests : by the excitements of the popes, they
carried their arms against them into Greece and Asia, to support
the Byzantine empire, and recover the holy fepulchre. This gave
birth to a new tribe of romances, which we may call of the jecord
race or class. And as Amadis de Gaula was at the head of the first,
fo, correspondently to the subject, Amadis de Gracia was at the
head of the latter. Hence it is, we find, that Trebizonde is as cele-
brated in these romances as Roncesvalles is in the other. It may
be worth observing, that the two famous Italian epic poets, Ari-
osto and Tasso, have borrowed, from each of these classes of old
romances, the scenes and subjects of their several stories : Ariosto
choosing the first, the Saracens in France and Spain; and Tasso, the
latter, ibe Crusade against them in Asia: Ariosto's hero being Or.
lande, or the French Roland : for as the Spaniards, by one way of
transpoäng the letters, had made it Roldan, fo the Italians, by
another, make it Orlando.

The main subject of these fooleries, as we have said, had its original in Turpin's famous History of Charlemagne and his twelve Peers. Nor were the monstrous embellishments of enchantments, &c. the invention of the romancers, but formed upon eaftern tales, brought thence by travellers from their crusades and pilgrimages; which indeed have a caft peculiar to the wild imagina


+ B. i. c. 6.

I ibid.



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