The Anatomy and Biology of the Human Skeleton
This handsome volume is the first photographically illustrated textbook to present for both the student and the working archaeologist the anatomy of the human skeleton and the study of skeletal remains from an anthropological perspective. It describes the skeleton as not just a structure, but a working system in the living body. The opening chapter introduces basics of osteology, or the study of bones, the specialized and often confusing terminology of the field, and methods for dealing scientifically with bone specimens. The second chapter covers the biology of living bone: its structure, growth, interaction with the rest of the body, and response to disease and injury. The remainder of the book is a head-to-foot, structure-by-structure, bone-by-bone tour of the skeleton. More than 400 photographs and drawings and more than 80 tables illustrate and analyze features the text describes. In each chapter structures are discussed in detail so that not only can landmarks of bones be identified, but their functions can be understood and their anomalies identified as well. Each bone's articulating partners are listed, and the sequence of ossification of each bone is presented. Descriptive sections are followed by analyses of applications: how to use specific bones to estimate age, stature, gender, biological affinities, and state of health at the time of the individual's death. Anthropologists, archaeologists, and paleontologists as well as physicians, medical examiners, anatomists, and students of these disciplines will find this an invaluable reference and textbook.
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THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN
THE CHEST AND SHOULDER GIRDLE
THE WRIST HAND AND FINGERS
THE PELVIC GIRDLE
THE ANKLE FOOT AND TOES
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American angle appear articular surface articulates attachment base begins blacks body bone border buccal cartilage cavity centers cervical changes common complete condyle costal cranial crest crown cusp distal dorsal elements epiphyses Estimating external face facet females femur figure foramen fossa fracture frontal function fuse fusion gender greater groove head humerus incisors individual inferior joint lateral Left length less lingual lower males mandible margin marked maxilla maximum measurements medial metacarpal metatarsal middle molars muscle nasal notch Note occipital occlusal occur orbital ossification percent plane plate population portion posterior premolars present produce proximal region relatively ridge Right root sagittal sagittal suture sample segments separate shaft shape side skull SOURCE spine stature structure superior suture TABLE taken talus teeth term third tibia length tion tooth transverse tubercle tuberosity upper usually Variations ventral vertebrae whites