« PředchozíPokračovat »
“ The man who dines for £6, and nature but too successfully ; the process clothes himself during the year for £5, and the product are the same; the only is probably as healthily fed, and as difference is in the magnitude of the rehealthily clad, as if his dinner cost two sult. guineas a day, and his dress £200 a “But the magnitude of the result in year.
But this is not the case with re- London, if that magnitude be estimated spect to habitation. Every increase of by the numbers attacked, is not slight. accommodation, from the corner of a From returns received from the Bethnal cellar to a mansion, renders the dweling Green and Whitechapel Unions it apmore healthy, and, to a considerable
pears that during the last year there extent, the size and goodness of the occurred of fever cases, dwelling, tends to render its inmates more civilized."
• In Bethnal Green Union, 2,084
* In Whitechapel Union, 2,557 The Sanitory Report tells us, that “the annual slaughter in England and
“ Total, Wales from preventible causes of Ty
-Pp. 99, 100. phus, which attacks persons in the
From Mr. Chadwick's report, thu vigour of life, appears to be double the state of Edinburgh and Glasgow was amount of what was suffered by the
From the Sanitory Reallied armies in the battle of Water- port, the condition of large classes of loo." The Hand-loom Weavers' Re- tenements in the manufacturing towns port of 1841, states, in the year of Lancashire is described. Mr. Pear1838, a variation of the annual mor- son, the medical officer of the Wigan tality in different districts of the me- Union, tells of the prevalence of fever, tropolis, amounting to one hundred per which he ascribes to the filthy condicent. The comparative mortality of tion of the town. Many of the streets the unhealthy districts was traced to are unpaved, and almost covered with the presence of impurities, the want of
stagnant water, which lodges in boles, ventilation, and the bad construction of into which the inhabitants throw the the houses.
refuse of all kinds of animal and vege
table matters, which, as they undergo " It appears,” says Dr. Southwood decay, become prolific sources of maSmith, "ihat in many parts of Bethual
laria, rendering the atmosphere an Green and Whitechapel, fever of a ma
active poison. Of the town of Staflignant and fatal character is always ford, there are parts without any more or less prevalent. In some streets drainage ; the houses are built with it has recently prevailed in almost every out any regard to ventilation, or to house; in some couris, in every house;
any thing whatever it would seem, but and in some few instances, in every room in every house. Cases are recorded in
ensuring the greatest possible return, which every member of a family has
for the smallest outlay. The houses been attacked in succession, of wbom in
consist of two small rooms. The family every such case several have died; some work, in the day-time, in the room in whole families have been swept away. which they sleep by night. There is Instances are detailed in which there no provision made for refuse dirt. It have been found in one small room six is thrown down in the front of the persons lying ill of fever together; I houses, to putrify.
A part of the have myself seen this, four in one bed,
town of Stockport is described as conand two in another. The room of a fever patient in a small
sisting of forty-four houses, in two and heated apartment in London, with
rows, and twenty-two cellars, all of no pertiation of fresh air, is perfectly
the same size. The cellars, dark, analogous to a standing pool in Ethiopia damp, low, six feet between the ceilfull of bodies of dead locusts. The poi- ing and floor, are let out as separate son generated in both cases is the same; dwellings. The street, between the the difference is merely in the degree of two rows, is seven yards wide, in the its potency. Nature with her burning centre of which is the common gutter, sun, her stilled and pent-up wind, her
or, more properly, sink-into which stagnant and teeming marsh, manufac
all refuse is thrown. It is a foot in tures plague on a fearful and large scale. Poverty in her but, covered with her depth. Thus, there is always a quanrags, surrounded with her filth, striving tity of putrifying matter contaminatwith all her might to keep out the pure ing the air. At the end of the rows air, and to increase the heat, imitates is a pool of shallow, stagnant water, and a few yards farther, part of the window tax with a view to benefit the town's gas works. In many of these dwellings of the poor. dwellings, there are four persons in Mr. Biers, a witness examined beone bed.* The accounts of country fore the select committee of 1842 on districts is not more favourable. We building regulations, says that he was cannot go into details ; but the total in the habit of putting in each building, absence of drainage round cottages as erected, what are called lancetwas found to be the most general cause lights, for ventilating cellars and larof the malaria prevalent in these dis- ders. These being for parts of the tricts at all seasons, and that often house not occupied as dwelling apartmakes itself felt in malignant diseases ments, were not charged for ; but a of a contagious character, calling on more stringent survey included all such the fears, for their own safety, of lights, and charged them as windows. those who cannot be awakened in any The consequence was, that in the other way to attention to these re- houses already built, these necessary movable evils.
openings for ventilation were stopped In 1842, there were eight thousand up, and none placed in the houses built inhabited cellars in Liverpool-the after it was proved they were taxable. occupants were estimated at from Here is a case in which it is probable 35,000 to 40,000. In Great Britain, that the tax was one never in the in each year, there is required an contemplation of the legislature. Di. increase of 59,000 new tenements, rect injury was done to the health ; “ a number equal to that of two new and even considered as a matter of towns, such as Manchester proper, finance, the expense in all probability which has 32,310 houses ; and Bir- fell upon the state in some other form. mingham, which has 27,268 houses.”+ We feel more pleasure in the parts Shall there be no care, on the part of of the book before us, that press their the legislature, as to the building of duties on individuals than those which these houses? Shall it be left altoge. suggest plans of legislation. When ther to the accident of individual pru- the first is strongly felt, the other is dence ?
sure to become unnecessary, or, where The extent of legislative interference necessary, soon to follow. The dif. is a question of considerable difficulty. ference of building a small row of Suppose the expense of building cot. cottages back to back, which it will be tages materially increased by new re- hard to ventilate, and which must be gulations, the labouring classes may, without the most obvious household by the increased rent of cottages, be requisites, and that of building a row driven to the occupation of rooms-a of cottages, each of which will have a change, in every respect, for the worse. yard at the back, will be about twentyIn an old country, already densely two per cent on the outlay. This difcovered with houses, the regulations ference, or rather the want of thinking. most desirable may be attended with on the matter, has, in thousands of inconvenience, such as to render it al- cases, determined the health and momost impossible to carry them into rality of the inmates. The greater execution. These difficulties are felt outlay necessary for building superior and stated by our author; still he cottages would be more than compen. thinks much good may be done by some sated by increased rent, or, which is the simple building regulations of a sani- same thing, rent more regularly and sctory nature. Much may be done indi- curely paid. This consideration is urged rectly, all of which is nearly sure to be by our author, who, however, gives full good. He suggests lowering the taxa- credit to the proprietors of the land on tion on building materials—a proposi- which cottages are built, and to the tion hardly to be disposed of without owners of the capital expended in something more of information on the building, for views of benevolence subject than the book gives us.
An. which might interfere with their seekother suggestion we feel less difficulty ing to make, in all cases, the most of in adopting, that of modifying the their property, in the hope that build
* Mr. Rayner's Report.
† Sanitory Report.
ing a better class of houses for the given, in preference, to those of good poor may not end in an isolated act of
character. benevolence, but may indicate a mode “ Is all this romantic ? Is it inevitable of employing capital' likely to be fol- that the suburbs of a manufacturing lowed by others. Then follow a few
town must consist of dense masses of words on the allotment system.
squalid habitations, unblest by a proper has been tried at Leeds by Mr. Mar
supply of air, light, or water; undrained, shall and Mr. Gott. It has, too, been
uncleansed, and unswept ; enjoying only
that portion of civilization which the recently tried in the manufacturing
presence of the police declares, and predistricts to ascertain its results. Our
senting a scene which the better orders author anticipates from it, to the hurry by with disgust? Or, on the working man himself, an additional contrary, may we not, without giving means of support. It would tend to ourselves up to Utopian dreams, imagine endear home to the working man-it
that we might enter the busy resorts of would provide a pleasing change of em
traffic through extensive suburbs conployment for him in good times_it
sisting of cottages with their bits of would not render him so listless when
land; and see, as we come along, symp
toms every where around of housewifely out of work—and it would give him
occupations, and of homes which their an additional topic of conversation,
humble owners might often think of and an interest in various things with pleasure during their day's labour, which he might never otherwise have looking forward to their return at evenfelt the least concern for.
ing with delight? The richer classes,
even those low down in the scale of Moreover, it amuses and occupies
wealth, mostly struggle to secure some the little ones in a family, and it leaves
portion of country air for themselves : less temptation for parents to employ surely they might do their best to prochildren too early in factories or work
vide for the working man something shops, when they can find something else
like a change from the atmosphere of for them to do which may be profitable.
the factory, or workshop, in which he In this respect, indeed, any improvement must pass the greatest part of his day in domestic comfort, or any additional
throughout the whole year. domestic pursuit, is likely to be bene
Against what I have said above, it ficial, as it enlarges the sphere of house.
may be urged that it would prevent the hold duties, and creates more reasons for workman from living near his work. the wife and children being left home.
In many cases this may be an inconve. “ Again, as there is hard labour to be
nience; but I do not imagine that, in done in a garden, this allotment system
general, it can be proved to be an insurmight occasionally prevent the sense of
mountable, or even a very serious, oban almost unnatural dependence being jection.”—pp. 119-122. so much exhibited, or felt, when the children are employed in some factory
The effort to abridge this volume is and the grown-up people are not. This
doing it great injustice ; and in no part is one of the greatest evils that at pre
do we feel this so much as in what he sent attend the state of manufactures. says of the town where great manufac. Some of the advantages which I have tures are carried on. To improve and reckoned above, as likely to be connected embellish it ought to be one of the ob. with the allotment system, are trifling jects of the great manufacturer. The things; but small impulses, all tending
place where he resides, and where his one way, may lead to great results. The main objection which, I suppose,
business is carried on, is surely to be will be taken, is that to make allotments
regarded as a part of his house, and in crowded districts is scarcely prac
should be contemplated with a home ticable. Some beginning, however, has affection. The feeling, against which our been made at a place so crowded a3 author would contend, is that which Leeds, and at any rate, in any future makes the employer of labour think building arrangements, room might be of some scene distinct from that in left for allotments of land, which would which his works are, as more properly also secure many advantages with re- his home than the town in which they spect to the sanitory condition of the
are carried on. Did he think of the people. It may be remarked, too, that any manufacturer, who possessed cota
town as a part of his home, he would tages with allotments to them, would have
feel interest in the erection of churches, an easy mode of rewarding good beha- hospitals, buildings for the display of viour. Such cottages would be eagerly
works of art, and all that tended to sought after by the men, and might be elevate the sentiments or improve the
condition of his men. Public baths are matters which cannot safely be left and public walks for the recreation of to people themselves. The legislature the inhabitants would claim bis atten. ought to take care of matters so essen. tion. Loan societies, too, as a means tial to the health of all. The fact that of assisting the provident, and not as ill health is connected with iinperfect one of the forms in which improvidence drainage and want of ventilation, well is prolonged, or, by the exaction of established as it is, and almost obvious usurious interest, is punished. The as it appears when pointed out, is an beauty of towns will, among other and inference of scientific research. The better reasons, be regarded by him as structural arrangements which would one of the means of attracting to them guard against such evils cannot be the wealthier classes.
safely left to the people themselves. It is hard to pass to details; but Social intercourse between different among evils easily removed he regards classes of society is dwelt upon as sinoke as one. Mr. Cubitt's, the great among the best means of improving the builder's, evidence on the subject, be. humbler classes. To what the author fore the sanitory committee, is quoted. says, we would only add, what perhaps Competition drives the manufactories is implied, that the improvements will to work as cheaply as they can. A probably be reciprocal. The educaman gets up a steam-engine, and sends tion of females for domestic life is forout an immense quantity of smoke ;- cibly suggested by the evidence of a perhaps he creates a great deal of sensible man, examined by one of the foul and bad gas : that is all let loose. parliamentary committecs :Where his returns are one thousand pounds a month, if he would spend “ Children during their childhood toil five pounds more, he would make that throughout the day, acquiring not the completely harmless. He works as
least domestic instruction to fit them for
wives and mothers. I will name one incheaply as he can, and the public suffer beyond all calculation. Here, surely,
stance, and this applies to the general
condition of females doomed to, and supposing the manufacturer's calcula
brought up amongst, shop-work. My tion perfectly just, and that such a sav
mother worked in a manufactory from a ing can be effected by poisoning a very early age. She was clever and inneighbourhood, the interference of the dustrious; and, moreover, she had the legislature, to save the public a charge reputation of being virtuous. She was wbich falls upon them many thousand regarded as an excellent match for a fold, is absolutely called for; but the working man. She was married early. calculation of the manufacturer is
She became the mother of eleven chil. founded in mistake, and he is a loser
dren; I am the eldest. To the best of
her ability she performed the important by his mismanagement. The evidence
duties of a wife and mother. She was of Mr. Ewart, admiralty inspector of lamentably deficient in domestic knowmachinery at Woolwich, who was ex
ledge. In that most important of all amined by the same committee, is, that human instruction, how to make the if the fire be properly managed, there home and the fireside to possess a charm will be a saving of fuel. The extent of for her husband and children, she had smoke denotes the extent to which com- never received one single lesson. She bustion is incomplete. The West had children apace. As she recovered Middlesex Water Company, by dimi
from her lying-in, so she went to work, nishing the smoke of their furnaces,
the babe being brought to her at stated
times to receive nourishment. As the save one thousand pounds a-year.
family increased, so any thing like comThe state of sewerage, the imperfect fort disappeared altogether. The power supply of water, and other circum- to make home cheerful and confortable stances connected with ventilation, are was never given to her. She knew not next examined. In reply to the argu- the value of cherishing in my father's ment that many or most of these evils mind a love of domestic objects. Not are referrible to this being an old coun
one moment's happiness did I ever see try, the necessary consequences of our
under my father's roof. All this dismal dense and over-crowded population, and
state of things I can distinctly trace to
the entire and perfect absence of all the circumstances of property in such
training and instruction to my mother. a country as England, evidence is given
lle became intemperate, and his intemof things being just as bad in New
perance made her necessitous. She made York. The inference is, that these made many efforts to abstain from shop
work; but her pecuniary necessities trust, do something to introduce this forced her back into the shop. The fa- volume to some, into whose hands it mily was large, and every moment was has not yet come. It is impossible that required at home. I have known her, alter the close of a hard day's work, sit
any one can read it without learning
much of the good which it is so easy to up nearly all night for several nights to.
do- which, alas! it is also so easy to gether washing and mending of clothes. My father could have no comfort here.
leave undone. In the world, perhaps, These domestic obligations, which in a
there is not a spot where more can be well-regulated house (even in that of a done by any one individual than in this working man, where there are prudence Ireland of ours.* We do not mean to and good management) would be done
discourage far-reaching speculation, so as not to annoy the husband, to my or to think lightly of any one movefather were a source of annoyance; and
ment for either the physical or the he, from an ignorant and mistaken no
moral amelioration of our people-but tion, sought comfort in an alehouse.
is there one of our readers who may "My mother's ignorance of household duties ; my father's consequent irrita
not himself, at once, and without debility and intemperance; the frightful laying for the doubtful participation of poverty; the constant quarrelling; the others, add almost infinitely to the happernicious example to my brothers and piness of those around him, by acting sisters; the bad effect upon the future in the feeling that he and they are conduct of my brothers ; one and all of the children os the same parent? This us being forced out to work so young first great truth, which, stated in words, that our feeble earnings would produce
seems to be but a truism, is, in act, all only one shilling a week; cold and hunger, and the innumerable sufferings of
but universally denied. The most feariny childhood, crowd upon my mind and
ful sign of the times in which we live overpower me. They keep alive a deep is the increasing alienation of the anxiety for the emancipation of the classes of society. This can alone be thousands of families, in this great town removed by the belief, which will not and neighbourhood, who are in a similar be slow of growth, where it ought to state of horrible misery. My own ex- grow at all, that the feeling of friendly perience tells me that the instruction of
brotherhood does in reality exist—that the females in the work of a house, in
masters think not of themselves, comteaching them to produce cheerfulness and comfort at the fireside, wouid pre
pared with their workmen, as an exvent a great amount of misery and crime.
clusive and privileged order of beings, There would be fewer drunken husbands
but as man and man. Confidence will and disobedient children. As a working soon grow up. It will be felt by the man, within my own observation, female labouring man, when he sees the em. education is disgracefully neglected. I ployer of labour occupied in providing attach more importance to it than to for his workmen's comforts, as his any thing else."-pp. 144, 145.
duty and his delight, that such emEducation is enforced, by exhibiting ployer is his friend, and the prospe. from Dr. Cooke Taylor's “ Tour in rity of such a man will form a part of the Manufacturing Districts” statis- the pride and happiness of every pertical tables, showing the degree of in- son in his establishment. Books, such struction, age, and sex of the persons as we have been reading, may or may tried and convicted in Manchester, in not be adequate expressions of the feel. the year 1841. They show that a very ing in which they originate, but they small degree of instruction leads to are evidence to all of the existence of the prevention of crime; but this is so such feelings ; and we cannot despair obvious, that we own we feel distrust of true kindliness of feeling arising of sustaining it by evidence of the kind, among the different classes of society, and think that the tables might have when such works prove to the persons been better omitted.
employed in operative labour how We have now done what we pro- deeply the consideration of their composed. What we have said, and the forts interests their employers. extracts which we have given, will, we
See Dr. Kane's “ Industrial Resources of Ireland," the most useful took ever published on Ireland. See also Mr. Naper of Loughcrew's “Suggestions for the more scientific and general Employment of Agricultural Labourers,” 1814. We look with much anxiety for the Report of Lord Devon's Commission.