Digital Design of Nature: Computer Generated Plants and Organics

Přední strana obálky
Springer Science & Business Media, 7. 2. 2005 - Počet stran: 295
What is computer graphics and what are the conceptual tasks of research in this area? To the average person the term still conveys more or less the design of - gos and the manipulation of pictures with the help of image-editing programs. However, during the past four decades, computer graphics has evolved into an innovative multifaceted ?eld of research and computing that affects many other sciences. In many areas and for many problems we can best convey an und- standing through images that trigger our sense with the highest capability: our eye. And, what is more, aside from algorithms, formulas, and tables, the c- puter graphics scientist often is able to create beauty. Though it is a beauty of its own, it often fascinates the viewer, especially when complex aesthetic images emerge from simple mathematical concepts. Also, there are only a few other areas that advance as dynamically as inf- matics and especially computer graphics. While CPU capacity still increases and is almost doubled every 18 months, the rendering speed and ef?ciency of graphics boards has increased even more during recent years. Today, images can be rendered in real time that some years ago still required several hours of computing. Parallel to the rapid improvement of computer hardware, many newalgorithms weredevelopedthattoday form the basis for some fundamental changes and achievements in graphics.
 

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Obsah

ComputerGenerated Plants Introduction
3
11 Modeling of Virtual Landscapes
5
12 Rendering Issues
7
13 Applications
8
Plants Botanical Description
11
21 The Shoot Axis
13
22 Budding
15
23 Branching Types
16
64 Examples
100
65 Shape Modeling
103
66 Animation
106
67 Resume
108
Modeling Terrain The Basis
115
71 Brownian Motion
116
72 From Functions to Terrain
119
73 Erosion
120

24 Spatial Division
17
25 Tropisms
18
26 Architectural Analysis of Trees
19
27 Leaves
21
28 Geobotanical Description Methods
23
29 Description Methods for Vegetation
26
Some Mathematics Plants as Mathematical Objects
29
32 Branching Structures
30
33 Trees as Fractal Objects
32
34 Phyllotaxis
36
35 Description of Plant Populations
38
36 Developmental Models
40
Procedural Modeling Programming of Plants
45
41 Cellular Automata
46
42 A First Continuous Model
47
43 ThreeDimensional Procedural Models
48
44 Regulation of the Branching Process
50
45 Generation Using Particle Systems
51
47 Geometric Modeling
53
48 An Approach Based on Budding
54
49 A Combinatorial Approach
56
410 Tree Modeling Using Strands
58
411 Approximate Modeling
60
413 Modeling of Phyllotaxis
61
414 Remaining Questions
63
RuleBased Modeling Single Plants Are Emerging
65
51 Rewriting Systems
66
52 Lindenmayer Systems
67
53 Branching Structures
69
54 ThreeDimensional Commands
70
55 Stochastic and Parameterized Systems
72
56 ContextSensitive Systems
74
57 Modeling of Phyllotaxis
76
58 Animation of LSystems
77
59 Interactions of Plants and the Environment
78
510 Use of Position Information
80
511 Iterated Function Systems
81
512 Object Instancing
84
513 CSGBased Modeling
86
RuleBased Object Production Interactive Modeling
91
61 Algorithmic Multiplication
92
62 Component Types
93
63 Combination of Components
99
74 Interaction with Fractal Terrain
125
Modeling Vegetation A Landscape Evolves
127
81 Direct Specification of Distributions
130
82 Simulation of a Plant Population
136
83 Simulation of a Plant Association
137
84 Reduction of the Geometric Data
138
85 Instancing of Plant Populations
142
86 Modeling of a Sample Scene
148
Rendering Creating Virtual Reality
151
91 Local Lighting Models
154
92 The Rendering Equation
155
93 Radiosity
156
94 Raytracing
157
95 Further Rendering Methods
158
96 Photorealistic Renditions of Leaves
159
97 Rendering Complex Scenes
164
98 Plant Images Using Raytracing
169
99 Plant Images Using Radiosity
172
LevelofDetail Fast Rendering of Images
183
101 LOD Methods for Smooth Surfaces
184
102 Static LOD Methods for Trees
185
103 Dynamic PointBased Representation
188
104 Dynamic Polygonal Representation
190
105 Point and LineBased Rendering
193
Landscape Sketches Artistic Renditions
203
111 Nonphotorealistic Rendering
204
112 Traditional Drawings of Plants
208
113 Synthetic Plant Drawings
213
114 Rendering of CrossHatching
220
Media Art Growing Plants and Evolved Organics
229
121 William Latham
230
122 Karl Sims
233
123 Christa Sommerer and Laurent Mignonneau
241
124 Bill Viola Tree of Knowledge
245
125 SonoMorphis
247
Practical Plant Modeling Using Xfrog
253
A2 Modeling a Flower
255
A3 Modeling a Tree
260
Glossary
267
Figure credits
273
Bibliography
277
Index
289
Autorská práva

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Oblíbené pasáže

Strana 280 - M. Eck, T. DeRose, T. Duchamp, H. Hoppe, M. Lounsbery, and W. Stuetzle. Multiresolution analysis of arbitrary meshes.
Strana 277 - This material is used by permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Figure 1.22 An octahedral interstice.
Strana ix - Fortunately, we enjoyed support and assistance during the writing of this book, and we would like to thank all those who helped to improve its quality.

O autorovi (2005)

Oliver Deussen graduated in 1996 at the Institut für Betriebs- und Dialogsysteme at the University of Karlsruhe, from 1996 until 2000 he was assistent at the Institut für Simulation und Graphik at the Otto-von-Guericke University of Magdeburg, from September 2000 until March 2003 he was professor for computer graphics and media design at Dresden University of Technology, since April 2003 he works at the University of Constance.

Bernd Lintermann: born at 20. Feb. 1967 in Duesseldorf, Germany
1986: Student of Computer Scinece at the University of Karlsruhe (TH) with focus on computer graphics.
1996-2001: artist and scientist in residence at the ZKM Institut for Visual Media.
Since 2002: Employee of the ZKM Institute for Visual Media.

Bibliografické údaje