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sans, that the reputation he has acquired is not bottomed on solid merit--that his abilities have been more directed to the acquirement of literary fame than to the substantial good of his country--that his philosophical opinions have been capricious and wavering, often warped by the most frivolous circumstances—that in his political conduct, he has been timid, inconsistent, and unsteady, generally favouring measures of a factious and disorganising tendency, always leaning to those, which would establish his popularity, however destructive of our peace and tranquillity-chat his political principles are sometimes whimsical and visionary, at others, subversive of all regular and stable government that his writings have betrayed a disrespect for religion, and his partiality for the impious Paine an enmity to Christianity that his advice, respecting the Dutch company, and his open countenance of an incendiary Printer, and of the views of a faction, manifest a want of due regard for national faith and public credit--that his abhorrence of one foreign na tion and enthusiastic devotion to another, have extinguished in him every germ of real national character; and, in short, that his elevation to the Presidency must eventuate either in the debasement of the American name, by a whimsical, inconsistent, and feeble administation, or in the prostration of the United States at the feet of France, the subversion of our excellent Constitution, and the consequent destruction of our present prosperity.

Such are the character and conduct of the man, who is now President of the United States. Let it be remembered, that it is not I, it is not any Roya-. list that says this; but a Republican, an American, a gentleman who was long a niember of Congress, and who is now an Ambassador.



AMERICA AND FRANCE, IN 1800. WHILE the Election of Jefferson was troubling the domestic happiness of America, the envoys of Adams concluded a Convention at Paris, well calculated to embroil her with Great Britain. Convention between the French Republic and the United States of

America. The First Consul of the French Republic, in the name of the French People, and the President of the United States of America, equally animated with a desire to put an end to the differences which have arisen between the two States, have respectively nominated their Plenipotentiaries, and invested them with full powers to negotiate upon these differences and terminate them : That is to say, the First Consul of the French Republic, in the name of the French People, has nominated for Plenipotentiaries of the said Republic the Citizens Joseph Bonaparte, Es-Ambassador of the French Republic at Rome, and Counsellor of State, Charles-Pierre Claret-Fleurieu, Member of the National Institute, and of the Office of Longitude of France, and Counsellor of State, President of the Seation of Marine; and Pierre-Louis Rodérer, Member of the National Institute, and Counsellor of State, President of the Section of the Interior, and the President of the United States of America, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate of said States, has appointed for their Plenipotentiaries Oliver Ellsworth, Chief Justice of the United States, William Richardson Davie, ci-devant Governor of North Carolina, and Williams Vans Murray, Resident Minister of the United States at the Hague:

Who, after baving exchanged their full powers, and patiently and carefully discussed their respective interests, agreed to the following articles:

Art. I. There shall be a firm, inviolable and universal peace, and true and sincere friendship between the French Republic and the United States of America, as well between their countries, territories, cities, and places, as between their citizens and inhabitants, without exception of persons or places.

II. The Ministers Plenipotentiary of the two parties, not being empowered at present to agree relative to the treaty of alliance of the 6th of February, 1778, to the treaty of friendship and commerce of the same date, and to the convention of


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the 14th of November, nor to the indemnities mutually dụe and claimed, the parties shall further negotiate upon these points at a convenient time; and until they shall be agreed upon these points, the said treaties and convention shall have no effet, and the relations of the two nations shall be regulated as follows :

JII. The ships belonging to the State taken on either side, or which may be taken before the excharge of rarifications, shall be given up.

IV. The properties captured and not yet definitively condemned, or which may be captured before the exchange of ratifications, except contraband mercbandise destined for an enemy's port, shall be mutually restored upon the following proofs of property, viz.

On the one part and on the other, the proofs of property relative to merchant sessels armed or unarmed shall be a passport in the following form :

" To all those to whom these presents shall come, be it known, that power and permission has been given to, Master or Commander of the vessel called them, of the city of- of the burden of tons, or thereabouts, now lying in the port or barbour on, and destined for, laden with that after his ship has been visited, and before his departure, he shall make oath before officers authorized for that purpose, that the said ship belongs to one or more subjects of the execution of which form shall be annexed to these presents, in order that he may observe and cause to be observed by his crew the maritime ordinances and regulations, and give in a list signed and attested, containing the names and sirnames, places of birth and abode, of the persons composing the crew of his ship, and of all on board her, whom he shall not receive on board without the knowledge and permission of the officers authorized for that purpose; and in every port and harbour where he shall enter with his ship, he shall shew the present permission to the proper officers, and make to them a faithful report of all that bas passed during his voyage, and carry the colours, arms, and fags of the French Republic or ihe United States, during his said voyage: in testimony of which we have signed these presents, caused them to be countersigned by and thereunto put the seal of our arms.

“ Given at, in the year of our Lord mo." And ihis. passport shall be sufficient without any other document, not withstanding any regulation to the contrary.

It shall not be necessary to renew or revoke this passport, whatever number of voyages the said ship shall bave made, unless they shall not have. returned home within the space of a year.

With respect to the cargo the proofs shall be certificates, containing an account what place the ship has left, and where


it is going to, so that prohibited and contraband merchandise may be distinguished by certificates, which certificates shall have been made by the officers of the place from whence the ship shall have set out, agreeable to the accustomed forms of the country. And if these passports or certificates, or both, shall bave been destroyed by accident, or taken away by force, the want of them shall be supplied by every other proof of property admissible according to the general usage of nations.

For other ships besides merchant ships the proof shall be the commissions they bear. This article shall take effect from the date of the signature of the present Convention ; and if by the date of the said signature property shall bave been condemned contrary to the spirit of the said Convention, and previous to the knowledge of this stipulation, the property so condemned shall be restored or paid for.

V. The debts contracted by either of the two nations towards the individuals of each shall be acquitted, or the paymeut shall be in course, as if ibere iiaù been no misunderstanding between the two States; but this clause shall not extend to indemnities claimed for captures or condemnations.

VI. The trade between the two parties shall be free; the ships of the two nations, and their privateers, as well as their prices, shall be treated in their respective ports as those of the most favoured nation, and in general the two parties shall enjoy in each other's ports, with respect to commerce and navigation, the same privileges as the most favoured nations.

VII. The citizens and inhabitants of the United States may dispose by will, donation, or otherwise, of their goods, moveable and immoveable property possessed in the European territory of the French Republic, and the citizens of the French Republic shall have the same power with regard to the goods, moveable and immoveable properly possessed in the territory of the United States, in favour of such persons as they shall think proper. The citizens and inhabitants of one of the two States, who shall be heirs of the goods, moveable and immoveable property situate in the other, may succeed ab intestat, without there being any necessity for letters of neutrality, and without the effect of this stipulation being contested or impeached under any pretence whatever; and the said heirs, whether by private right, or ab intestat, shall be exempı from all right whatever of any one in either of the two nations. It is agreed, that this article shall not derogate in any manner from the laws which are now io force, in either of the two nations, or which may be promulgated hereafter against emigration; and also, that in case the laws of either of the two States shall limit to foreigners the exercise of the right of immoveable property, such im. moveable property may be sold, or o herwise disposed, in favour of the inhabitants or citizens of the country where they shall be

situate ;

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situate ; and it shall be open to the other nation to establish similar laws.

VIII. To favour the commerce of both nations, it is agreed, that if war (which God forbid) should break out between the two nations, the merchants and other citizens, or respective, inhabitants, shall be allowed on both sides six months after the declaration of war, during which period they shall have time to retire, with their effects and moveables, which they may carry away, or sell, as they think proper, without the least impeachment, their effects, and still less their persons, shall not, during the period of six months, be seized. On the contrary, they shall have passports, which shall be valid for the time neces. sary to enable them to return home, and those passports shall be given for themselves, as well as for their ships and effe&ts which they shall desire to take or send away. These passports shall serve as protections against all insults and all

captures on the part of privateers, as well with regard to themselves as their effe&s; and if within the term aboye-mentioned there shall have been committed by one of the parties, its citizens, habitants, any wrong towards their persons or their property, they shall have complete satisfaction.

IX. The debts due by individuals of one of the two nations to the individuals of the other shall not, in case of war or national dispute, be sequestered or confiscated, no more ihan the claims or funds which shall be found in the public funds, or in the public or private banks.

X. The two contracting parties may nominate for the protection of trade Commercial Agents, who shall reside in France and the United States. Each of the parties may accept such place as it shall judge proper, where the residence shall be fixed. Before any agent can exercise his functions, he must be accepted according to the received forms of the pariy to which he is sent, and when he shall be received and provided with his exequatur, he shall enjoy the rights and prerogatives which are enjoyed by similar agents of the most favoured nations.

XI. The citizens of the French Republic shall not pay, in any ports, harbours, roads, countries, islands, cities, and places of the United States, other or greater duties or imposts, of whatever nature soever they may be, and whatever names they may have, than those which the most favoured nations are or shall be bound to pay; and they shall enjoy all rights, liberties, privileges, immunities, and exemptions, relating to trade, navigation, and commerce, whether in passing from one part of the said States to another, or whether in going there or returning from some part to any part of the world i hat ihe said nations enjoy, or shall enjoy, and reciprocally the citizens of the United States shall enjoy in the territory of the French Republic, in Europ', the same privileges, and immunities, as well for their

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