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disquisitions. Hence, the central position in this book is assigned to the National Constitution. Still, it is not so much the Constitution as a document written in 1787, as the Constitution developed by the life of the people and construed by Congress, by the Executive, and by the Courts as shown in our Legislative, Administrative, and Juridical history. It is the living and working Constitution that concerns the American youth, and not simply a document; the Constitution in action, and not the Constitution in a book. Hence the author has striven, in accord with the later and better tendency in treating such subjects, to make his book strong in its historical elements. Constitutions are not made, they grow.
Hitherto the National Government has occupied disproportionate attention in teaching the American Government. The States have almost fallen out of sight. In this treatise, due prominence has been given to the fact that this Government is dual or federal, and that the citizen has two loyalties and two patriotisms. It is written in the spirit of the aphorism: An Indestructible Union composed of Indestructible States. The growth of this dual system has been traced from its roots in the first feeble English settlements planted in Virginia and Massachusetts. But it has not been thought necessary, or even desirable, to describe the State system at as much length as the National system.
It would have been easy greatly to extend the references to books. But an over-extended Literature commonly defeats its own ends. The common student especially is lost in the multitude of titles cited. The aim has therefore been to make a helpful bibliography rather than an extensive one.
Due pains have been taken to secure accuracy of fact and statement; but, as a matter of course, errors will creep into a book that contains so much matter-of-fact material as this one contains.
With these words of explanation, the author commends "The American Government" to the consideration of students and teachers of this most engaging and important branch of knowledge. B. A. HINSdale.
The University of Michigan, June 1, 1891.
PREFACE TO THE REVISED EDITION.
The material parts of the preface to the First Edition of this Work have been retained. This New Edition has been revised throughout, and is printed wholly from new plates. Some important changes have been made, as follows:
I. Old matter has been somewhat differently distributed; for example, a number of topics have been transferred from Part III. to Part I, and some of the chapters have been divided.
2. Many paragraphs have been wholly rewritten in the interest either of greater clearness or of greater fullness of treatment, and still other paragraphs have been divided or consolidated.
3. Many new paragraphs and several new chapters have been introduced. Mention may be made of Chapters XII.-XV., which form a general introduction to Part II.
4. The bibliographies have been broken up, and, as a rule, distributed to the particular chapters to which they relate. A Bibliographical Index also has been added.
5. Some very general suggestions to teachers that were before put in the Preface, have been considerably expanded and assigned a separate place in the volume.
With these additional explanations, THE AMERICAN GOVERNMENT is again commended to the consideration of students and teachers.
The thanks of the author are due to Dr. A. R. Benton, of Butler University, Professors E. B. Wakefield and C. M. Young, of Hiram College and the University of South Dakota respectively (both his former pupils at Hiram College), Professor F. H. White, of the State Agricultural College, of Kansas, and Professor A. C. McLaughlin, of the University of Michigan, for valuable suggestions in making the revision.
The University of Michigan, June 1, 1895.