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E T K San yuen ta te, the three-fold original Great Te.
Het i San keu ta te, the Great Te who is the three-fold hinge of nature.
* # Sau kwan ta te, the triple ruler, the Great Te. at EnYuen t'hëen Shang-te, the originally celestial Shang-le.
limut Luy tsoo ta te, the god of thunder.
Ź KE Heuen t'hëen Shang-le, the Shang-te of the sombre heavens ; also called t f * Heuen l'hëen ta te, the great Te of the sombre heavens ; who is the same with #pib te, the god of the north.
Tung hwa te keun, god of the eastern mountain. # Sze t'hëen chaou shing le, the Te of the managing heavens, who reflects the brightness of the sages : or god of the southern mountain.
# of Kin t'hëen shun shing te, the Te of the golden heavens, who complies with the sages : the god of the western mountain.
Gnan t'hëen heuen shing te, the Te of the peaceful heavens, who controuls the sages; the god of the northern mountain.
*FChung t'hëeu tsung shing te, the Te of the middle heavens, who honours the sages; the god of the middle mountain.
*9* T'hae ning ta te, the great Te of perfect tranquillity
At T’hae yang ta te, the great Te of the larger luminary, (the sun.)
che non ti Tsze wei ta te, the great Te of the arctic regions.
tant i Hëě l'hëen ta te, the great Te who aids the laeavens, a designation of 19 Kwan-te, the god of war.
3. The Buddhists, as we have already seen, call Shih:kea a Te; and that they do not thus denominate him merely in respect to his rule, is evident from what has been already advanced, and from the form under which he is represented in the temples; not as a Sovereign exalted on a throne, but as a devotee seated on a water lily, in a sea of milk, with no insignia of royalty about him, while a halo is figured about his head indicative of his divinity..
• In a Buddhist classic, called the BIO 1 Kavu wang chin king,
From the above, it is evident, that the word 1 Te, is used by all the sects of religion in China, not so much in the sense of rule and authority, though such an idea is attached to the term, as in the sense of divinity, and superhuman existence: thus shewing that I Te is employed generically for God, and is applied to the highest, as well as a multitude of inferior divinities, worshipped by the Chinese. The sense in which it is to be taken, may be gathered from the title of the well-known native work on the three religions of China, which runs as follows; "the origin and spring of the three religions, including the poshing, holy ones, | te, gods, ita fåh, Buddhas, and si shwae, leaders; with a complete view of all the shin, spirits, that are known."
We come now to the consideration of the objections that have been urged against Te, as generic for God.
The first objection is that Te meaus, not God, but ruler. In proof of this, reference has been made to the * Shwă-wăn, an old dictionary, which says, that 'Te means "to judge, or a judge,” in the sense of discriminating accurately and judging justly: and that it is "the designation of one who rules over the empire,” of course applied to the emperor because he is supposed to judge just judgment. 'The Shwo-wăn is, however, known to be a very concise dictionary, giving only one or two definitions of all the words occurring in it. Another vocabulary, called the title Lủh-shoo-koo, says that “ Te is the honourable designation of a sovereign ruler, hence Heaven, or the Divinity, is called Shang-te, the five elements are called the five Tes, and the Son of Heaven is called Te." It would appear from this that Te means a sovereign ruler, and as such is applied to the Supreme, as well as iuferior divinities, and likewise to the chief sovereign among men; but it does not follow, because a we have an enumeration of various deities, beginning with the # Fühs or Buddhas, then passing on to the various Kwan yins, after that noticing the Poo saho, and closing with the 1 Tes
, of which the following is a list that is righe di Le po le po To, te * 1 Kew kao key ko Tre, 陀羅尼1 To lone Te,尼羅Neko lo Te, ml. E i Pe le ne Te; BoT ON | Mo o kea Te, and
Chin ling keen Te ; all these, with the exception of the last, are foreign names transferred into the Chinese, and refer doubtless to the various gods worshipped by the Buddhists, in addition to the Buddhas, Kwan Yins, and Poo-sahs, (who go under the general name of T'es ) Throughout this Classic the gods are not called Shins at all.
word is originally indicative of a single attribute of the Divine Being, and on that account is applied to him as well as others, who possess that attribute in some degree, that therefore it cannot be used generically for God; for we kuow that El, in Hebrew, signifies originally a strong one, a mighty hero, a champion, and yet it has become an apellative for God in the Scriptures. * This very termi also is supposed by Gesenius to be a primitive word, presenting the idea of strength and power, from which is derived Alah (Hebrew), to invoke God, and Alah (Arab.) to worship God, and ultimately Elohim in the one language, and Allah in the other, the principal generic names for God in those languages Even our own word God, in English, is by Dr. Henderson, in his edition of Buck's 'Theological Dictionary, said to be derived from the Icelandic Godi, which signifies the Supreme Magistrate and is thus strikingly characteristic of Jehovah, as the moral Governor of the universe.
We have already quoted the Chinese Imperial Dictionary, (the best authority for the signification of words that we are acquainted with) which makes Te to be one of the names of Heaven, or the Divinity, and says that it is applied to hnman rulers, only as they may be supposed to imitate Heaven in virtue. Shang-te, he also tells us is Heaven, or the Divinity; and the five 'Tes are the names of five spiritual beings sometimes called Shang.tes, who have charge over the elements. It would appear from Kang-he, therefore, that Te or Shang-te is used generically for God, in the Chinese language.
Another objection against Te is, that it simply marks the relation between the ruler and the ruled, without giving us the slightest intimation to what class of beings, whether visible or invisible, human or divine the said ruler may belong. To this we may reply, that we have already adduced instances of the employment of the word Te, in which there can be no mistake about its referring to an invisible and divine being or beings. The word itself is explained by the chief
Some have differed about its application, particularly in 1s. 9: 5. where Gesenius has rendered El Gibbor, the mighty hero, which phrase most inter. preters have translated "the mighty God." As this is one of the passages brought forward in proof of our Lord's Divinity, much importance is attached to it; and the maintainers of the orthodox creed would be very sorry to see it deprived of its force. But on the theory that the original meaning of a word must be always retained, and that the secondary signification may only be re. ferred to when the exigency of the case requires it, no doubt we should have tn surrender this text into the hands of the Unitarians; and even that other passage, Isa. 7: 14. would have to be given up likewise, had not an inspired writer explained it to mean, Immanuel, God with us. We infer therefore that no rule can be laid down for the interpretation of terms, which are used in various senses, by ascertaining which is the primary meaning. We must ascertain what standard writers mean by its use, and translate accordingly,
Lexicographer to mean Heaven and to be one of the names of lledven, while only those are said by him to be rightly called Tes, whose virtue corresponds to that of Heaven. In all which we have no reference to the relation existing between the ruler and the ruled. The same author says, that Te is one who judges justly, and because Heaven, or the Divinity, judges impartially and universally, therefore that being is called Te; while human rulers on account of their initating Heaven in this respect, are called Tes; here the reserence is to moral qualities, and not to power or authority.
That Te conveys the idea of relationship in a certain sense, is no argument against its being used generically for God; for Horsley thinks, that "the word Elohim is expressive of relation : not, however, of a relationship between equals, but of a relationship between a superior and inferiors. The superior is evidently the most absolute, the dependence on the side of the other party, the most conplete and entire.” The quotations froin the Chinese classics, above made abundantly shew that such a relationship exists between Te or Shang-te, and those who adore him. The moulding and framing of things, as the potter does the clay, together with the producing and completing of the myriad of things, which are ascribed to Te, refer to the relationship that subsists between the former and the formed, and not between the ruler and the ruled. All things getting their forms complete ed from T'e, as meu get their forms coinpleted from their parents ; and all men coining originally from Heaven, as children do from their parents, refer to the relationship that erists bet veen the progenitor and the offspring, more than to that which obtains between a king and his subjects. The being the first of all existences, is nnt the characteristic of one who is simply a ruler. The causing things to issue forth in spring, or the making of the energies of nature to bud and move, is rather the work of a God, than of a governor. Buit especially the conferring of a virtuous nature on mankind, resulting in sincere and reverential thoughts, is not the work of any ruler, but one, who in performing such acts, displays more the attributes of a divine than of a human benefactor. When Te is said to lead and influence men's minds, in every action and passion of their daily avocations, there is certainly a distinct reference to an invisible sila perintendent of human affairs, because these are results which no visible agent could produce. So, when Te is said to know all things, to perceive our reverence in worship, or detect the smallest degree of insincerity : when he controuls the heart, louks on men's feelings,
VOL. XVII NO. V.
and sees thein more clearly than in the brightest inirror; the reference is most assuredly to a spiritual and oinniscient being; while the spirits of the just being represented as ascending and descending in the presence of Te, proves that in these passages the writers had no reference to any ruler of the present world, but to him who decides the destinius of the workil to come. li is true, the Chinese in the above connections make use of a term which means also a ruler, but they employ it in a ditterent sense from that in which the word is generally understood, and shew that they intend by it a higher relanonship than that which exists between rulers and their subjecis generally
Again, other spiritual and imaginary divine beings are spoken of as les, besides the Supreme, in the estimation of the Chinese ; in whose case the word is 1100 indicative of the relationship existing between the rulers and the ruleri. Thus the deceased hero B!17 Kwan-yil, is called in Te; but he is not said to rule over any thing, nur is any portion of mankind supposed to be subject to his sway; it was merely on account of his filelity and righteousness that he was deified; and that mw authority was thereby conferred upon him is evident, from his being considered as inserior to a living emperor, and being ouly worshipped by subordinate officers. The god Sakya is not looked upon as the governor of the world, though called To shih; and the hosts and multiudes of Tes, spoken of by the Taouists, who go up and down beaveu's ladder, are orly a species of immortals, lıke fil Seen, who are noi invested with any authority at all, but roam about at ease, without either charge or responsibility. In all the above instances, the use of the word Te does not refer to the relavonship existing betsveen the ruler and the ruled, and it is evidently employed to denote a class of divine, and spiritual beings, honour. ed with the worship of their votaries.
It has been said, that one instance canoot be found where the word Ruler does not make sense, as the translation of Te: but if the passages we have quoted be caretiully examined, it will appear that the word ruler would not adequately express the meaning of T'e, in the cases referred to. It is not suff.cient to say, that those who have translated these and similar passages, have used Supreme or Divine Ruler für Te; because the very circumstance of their adding the word Supreme or Divine, shows that ihey did not consider the single word Ruler sufficient to express the sense of the Chinese author. We have alieady quoted instances fiom Morrison's Dictionary, ill