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where they found numerous boats and junks full of people striking on gongs. There was a great feast in the neighbourhood. They expressed a desire to go on shore, but the master of the boat would not consent, knowing the hostile feeings of the people towards fur. eigners. Had they been dressed in the Chinese fashion, there would have been no dauger, but they had adopted the plan so obstinately persisted in by Europeans, of retaining their national costume. When Mr. Hedde visited Suchau he was better advised, and be experienced the decided advantage of adopting the Chinese dress, which he found very commodious. The inhabitants of this part of the country are well known for their knavish disposition towards foreigners. Examples of this feeling were evinced in the mishap which attended the temporary French consul, M. Challaye, and the more recent ones which happened to Admiral Cecile and the Abbé Guilet, who were severely beaten. The French Plenipotentiary and the rest of the diplomatic mission used wiser precautions, when they afterwards passed by the inner passage. They were on board several junks, had many interpreters with thein, but very properly remained on board.
The feast appeared very entertaining, and on inquiry they were informed that it was the Seau Seuh, “the approach of winter.” On that occasion, when the weavers' constellation (Cygnus crossing the Via Lactea) is seen at the ineridian, the women of Shun-te-hien assemble together, and try to pass silk threads through a nine-eyed needle. If they succeed they are considered to have acquired all the skill necessary for embroidery. This custom, which was first introduced under the lang dynasty 2400 years ago, leads to the belief that it was at that time that the embroidery of crape shawls, which is carried on to a considerable extent in that neighbourhood, was first introduced there.
Froin that place our travellers visited in succession Whang Kan, Shie-tao, Sion-wan, and Pie-wha-tao, where the Channel became narrower, and allowed them to see distinctly the country on both sides, which was covered by extensive rice fields, the uniformity of which was occasionally broken by the view of cottages surrounded loy plantain trees. There are also in this neighbourhood some plantalions of cotton and ma, plants which furnish hbres of which are made the cloth called by the Chinese hia pou, “summer cloth,” and by the English improperly named “grass cloth.” The most general kind, and that which makes the finest and whitest tissues, is that called shu mu (Urtica Nivea). distinguished by its round dentaled
leaf, with the under side covered with white down, but the tin g ma (sida tibie folia), the ghi ma(canabis sativa), the polo ma (hibiscus). and other plants, may be found, all producing fine fibres for weaving.
In front of King, the last place of the silk territory of Shun te hien, they saw a strong fort and a bar, the second they had passed after Cantor. The village is about 1200 yards long, and forined of several ro ivs of houses, and boats on the right side and on the river itself. Alier proceeding for some time longer along the stream, which is bordered by a long chain of painted temples, gardens and groves, they reached the small fort of Hiang-shan, and entered the chief town of the district, an open town which is said to contuin 200,000 inhabitants engaged in agriculture and fishery, and a few of them in the cultivation of silk. A seven-storied Pagoda overhangs the town on the north-east, and at the south-west end of it is a three-storied building of the same description, surrounded by toinbs, soine of them semi-circular, having Chinese inscriptions on them. Along all the town the travellers’ junk was saluted by repeated cries of fankreis “black devils,” the boys and girls making signs with their hands as of cutting off heads. This place, it must be remarked, is a most dangerous one, as it is inhabited by a number of pirates, who have been in contact with foreigners, from whom they have copied only the bad part of their characters, and it is not therefore surprising that the people should feel such angry passions against Europeans. The Chinese inhabitants of the south are wholly different from those of the north : the former being coarse, rude, and malicious, whilst the latter are polite, hospitable, and courteous; iideed, from the earliest period the inhabitants of the southern province of Kvangtung have been considered as the most wicked in the Chinese empire.
These considerations induced our travellers to be on their guard during the night. They passed near a sinall village situated on the slope of a hill, having a pagoda known by the name hwn-tă, “Aowered tower," and which inclines like the leaning tower of Pisa, the effect, it is reported, of an earthquake which took place many centuries ago. The progress of the boat was now assisted by a favourable wind, and they were proceeding pleasantly in a bright moonlight night when about eleven o'clock the servant who was on the look-out gave an alarm that an enemy was approaching. In fact they found them. selves in a few ininutes close to a large number of junks who were advancing towards ther, and who immediately fired all their guns, evidently to alarm those in the boat. On the smoke of the first dis
charge clearing off the mistake was discovered. The attack was occasioned by the alarm felt by the crews of the advancing junks, who took our travellers' boat for a pirate, from its pursuing alone, the merchant junks usually going in small feets for mutual protection. Excuses were exchanged, and after inauy chin-chin “ salutations" on both sides the trading boats continued their voyage.
After pissing Hia-Kie, which is a small fort protected by embankments of earth, our travellers reached Ho-Cham,“ Crane's island,” near which they saw a great number of wild geese and other aquatic birds. At the end of a large lake to the westward the land was pl::nted with plantain trees. Spots of cotton and rice plants were also seen. The place is protected on each side of the river by walls of granite stone, on account of the frequent inundations. This land is known by the name of Joo-young-sha; the water is from 4,000 to 6,000 yards wide. The appearance of the country had completely chang: ed since their advance up this part of the river. To fertile and culli. valed lands, and Aowery gardens and groves, had succeeded a barren and desolate-looking country. The wind now proving contrary, they were compelled to anchor near a small fort called Ma.taou. Our travellers still considered it necessary to keep a very sharp look-out during the night, particularly as several junks of a very suspicious appearance kept prowling about near them. Early in the morning a strong breeze sprung up, they got under weigh, and soon afterwards passed the Malau-chea, “Monkeys' island," coasting along the I a.
“ Priests' island,” behind which is the channel leading to Tsien-shan, the Portuguese Casa-branca, where resides the Kiunminfoo, the Chinese officer who had the superintendence of the foreign business. They soin after arrived safely in front of the Bar fort at the entrance of the inner harbour. Their voyage, the distance of which may be estimated at 80 miles, bad been performed in about 46 hours. The distance is said to be shorter than by the Bogue, but from the want of wind the river is inore suitable for steamers, by use of which it would present a better ineans of communication between Macao and Canton.
ART. VII. Journal of Occurrences : limits allowed citizens of the U. S. A. in China,
typhoon; revision of the New Testament, foc.; the United States Legation; the
arrival of missionaries. FROM Shanghai we have dates to July 25th with some particulars of “matters ar'' things," at that place.
The Limits allowed citizens of the United States were announced at Shanghai on the 17th of July by circular from Mr. Wolcott, the acting lnited States consul. A copy of the circular, sent to us we here suhjoin
I have received the following communication from His Excellency Peler Parker Acting L'nited States Commissioner in China, which I circulate for general information
- A coinmunication has been received at this Legation (Canton) from Sou, Aching Imperial Commissioner, transmitting a Di: patch from His Excellency Le of Nanking Governor General of the 'I'wo Keang, relative to the Tsingpoo case, consequent upor which the subject has come up of setting the Limits which shall be allowed citizens of the United States, at the Five Ports, in their Excursions for exercise, which resulted in the arrangement which is now detinitely settled as follows.
The Limits allowed citizens of the United States at the Five Ports to go for exercise and Recreation have now been detined to be the distance of one entire day for going and returning
(Signed) HENRY G. WOLCOTT, Acling United Stales Consul. Shanghai, 17th July 1818.
Regarding this Notification, detinitely seitling the limits allowrd citizens of the Cnited States at the " five ports," we give the following written at Shanghai.
“ Herewith you will receive copy of a cirrular from the acting U. S. A. Consul Thin is the first intimation given to the “ citizens of the United States." of limits being defined beyond which they are not to go. It does not appear what are to be the “ pen. alties and pains" of going beyond these boundaries. Hitherto American residents here have gone into the country as often and as far as they wished. Some have been absent three or four days, and the late acting consul with others visited Suchau not long ago and for ail this no complaint has been brought against them by the Chinese authorities. At Ningpo, too. all foreigners seem to have enjoyed unlimited freedoin in their excursions into the country. In all this region, well-disposed and peaceable foreigners, I am fully pursuaded, may travel even with greater security than the native. Had the treaties made no provision for limiting foreigners, in their excursions, but provided the means for obtaming pass-ports, when persons might wish to go far into the country, I think it would have done much to promote peace and friendly feeling and served greatly to extend our intercourse with the Chinese. Others, however, may not view this subject as I do. I love the Chinese notwithstanding all their faults."
“P. S. I beg pardon of “ the Friend of China” for omitting to specify on a former occasion, that Americans were among the number of those who were abroad in the country beyond the time then fixed for British subjects, avd now also for American."
A Typhoon had been experienced at Shanghai.' It occurred on the 20th of July We subjoin a few particulars.
". The storm began on the evemng of the 19th with the wind from the east; and at 3 v'clock, next morning it came strong from the north-east, and continued to increase till one o'clock P. M., when it lulled, and a perfect calm succeeded. At 3 again it blew. and from the south-west, giving us an exact counter-part of what was experienced in the first half of the day. The mercury fell about one inch and a half. Showers of reign accompanied the whole storm. Many of the native houses suffered, but none of the Europeans to any great extent. The water in some of the warehouses rose two feet. The amount of damage sustained by foreigners on shore and in the river may be thirty or forty thousand dollars"
“ Some junks are on shore near Wusung and there is said to have been a sharp collision between their owners and certain vagrants who were bent on plunder. Ac. cording to rumor several mer nave lost their lives in these affrays."
"A great deal of sickness prevails among the poor inhabitants of the city. The summer continues unusually cool, which with the typhoon and continued, rains affords but a dark prospect to the cultivators of cotton, and other productions of the soil."
In the Revision of the New Testament, “ the Committee of Delegates" were daily prosecuting their labors, having, at the time of our last dates, nearly completed the gospels of Mathew and Mark. The Mission School, under the direction of Bishop Boone, had been removed from the Suburbs of the city, at Il'ongka Moda, to a new housc recently erected on the north bank of the river enst of the consular grounds. Dr. Boone and Mr. Syle with their families had also removed to the same place. are glad to know that all the Missionaries with their families with very slight excep. tions, were enjoying good health , and such seems to have been the case with the whole of the foreign community:
His Excellency John W. Davis Commissioner from the United States of America to China has recently arrived in Canton. The names of the menibers at present consti. tuting the lis. A Legation are as follows His Excellency John W. Davis.
('ommissioner. liri l'eter Parker. 11).
Secretary and Chinese Interpreter to
thie Legation Fribere Oliver Gibbon
111: The We notice thir arrival of Messrs. Taylor and Jenkins missionaries from the Southern
E bound of the Lil China. They are destined, as we learn, to Shanghai
VOL. XVII.-SEPTEMBER, 1848.- No. 9.
Art. I. Chinese Lexicography, or a list of the Dictionaries in the
Imperial Library at Peking, according to the General Catalogue
called the Sz' Fu T's'luen Shu. LEXICOGRAPHY, as it is understood by the Chinese, has hitherto received
very liuile altention from foreigners. So far as we know there is not extant, in any European language, even a list of the names of the Principal Chinese Dictionaries, or any extended work on Chi. nese Lexicography. In the Introduction to his Chinese-English Dictionary, Dr. Morrison has given some remarks on this subject and has named a few of this class of works. Other students of the language have also touched upon the same topic. In the histories of China, published in western languages, there are Chapters "On Chinese literature," &c.
the whole wide field of Chinese Lrxicography, in a historical or descriptive point of view, we are not aware that any scholar has yet entered; and we fear a long time in iy yet elapse ere the desired work wll be accomplished
Some idea of the magnitude of such a work-viz., “An hisTORICAL LEXICOGRAPUY," may be gathered from an inspection of the subjoired list of dictionaries, which we have prepared froin the Kin Ting Sz' K’ú 7:'iuen Shi Tsung Muh. K t 總日,
. “ A General Catalogue of all the Books in the Four Li. braries [published by Imperial authority."
The number of separate works in this list is two hundred and eighteen (218) Besides the name of each book, we give also both