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Hay-Pauncefote Treaty, Feb. 22, 1902. Whereas a Convention between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, to facilitate the construction of a ship canal to connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, by whatever route may be considered expedient, and to that end to remove any objection which may arise out of the Convention of the 19th of April, 1850, commonly called the Clayton-Bulwer treaty, to the construction of such canal under the auspices of the Government of the United States, without impairing the "general principle” of neutralization established in Article VIII of that Convention, was concluded and signed by their respective plenipotentiaries at the city of Washington on the * 18th day of November, 1901, the original of which Convention is word for word as follows:
The United States of America and His Majesty Edward the Seventh, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, King, and Emperor of India, being desirous to facilitate the construction of a ship canal to connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, by whatever route may be considered expedient, and to that end to remove any objection which may arise out of the Convention of the 19th of April, 1850, commonly called the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, to the construction of such canal under the auspices of the Government of the United States, without impairing the “general principle” of neutralization established in Article VIII of that Convention, have for that purpose appointed as their Plenipotentiaries:
The President of the United States, John Hay, Secretary of State of the United States of America;
And His Majesty Edward the Seventh, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, King, and Emperor of India, the Right Honorable Lord Pauncefote, G. C. B., G. C. M. G., His Majesty's Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the United States;
Who having communicated to each other their full powers which were found to be in due and proper form, have agreed upon the following Articles :
ARTICLE I. The high Contracting Parties agree that the present Treaty shall supersede the afore-mentioned Convention of the 19th April, 1850.
It is agreed that the Canal may be constructed under the auspices of the Government of the United States, either directly at its own cost, or by gift or loan of money to individuals or Corporations, or though subscription to or purchase of stock or shares, and that, subject to the provisions of the present Treaty, the said Government shall have and enjoy all the rights incident to such construction, as well as the exclusive right of providing for the regulation and management of the canal.
The United States adopts, as the basis of the neutralization of such ship canal, the following Rules, substantially as embodied in the Convention of Constantinople, signed the 28th October, 1888, for the free navigation of the Suez Canal, that is to say:
1. The Canal shall be free and open to the vessels of commerce and of war of all nations observing these Rules, on terms of entire equality, so that there shall be no discrimination against any such nation, or its citizens or subjects, in respect of the conditions or charges of traffic, or otherwise. Such conditions and charges of traffic shall be just and equit
2. The Canal shall never be blockaded, nor shall any right of war be exercised nor any act of hostility be committed within it. The United States, however, shall be at liberty to maintain such military police along the Canal as may be necessary to protect it against lawlessness and disorder.
3. Vessels of war of a belligerent shall not revictual nor take any stores in the Canal except so far as may be strictly necessary; and the transit of such vessels through the Canal shall be effected with the least possible delay in accordance with the Regulations in force, and with only such intermission as may result from the necessities of the service.
Prizes shall be in all respects subject to the same Rules as vessels of war of the belligerents.
4. No belligerent shall embark or disembark troops, munitions of war, or warlike materials in the Canal, except in case of accidental hindrance of the transit, and in such case the transit shall be resumed with all possible dispatch.
5. The provisions of this Article shall apply to waters adjacent to the Canal, within three marine miles of either
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end. Vessels of war of a belligerent shall not remain in such waters longer than twenty-four hours at any one time, except in case of distress, and in such case, shall depart as soon as possible; but a vessel of war of one belligerent shall not depart within twenty-four hours from the departure of a vessel of war of the other belligerent.
6. The plant, establishments, buildings, and all works necessary to the construction, maintenance, and operation of the Canal shall be deemed to be part thereof, for the purposes of this Treaty, and in time of war, as in time of peace, shall enjoy complete immunity from attack or injury by belligerents, and from Acts calculated to impair their usefulness as part of the Canal.
ARTICLE IV. It is agreed that no change of territorial sovereignty or of the international relations of the country or countries traversed by the before-mentioned Canal shall affect the general principle of neutralization or the obligation of the High Contracting Parties under the present Treaty.
ARTICLE V. The present Treaty shall be ratified by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, and by His Britannic Majesty; and the ratifications shall be exchanged at Washington or at London at the earliest possible time within six months from the date hereof.
In faith whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed this Treaty and thereunto affixed their Seals.
Done in duplicate at Washington, the 18th day of November, in the year of Our Lord one thousand nine hundred and one.
PAUNCEFOTE. (SEAL.) And Whereas the said Convention has been duly ratified on both parts, and the ratification of the two Governments were exchanged in the city of Washington on the twenty-first day of February, one thousand nine hundred and two;
Now, therefore, be it known that I, Theodore Roosevelt, President of the United States of America, have caused the said Convention to be made public, to the end that the same, and every Article and Clause thereof may be observed and fulfilled with good faith by the United States and the citizens thereof.