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and violent symptoms, and which seems to proceed from a mor. bid affection of the blood and juices, tending towards putrefaction: hence it is, that this fpecies seldom terminates but in consequence of some notable evacuation, by which the blood
nd juices are freed from the offending cause, which spontaneous or critical evacuation is its peculiar characteristic. III. The ardent, diftinguished by intense thirst and internal heat. IV. Malignant, whose violent symptoms seem to arise from the brain and nerves being injured, by which circumstance alone it is sufficiently distinguished. This last species is of longest continuance, generally epidemic, contagious or pestiJential.'
If experience had sufficiently evinced the possibility of curing all fevers by one specific medicine, these distinctions might jaftly be deemed useless; but since those who have been most conversant with these disorders are convinced that, in this single genus of continued fevers, the different species require very different treatment; to distinguish them properly from cach other, is certainly of great importance. For this reafon we shall take the liberty to enquire into the propriety of our author's system.
His first species, namely, simple continued, is the fýnochus imputris of Galen, the synochus fimplex of Riverius, the continens non putrida of Lommius, the febris inflammatoria of the moderns. The second species, namely, putrid continued is the fje nochus of Sauvages, the febris continua putrida of Boerhaave. According to our author, the peculiar characteristic of this fever, is its termination by some critical evacuation, which every tyro in the medical art knows to be by no means peculiar to any one fpecies of continued fever. As to his third species, which he chuses to call ardent, it appears, from his particular defcription of this malady, to be in fact the bilious or remitting fever of other writers. (See Dr. Pringle's diseases of the army, p. 175.) With regard to his fourth species, namely, malignunt, we greatly disapprove his making the suppored proximate cause of the disease, its distinguishing characteristic ; nothing being more unsystematical, or fallacious, than to diftinguish diseases any otherwise than by their obvious fymptoms. By this species of fever, the author means that which Dr. Pringle hath fo accurately described under the title of the jail or hospital fever, and which may not improperly be considered as a species of the plague. It is the typhus carcerum of Sauvages. Our author, in his chapter upon this species, enumerates its fymptoms minutely, in which, in general, he differs little from other authors : but in regard to its duration, he says, “ I affert that the malignant fever never terminates before the twenty-first day; and that in general it is con
tinued to the fortieth or fixcieth, or farther.' Nevertheless
In treating of the cure of this disorder, our author agrees in
Upon the whole, the first volume of this work is not without merit, tas it contains a general description of moft difeafes; but its chief value consists in the account of morbid appearances on diffection, which are frequently interspersed throughout the work. This volume is however little more than a tranllation into latin of the author's Precis de la medecine pratique, published some years ago.
The second volume we suppose to be original : it contains the author's system of the Materia Medica. He divides the whole into two books, one of which comprehends such medicines as are used internally, and the other, external medicines. The first book is divided into two fections; one treating of those medicines which seem to act on the whole animal oeconomy, and the other, of those whose powers seem confined to fome particular part. These sections are again subdivided into clafses, in which the several substances are diftributed according to their suppofed effects on the human body, thus diluentia, refrigerantia, temperantia, &c. and in each class they are finally divivided into emporetica, officinalia, and magistralia. The author moreover subjoins to each clafs, a short commentary on the several fimple substances, and officinal preparations therein contained.
If we were disposed to be severe upon this celebrated French physician, this second part of his work would afford us ample field for criticism. He very frequently ascribes to medicines, virtues founded only on ancient opinions, which later experience hath sufficiently exploded'; and as to his chemical knowledge, it appears extremely borné. In his comment on the neutral salt called arcanum duplicatum, it seems, fays he, to be composed of the nitrous alkali, and vitriolic acid, being prepared of calcined nitre and green vitriol. If he had been at all acquainted with chemistry, he would not have talked of a mitrous alkali; he would have known that there is nothing peculiar in the alkali obtained from nitre; that it is merely a fixed alkali, in no respect different from that which is produced by calcination from
vegetables in general. This salt is what chemists commonly call Vitriolated Tartar, and may be generated by a proper combination of any two substances which contain the vitriolic acid and, vegetable alkali. But what renders our Author's unacquaintance with chemistry more conspicuous, is, that, in the very next article, he comments upon vitriolated tartar as being a different falt from the foregoing.
After all, if we compare this volume with the generality of books formerly written on the Materia Medica, it merits praise, on account of its greater fimplicity; though we take the liberty to assure the Author, that he might expunge a very confiderable, number both of his simple and compound medicines, without any detriment to the art of healing.
Meditazioni sulla Felicità.
Reflections on Happiness. 12mo. Milan, 1765.
HERE is, perhaps, no word in the vocabulary, whose
meaning is so vague and indeterminate as that of happiness. Nothing is more natural than for individuals, in making use of that term, to have an eye to their own peculiar emolument or gratification. But as it is impoflible, from physical causes, for a man to possess any constant state of satisfaction, in himself; so it is equally impossible, from moral causes, for him to enjoy any such constant state of satisfaction in society.
Without desires there can be no gratification, and every gratification is necessarily sooner or later disgusted by satiety. Whether our desires and gratifications, therefore, are of the physical or moral kind, we see there is an incapacity in the very nature of our constitution for constant gratification. By happiness, then, if we mean any thing really attainable *, we must mean some state of enjoyment, in which the moderation of our desires may prevent the grosser disgust of gratification. But how far such a state is, with regard to the individual, raised above a state of indolence and infipidity, will possibly admit of dispute ; fince every motive of action is apparently attended with some desire, and the degree of activity is proportioned to the vehemence of that defire. Hence, to consider man merely as a physical and inde
* And if we do not, to what purpose is it made the object of moral or philofophical disquisition? The happiness, we hope for in a future life, being a different object; the poffeffion of which we are to be inveled with, in consequence of a total change in our conftitution; and of our putting off the corporeal body for the spiritual body.
pendent being, it does not appear that he can be any farther a gainer by moderating the warmth of his desires, than in thereby diminithing the mortification of disappointment, or preventing the disgust attendant on gratification. With his desires we rank also his hopes and expectations; all which are equally opposed to disguit, fear or disappointment. And thus while pain and pleasure, in all their modes, are relative and reciprocal, we see as little possibility of defining, as of attaining, physical happiness. There is a species of happiness, however, which is both definable and attainable, and which may with propriety be called social or political happiness. It will hardly be doubted by those, who have made matters of this kind their study, that the life of a savage is as physically happy, as that of the most polished citizen. If the former hath fewer pleasures and indulgences, his mortifications and disappointments are proportionably less : the sensibility of both is adapted to their difference of situation, and though they deal not, for the same amount, in the commerce of pleasure and pain, their balance, in settling the account, is equal. It is very different with regard to social and political happiness. The merchant, who trades for the revenue of princes, and annually returns millions, tho' he should save no more at the year's end, than the petty trader who deals for pence, is yet held in a very different light in point of respect and authority. His personal influence is greater, his enjoyments in every respect luperior; although at the same time his personal concern, asliduity and risk rise in the same proportion. And yet that he is more happy, in a political sense, than a mean trader, whose credit will barely enable him to pay his bills, cannot be doubted. In like manner, it cannot be disputed, that a polished nation is, in the same sense, much happier than a nation of favages.
Now civilized man, being both a physical and political being, his happiness is of course dependant both on his natural constitution as a man, and on the civil constitution of the state or community of which he is a political member. Considered merely as the former, happiness is out of the question; he hath neither words to define it, nor means to attain it. As the latter, both the object, and the means of pursuing it, are obvious: but till he can separate the citizen from the man, and vice verfâ, he will naturally look for those gratifications as a man, to which he hath a right only as a citizen, and will make use of the means of the latter to gratify the desires and inclinations of the former. Hence it is, that the happiness of man, in a state of society, becomes a very intricate and complicated affair, both in its means and end. App. to Vol. XXXIII.
The very ingenious Author of the little piece before us", 'feems indeed to consider it in this light, by his manner of treating the subject, although he does not make those distinctions, with which we have thought it expedient to introduce this Article. We shall proceed, however, to give the Reader an abftract of his piece.
• The cause of our unhappiness, fays this Writer, is the excess of our desires beyond the power of gratifying them : the only way to be happy, therefore, is either to diminish our defires, or to increase our power to gratify them, or both.-Now, the sum of our desires depends on the original sensibility of our disposition, on our constitution, and the association of our ideas: that of our power depending on the laws of nature, and the will of other intelligent beings. The end of our defires is to avoid pain, and seek pleasure; both of which the imagination is naturally disposed to exaggerate; as we find that neither one nor the other please or offend in reality fo much as they do in expectation. Hence an impartial examination into the very nature of our desires, tends to give us a new train of ideas, which ferves to diminish the sum of our defires themselves. Again, it is in the power of art sometimes to augment that natural power of gratification, which depene's on the physical action of external causes. Thus a particular regimen, for instance, may aug. ment that which depends on the organization of the body: 01 the aflittance or non-resistance of other intelligent beings may, by various means, be purchased, obtained, or rendered indifferent to our happinets; so that by this means our powers of gratification may be increased.
• To consider these principles in their order : and, first, of the nature of our desires. The most general object of our defires is wealth ; and it must be confefled that riches, being the usual token of that power which men have over things, those who are rich seem to extend their own existence, and to intereft a much greater part of nature in their pleasures. Reason ought to confine our thirst after riches within the bounds of physical and moral utility; for the art of enjoying wealth is much more difficult than that of acquiring it. Whosoever is once arrived at the pofleffion of a competency, generally mula tiplies his defires ; either because, for want of due forefight, he prefers the gratification of his present caprice to that of future wants; or because, from a contrary principle, he is ridiculoully provident of fantastical exigencies to come, neglecting the gra.
* Said to be a man of rank and fortune, now residing at Milan, and ! Author of the litile tract entitled Dei Delitti e delle pere. See our lat Appendix.