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N preparing this volume for the public, the author has consulted the gen

eral histories of the world, England, Scotland and Ireland, Coke, Blackstone and other authors on constitutional and common law; English and

Irish acts of parliament; the general histories of the United States, Madison Papers, the Federalist, Elliott's Debates, the writings of Vattel, De Tocqueville, Montesquieu, Jefferson, Adams, Hamilton, Webster, Clay, Calhoun, Benton and other American statesmen. The “Congressional Globe,” the “Congressional Record,” the platforms of political parties, the “Opinions of the Attorneys General of the United States," the “Decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States,” the writings of eminent statesmen on political economy, the documents of the Cobden Club, reports and proceedings of the Pan-American Congress, the published documents of the “Bureau of American Republice,” consular reports and other documents. The tariff laws of the United States, Mexico, the West Indies, Central America, South America and other countries; the recent reciprocity treaties with Latin America and the West Indies; the histories and other publications pertaining to co, the West Indies, Central and South America; the official reports and maps of the Maritime Canal Company of Nicaragua; the correspondence of railway companies, ocean steamsnip companies, the manufacturers and importers of American tin plate; private letters and documents too voluminous to mention.

The author most respectfully hopes that this work will be welcomed by the students of history, the legal profession, editors and statesmen. Those who wish to understand our tariff laws, reciprocity and protection to American industries; the resources, climate and productions of the West Indies, Mexico, Central and South America, will find this volume a useful and reliable book of facts. The author has endeavored to confine himself to facts and figures, regardless of partisan considerations.

NEW YORK, May, 1892.



Secretary of the United States;

Author of the Pan-American Congress

and Reciprocity,




I was born in Moorestown, Parish of Kilfinane, County of Limerick, Ireland. My father was Daniel Cudmore; mother, Catherine Minahan; my grandfather, Thomas Cudmore; grandmother, Ellen Quinlan; my great-grandfather, William Cudmore. My grandfather and his brother, Daniel Cudmoro, came to Moorestown from the neighborhood of the city of Limerick. Several of the Cudmore family live in the counties of Limerick and Clare. I came to New York in April, 1846. I studied law in a law school, attended lectures on anatomy at Bellevue Hospital and a course of lectures at the Cooper Institute. I traveled in Mexico, Central and South America. I was in Havada, Cuba, when General Lopez and some Americans were shot, in 1850, for invading Cuba. The Southern Democrats wanted to annex Cuba and Mexico. They wanted to extend slavery all over the “Golden Circle." The “Golden Circle” had its centre at Havana, Cuba, its radius extending to Mason and Dixon's line. In New York I married Mary Anne Lynch. She died in Minnesota, in November, 1857. I have a son, Daniel John Cudmore, living at Rochester, Minn. In New York I wrote a part of a novel entitled “The Irish Landlord." It has not been published. I studied history, poetry, mathematics, navigation, astronomy, chemistry, philosophy, law, logic, politics and language. I came to Wisconsin in 1853, and settled in Cross Plains, Dane county, where I practiced law. I was elected justice of the peace in 1855. I got a fair amount of legal business. In the spring of 1856 I came to Minnesota, made a claim of 160 acresof government land in the township of Merton, Steele county, Minnesota, and practiced law. In 1858 I was elected town clerk of Merton, and in 1858 ran for county attorney of Steele county, Minnesota. In May, 1859, I came to Faribault, Minn., and entered the law office of Hon. H. C. Lowell and his son, Charles L. Lowell. In 1860 I was commissioned a notary public for Rice county, and was a candidate for court commissioner. I published letters in the newspapers and made speeches in the counties of Rice, Steele, Waseca and Le Sueur. In 1860-61 I delivered free lectures on Ireland, Mexico and South America. I served in the Union army during the Rebellion and in the Indian war. In the winter of 1865-66 I traveled in the Southern States, collect ing materials for my “Constitutional History." In 1868 I was elected county attorney of Lesueur county, Minnesota. In 1871 I published "The

Irish Republic," my“Constitutional History' in 1875 and the fourth edition of my Poems and Songs" in 1885. In 1892 I published two editions of “Buchanan's Conspi. racy, the Nicaragua Canal and Reciprocity.” In 1890-93 I gave free lectures on the Nicaragua canal, Mexico, Central and South America. I have from time to time published letters in the newspapers. The American Publishers' Association, Chicago, have published, in “Local and National Poets of America," my portrait, biography and selections from my poems, and also selections from my poems in “Poetical Quotations” and “Poems" in autograph. H. H. Bevis, Cincinnati, bas published, in Golden Thoughts by American Writers," selections from my poems. David J. O'Donoghue, London, Eng. land, published, in "The Poets of Ireland,” my biography. I am completing for the press a work on Ireland, including its civil government. I have donated to the principal libraries of the world copies of " The Irish Republic,” “Constitutional History,Poems and Songs."

P. CUDMORE, B. H. April 11, 1894.






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\HE plan for the construction of an interoceanic maritime canal across the

states of Central America or the Isthmus of Darien, connecting the At

lantic and the Pacific oceans, has been a matter of deep interest to some of the maritime nations of Europe for three centuries. Since the foundation of the government of the United States, the Federal government has never been willing that England, France or any other European power, should construct and control the maritime canal in Central America. In 1502 Columbus sailed from the Bay of Honduras to the Spanish main (in South America), in search of a passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific.

In 1551 it was proposed to Philip of Spain to open a communication between the two oceans by way of some one of the three routes across Tehuantepec, Panama and Nicaragua.

In 1825, the Republic of Nicaragua, through the minister of foreign affairs of that country, addressed a letter to Mr. Clay, United States Secretary of State, to aid in the construction of the Nicaragua canal.

Mr. Clay said:

“That nothing would be more grateful to it than the co-operation of this government, whose noble conduct has been a model and a protection to all Americans; it would be highly satisfactory to have a participation not only of the merits of the enterprise, but of the great advantages which that canal or communication must produce, by means of a treaty which would perpetually secure the possession of the two nations.Mr. Clay, in his letter to the commissioners of the United States to the congress at Panama, said:

A canal for navigation between the Alantic and Pacific oceans should form a proper subject of consideration at the congress. The vast object, if it should ever be accomplished, will be interesting in a greater or less degree to all parts of the world, but especially to this continent will accrue its greatest benefits; and to Colombia, Mexico, Central America, Peru, and the United States more than any other of the American nations."

The Americans did not fully realize the advantages of a route over the isthmus until the discovery of gold in California attracted American miners, on their way to California, to the waters of Lake Nicaragua and the San Juan river, by


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